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Dent. J., Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): According to local anatomy and maxillary sinus pneumatization level, many different techniques have been proposed for the rehabilitation of the severe atrophies of the upper jaw. The zygomatic bone is a bilateral, pyramidal structure characterized by a composite cortical and cancellous bone tissues. Tooth loss and jaw atrophies produce no significant anatomical and volumetric modification of the zygomatic bone that is characterized by enough bone density for dental implant positioning. Zygomatic implants are a long-term predictable option for severe maxillary atrophy treatment with combined zygomatic fixed implant-supported rehabilitation showing a higher cumulative survival rate compared to conventional implants. View this paper.
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Review
Pregnancy and Dentistry: A Literature Review on Risk Management during Dental Surgical Procedures
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040046 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Background: Pregnancy is a unique moment in a woman’s life, accompanied with several physiologic changes that have an impact on oral health. Aim of the study: The purpose of the present study was to conduct a critical review of published literature regarding pregnancy [...] Read more.
Background: Pregnancy is a unique moment in a woman’s life, accompanied with several physiologic changes that have an impact on oral health. Aim of the study: The purpose of the present study was to conduct a critical review of published literature regarding pregnancy and dentistry, the most frequent oral diseases that are encountered during pregnancy, their correlation to adverse pregnancy events, and safe dental treatments that can be performed during pregnancy. Methods: A Medline/COCHRANE search was carried using specific keywords and MeSH terms, combined with the boolean operators “OR” and “AND”. Results: The search led to 146 publications including guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic and non-systematic reviews, published between 2000 and 2021. Discussion and conclusions: Due to the increased inflammatory and immune body response that characterizes pregnancy, periodontal conditions are often aggravated during pregnancy and periodontal disease encountered frequently in pregnant patients. There are conflicting study results in the literature regarding the association between periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal treatment did not show a significant reduction in the adverse outcomes. Many dentists, often due to lack of information, are reluctant to provide dental treatment to pregnant women. However, preventive and restorative dental treatment is safe during pregnancy. Diagnostic radiographs may be performed after the first trimester if absolutely necessary. Analgesics (such as paracetamol) and anesthetics (such as lidocaine) are also considered safe. In case of infection, antibacterial drugs such as amoxicillin, ampicillin, and some cephalosporines and macrolides can also be prescribed. Organogenesis takes place in the first trimester, the time during which the fetus is susceptible to severe malformations (teratogenesis). The ideal time to perform dental treatment is the second trimester (week 17 to 28). However, acute pain or infections make the intervention of the dentist absolutely necessary and emergency treatment can be performed during the whole pregnancy period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management in Oral Surgery)
Review
Association between Periodontitis and Genetic Polymorphisms in Interleukins among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040045 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 818
Abstract
There is a perplexity in the association between interleukin (IL) polymorphisms and periodontitis among patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate indexed data regarding the association between periodontitis and genetic polymorphisms in interleukins among [...] Read more.
There is a perplexity in the association between interleukin (IL) polymorphisms and periodontitis among patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate indexed data regarding the association between periodontitis and genetic polymorphisms in interleukins among patients with and without DM. The addressed question was “Is there an association between periodontitis and polymorphisms in interleukins among patients with and without DM?” Original studies were included. Indexed databases were searched, and the pattern of the present literature review was customized to summaries’ the pertinent information. Eight studies were included and processed for data extraction. Two studies showed that polymorphisms in IL-1B genes aggravate periodontitis in patients with type-2 DM, and two studies showed that IL-1B genes either do not or are less likely to contribute towards the progression of periodontitis in patients with type-2 DM. Two studies reported that IL genes do not show cross-susceptibility with periodontitis and type-2 DM. One study reported that the primary factor that governs the occurrence and progression of periodontitis in patients with and without type-2 DM is poor routine oral hygiene maintenance. Seven studies had a high risk of bias. The role of IL gene polymorphisms in the development and progression of periodontitis in patients with and without DM remains controversial. Full article
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Article
Effect of Butyric Acid in the Proliferation and Migration of Junctional Epithelium in the Progression of Periodontitis: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040044 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Purpose: To elucidate the effects of butyric acid (BA), a metabolite of bacteria involved in periodontitis, and a possible enhancer of the junctional epithelial cells. Methods: A murine junctional epithelial cell line, JE-1, was used to assess the effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) [...] Read more.
Purpose: To elucidate the effects of butyric acid (BA), a metabolite of bacteria involved in periodontitis, and a possible enhancer of the junctional epithelial cells. Methods: A murine junctional epithelial cell line, JE-1, was used to assess the effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) as BA. Cell proliferation, migration and attachment were analyzed. Additionally, gene and promoter expression analysis was performed, i.e., cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis. Results: NaB affected junctional epithelial cell proliferation, migration and attachment. A high concentration of NaB caused cell death and a low concentration tended to promote migration and adhesion. CAGE analysis revealed 75 upregulated and 96 downregulated genes in the cells after 0.2 mM NaB stimulation for 3 h. Regarding GO term enrichment, the genes upregulated >4-fold participated predominantly in cell migration and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that BA produced from periodontopathic bacteria is involved in periodontal tissue destruction at high concentrations. Furthermore, at low concentrations, BA potentially participates in periodontal disease progression by increasing proliferation, migration and attachment of the junctional epithelium and thereby increasing epithelial down-growth. Full article
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Review
The Impact of Oral Health on Respiratory Viral Infection
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040043 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have caused respiratory diseases worldwide. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global health concern requiring emergent measures. These viruses enter the human body through the oral cavity and infect respiratory cells. Since the [...] Read more.
Influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have caused respiratory diseases worldwide. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global health concern requiring emergent measures. These viruses enter the human body through the oral cavity and infect respiratory cells. Since the oral cavity has a complex microbiota, influence of oral bacteria on respiratory virus infection is considered. Saliva has immune molecules which work as the front line in the biophylactic mechanism and has considerable influence on the incidence and progression of respiratory viral infection. Salivary scavenger molecules, such as gp340 and sialic acid, have been reported to exert anti-influenza virus activity. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) has potential to acquire immunity against these viruses. Biological features of the oral cavity are thought to affect viral infection in respiratory organs in various ways. In this review, we reviewed the literature addressing the impact of oral conditions on respiratory infectious diseases caused by viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Article
Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Dental Anxiety during Pregnancy
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040042 - 11 Apr 2021
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Dental anxiety (DA) and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are associated with psychological symptoms and vary during pregnancy. We aimed to examine the association between HCC and DA at two points of pregnancy. Participants were pregnant mothers (n = 533) drawn from the FinnBrain [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety (DA) and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are associated with psychological symptoms and vary during pregnancy. We aimed to examine the association between HCC and DA at two points of pregnancy. Participants were pregnant mothers (n = 533) drawn from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study donating a hair sample at gestational week (gwk) 24 (n = 442) and/or at delivery (n = 176) and completed questionnaires on DA. Two groups, HCC1 and HCC2, treated as separate in the analyses, were formed according to the hair sample donation time i.e., gwk24 and delivery. 85 subjects were included in both groups. MDAS, EPDS, and SCL-90 were used to measure DA, depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, at gwk14 for the HCC1 group and gwk34 for the HCC2 group. The association between DA and HCC was studied with a binary logistic regression model, adjusted for anxiety and depressive symptoms, age, BMI, and smoking status. Individuals with high DA had lower HCC levels at gwk24 (OR = 0.548; 95% CI = 0.35–0.86; p = 0.009), but the association was not statistically significant at the delivery (OR = 0.611; 95% CI = 0.28–1.33; p = 0.216). The independent association between HCC and DA in pregnant women suggests that long-term cortisol levels could play a role in the endogenous etiology of DA. Further studies are however, needed. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of EDTA and HEDP Chelators in the Removal of Mature Biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis by PUI and XPF File Activation
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040041 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Background: Biofilm removal from the root canal during endodontic treatment is necessary to prevent further complications. Irrigation is essential to success. Several irrigants have been proposed without a proper comparison. The aim of the study is to compare the antibacterial capacity of different [...] Read more.
Background: Biofilm removal from the root canal during endodontic treatment is necessary to prevent further complications. Irrigation is essential to success. Several irrigants have been proposed without a proper comparison. The aim of the study is to compare the antibacterial capacity of different activated irrigants using passive ultrasonic activation (PUI) or XP-Endo finisher (XPF). Methods: A total of 100 instrumented teeth were incubated in an Eppendorf tube containing 0.5 McFarland of Enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 2 weeks at 37 °C. Roots were divided into 5 groups (n = 20) according to the irrigant type: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (17%), ethydronic acid (HEDP) (9%) mixed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), EDTA (17%) mixed with 5.25% NaOCl, PBS, and a control group. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): PUI and XPF. Results: As compared to the untreated control group, the irrigators included in the study had a significant effect in bacteria reduction. The obtained results show HEDP to be the most effective irrigant, since no bacteria were recovered after treatment of this group, followed by EDTA mixed with NaOCl and, finally, the EDTA-irrigated group. Conclusions: HEDP is the best irrigating agent in combination with XPF or PUI file activation to eliminate bacteria in our experimental model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Materials)
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Article
Third Molar Extraction: Irrigation and Cooling with Water or Sterile Physiological Solution: A Double-Blind Randomized Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040040 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Background: The present study aimed to ascertain whether any significant reduction in patients’ postoperative pain and inflammation could be achieved by using sterile physiological solution instead of normal water to irrigate the surgical field and cool the dental bur during third molar extractions. [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aimed to ascertain whether any significant reduction in patients’ postoperative pain and inflammation could be achieved by using sterile physiological solution instead of normal water to irrigate the surgical field and cool the dental bur during third molar extractions. Methods: The study concerned 22 patients (11 females and 11 males) in good general health, who were referred to the Dental Clinic at Padova University hospital for lower third molar extractions. They were randomly assigned to two groups. Only the fluid used to irrigate the surgical field and cool the dental bur differed between the two study groups, being sterile physiological solution for group A, and mains water for group B. Postoperative pain, swelling, trismus and inflammation with high sensitivity CRP where measured and statistically evaluated. The numerosity of our sample was calculated on the grounds of an endpoint based on data in the literature. Results: Eighteen patients needed bilateral extractions, and 4 required only one extraction, so a total of 40 third molars were extracted. A sterile physiological solution was used to irrigate the surgical field in 20 extractions, while water was used in the other 20 cases. Data analysis with Wilcoxon test show no differences between the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: no differences between groups for any of the parameters considered, after third molar extraction procedures undertaken using either sterile physiological solution or water for irrigation and cooling purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Management in Oral Surgery)
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Case Report
Combined Management of Apical Root Fracture and Avulsion of Two Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040039 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
As a result of a skiing accident, a ten-year-old girl suffered combined injuries to both maxillary central incisor teeth (#1.1 and #2.1). The injuries were uncomplicated crown fractures, apical horizontal root fractures, and a severe extrusive luxation of the coronal segments of the [...] Read more.
As a result of a skiing accident, a ten-year-old girl suffered combined injuries to both maxillary central incisor teeth (#1.1 and #2.1). The injuries were uncomplicated crown fractures, apical horizontal root fractures, and a severe extrusive luxation of the coronal segments of the teeth. Her mother repositioned the teeth immediately, resulting in good initial healing. Nine months later, the patient was referred to a specialist to manage the endodontic consequences of the trauma. The apexification treatment of the fractured roots, using a preformed apical barrier technique with bioactive cement, was the treatment of choice, administered to both the avulsed roots at two separate recall visits. The best option for managing the fractured apical segments was to continue with the follow-up, which was conducted to assess the overall case at 30 months. The fractured apexes remained normally positioned inside the socket and were asymptomatic (as they presumably maintained a physiological vascular-nerve supply and, consequently, their vitality), while the apexification treatment led to the healing of the periodontal tissues and to hard tissue formation in the area of the interrupted roots in the avulsed portion of the teeth. The management of traumatic injuries in teeth often requires multiple treatment approaches, because these injuries rarely represent one single type of trauma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Dental Traumatology)
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Review
Survival Rate of Zygomatic Implants for Fixed Oral Maxillary Rehabilitations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Outcomes between Zygomatic and Regular Implants
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040038 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Background: Zygomatic implants have been proposed alone or in combination with premaxillary conventional implants for severe resorbed maxillary atrophy rehabilitation. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate through a qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis the survival rate of zygomatic implants in [...] Read more.
Background: Zygomatic implants have been proposed alone or in combination with premaxillary conventional implants for severe resorbed maxillary atrophy rehabilitation. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate through a qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis the survival rate of zygomatic implants in conjunction with regular fixtures for maxillary rehabilitation. Methods: The article screening was conducted on the PubMed/Medline and EMBASE electronic databases according to the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” (PRISMA) guidelines. The scientific papers were included for qualitative analysis and risk-of-bias evaluation. Only the papers that included rehabilitation with zygomatic implants in combination with regular implants were considered for the meta-analysis comparative evaluation of the implant survival rate. Results: The paper search screened a total of 137 papers. After the initial screening, a total of 32 articles were considered for the qualitative analysis. There was a similar implant survival rate between zygomatic and premaxilla regular implants (p = 0.02; Z: 2.26). Conclusions: Zygomatic and conventional implants showed a high long-term survival rate for fixed maxillary rehabilitations, but few included studies reported the marginal bone loss after loading. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the pattern of marginal bone loss between zygomatic and conventional implants after long-term functional loading. Full article
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Article
Maintenance of Dental Records and Forensic Odontology Awareness: A Survey of Croatian Dentists with Implications for Dental Education
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040037 - 25 Mar 2021
Viewed by 931
Abstract
Forensic odontology is the application of dentistry within the criminal justice system. Forensic expertise, including dental identification, mostly relies on dental records. We explored the practice of maintaining dental records among Croatian dentists, as well as their knowledge of legal regulations and the [...] Read more.
Forensic odontology is the application of dentistry within the criminal justice system. Forensic expertise, including dental identification, mostly relies on dental records. We explored the practice of maintaining dental records among Croatian dentists, as well as their knowledge of legal regulations and the application of dental records in forensic odontology. In all, 145 dentists participated in an online survey. Questions covered general information on dentists, maintenance of dental records, and knowledge of legal requirements and forensic odontology. Overall, 70% of dentists obtain and archive written informed consents, while 87% record dental status. Generally, non-carious dental lesions and developmental dental anomalies were not recorded. About 72% of dentists record filling material and surfaces. Only 32% of dentists know the legal requirements for keeping records, whereas 21% have no knowledge of forensic odontology and its purpose. The survey revealed different practices in the maintenance of dental records, including significant flaws and lack of awareness of its forensic importance. This obvious need for additional education on proper maintenance of dental records could be met by including forensic odontology in compulsory undergraduate courses and postgraduate dental education. Establishing national and international standards in dental charting would comply with contemporary trends in health care and the requirements of forensic expertise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Education)
Article
Variation of Efficacy of Filtering Face Pieces Respirators over Time in a Dental Setting: A Pilot Study
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040036 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
Since aerosol continuously persists in dental settings, where different procedures and patients come in succession, the use of oronasal masks is highly recommended. Among them, respirators known as Filtering Face Pieces (FFP) show a protective superiority compared to surgical masks. Even concerning respirators [...] Read more.
Since aerosol continuously persists in dental settings, where different procedures and patients come in succession, the use of oronasal masks is highly recommended. Among them, respirators known as Filtering Face Pieces (FFP) show a protective superiority compared to surgical masks. Even concerning respirators classified as non-reusable, it is not known how many hours of use are necessary to compromise their filtering capacity. The aim of this study is to investigate the variations of filtering capacity of an FFP2 respirator over time, in order to safely optimize the timing of its use. Five respirators were worn by the same operator during clinical activity for different usage times (8, 16, 24, 32, 40 h), and one respirator was kept unused. All respirators underwent a bacterial filtration efficacy (BFE) test. T-test for paired data with Bootstrap technique and Wilcoxon test for paired data compared BFE values of the five tested FFP2s respectively at each time, and the areas with the corresponding values of the control respirator (FFp2-F). A generalized linear mixed effect model (GLM) was applied considering type of respirator and time as fixed effects and intercept as random effect. No significant statistical differences were present in the BFE of each time. Data obtained by the present study highlight the important ability of FFP2s to maintain their BFE over time, suggesting a long lasting protective function. Full article
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Article
New Generation of Fixture–Abutment Connection Combining Soft Tissue Design and Vertical Screw-Retained Restoration: 1-Year Clinical, Aesthetics and Radiographic Preliminary Evaluation
Dent. J. 2021, 9(4), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dj9040035 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
Implant design factors and the abutment connection are correlated with crestal bone stability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a new type of screw-retained prostheses delivered on tissue-level implants with conical external vertical seal and internal hexagon connection. Implants 4.25 [...] Read more.
Implant design factors and the abutment connection are correlated with crestal bone stability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a new type of screw-retained prostheses delivered on tissue-level implants with conical external vertical seal and internal hexagon connection. Implants 4.25 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length (Prama, Sweden and Martina) were placed in partially edentulous patients needing at least one implant in the healed site, having sufficient bone volume. The implant neck was positioned above the bone crest. A healing abutment was placed according to a one-stage approach. Outcome measures were implant and prosthesis survival rate, any complications, marginal bone loss (MBL), periodontal parameters, and pink esthetic score (PES). Overall, 13 patients (4 women and 9 men; mean age 50 ± 22 years) with the same number of implants were treated and followed for one year after loading. At the 12-month follow up, no implant and no prosthesis failed, and no complications were experienced. The mean MBL experienced at the one year follow-up was 0.65 ± 0.48 mm. One year after loading, 2 out of 13 implants present bleeding on probing (15.4%), 4 out of 13 patients presented with plaque at the one year of follow-up (30.8%) and the PES was 10.5 ± 2.3 mm. Within the limitations of the present study, the analyzed implants seem to be a viable treatment option for the rehabilitation of a single tooth gap. Full article
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