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Osteology, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

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Review
Chondrogenic Potential of Dental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 149-174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030016 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The field of tissue engineering has revolutionized the world in organ and tissue regeneration. With the robust research among regenerative medicine experts and researchers, the plausibility of regenerating cartilage has come into the limelight. For cartilage tissue engineering, orthopedic surgeons and orthobiologists use [...] Read more.
The field of tissue engineering has revolutionized the world in organ and tissue regeneration. With the robust research among regenerative medicine experts and researchers, the plausibility of regenerating cartilage has come into the limelight. For cartilage tissue engineering, orthopedic surgeons and orthobiologists use the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) of various origins along with the cytokines, growth factors, and scaffolds. The least utilized MSCs are of dental origin, which are the richest sources of stromal and progenitor cells. There is a paradigm shift towards the utilization of dental source MSCs in chondrogenesis and cartilage regeneration. Dental-derived MSCs possess similar phenotypes and genotypes like other sources of MSCs along with specific markers such as dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein (DMP) -1, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and STRO-1. Concerning chondrogenicity, there is literature with marginal use of dental-derived MSCs. Various studies provide evidence for in-vitro and in-vivo chondrogenesis by dental-derived MSCs. With such evidence, clinical trials must be taken up to support or refute the evidence for regenerating cartilage tissues by dental-derived MSCs. This article highlights the significance of dental-derived MSCs for cartilage tissue regeneration. Full article
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Article
Multi-Level Fibrotomy for Pediatric Patients with Cerebral Palsy: A Cohort Study
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 141-148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030015 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Muscle retraction in Cerebral Palsy (CP) often requires surgical treatment. Multilevel procedures (using open or percutaneous techniques) are commonly performed in the ambulant patient with CP. The necessity to find new surgical techniques, reduce postoperative discomfort, and accelerate the healing process and rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Muscle retraction in Cerebral Palsy (CP) often requires surgical treatment. Multilevel procedures (using open or percutaneous techniques) are commonly performed in the ambulant patient with CP. The necessity to find new surgical techniques, reduce postoperative discomfort, and accelerate the healing process and rehabilitation is mandatory for these patients. A retrospective cohort study with 189 pediatric patients with CP was performed. The multilevel gradual fibrotomy of Ulzibat was modified using an ophthalmic knife. No significant complications were reported using our technique. Opioid drugs were not necessary, and casting time was reduced at the first 24 h. A significant Range of Motion recovery was assessed post-operatory and maintained at the last follow-up. Mean days of hospitalization were 2.2. The mean follow-up was 39 months (6–64 months). The modified multilevel fibrotomy reduces postoperative pain with easier patient management, resulting in a faster discharge from the hospital. However, the retrospective nature and the lack of a control group of the present study did not allow the authors to report significant results. Further studies with longer follow-up are in progress to obtain more certain data that confirm our preliminary results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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Article
Ecological Study of Fractures in Paediatric Melanesian Communities with Varying Endemic Environmental Fluoride Exposure
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 132-140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030014 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Introduction: Osteoporotic fracture is a major public health burden worldwide, causing significant mortality and morbidity. Studies that have reported bone health in areas of high endemic fluorosis have commonly reported adverse skeletal, as well as dental effects. Vanuatu, sited in the Pacific, and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Osteoporotic fracture is a major public health burden worldwide, causing significant mortality and morbidity. Studies that have reported bone health in areas of high endemic fluorosis have commonly reported adverse skeletal, as well as dental effects. Vanuatu, sited in the Pacific, and never previously studied with regard to bone health, has six continuous degassing volcanoes on separate islands, resulting in a natural experiment for an ecological study of relationships between naturally occurring fluoride exposure and fracture incidence in paediatric populations. Methods: This ecological study recruited 1026 lifetime residents of the rural Vanuatu islands. A short questionnaire was administered detailing gender, age, and residential history. Participants were asked if they had broken a bone and, if so, were asked to mark its location on a questionnaire manikin. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean’s index. Community drinking-water samples were sampled for fluoride concentration. Results: The measured water fluoride concentration and recorded dental fluorosis displayed expected gradients from Aneityum (low) to Ambrym (high) (p < 0.001). The age of participants studied varied from 7.8 (SD 1.2) in Aneityum to 10.6 (3.7) in Lamap/Uliveo. The highest self-reported fracture rates were recorded in the area with medium fluoride levels (Lamap/Uliveo), where 14.9% of boys and 15.6% of girls sampled reported a fracture. In Ambrym, where the mean age of participants was similar, corresponding fracture rates were 4.5% and 2.6%. (p value for differences all < 0.05). Conclusions: Reports of fractures were common in children living in Vanuatu, but demonstrably higher in Lamap, the region with medium fluoride concentrations, rather than Ambrym which had very high rates of naturally occurring fluoride levels. Longer term studies that report validated fracture after peak bone mass acquisition are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Osteology)
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Article
Evaluation of the Biocompatibility and Osteoconduction of the Carbon Nanotube, Chitosan and Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite with or without Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Scaffold for Bone Regeneration in Rats
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 118-131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030013 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Background: Bone substitutes have been developed to assist bone regeneration in orthopedic surgeries. Mesenchymal stem cells can be added to these biomaterials to enhance bone regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteoconduction of a carbon nanotube, chitosan, and hydroxyapatite nanocomposite [...] Read more.
Background: Bone substitutes have been developed to assist bone regeneration in orthopedic surgeries. Mesenchymal stem cells can be added to these biomaterials to enhance bone regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteoconduction of a carbon nanotube, chitosan, and hydroxyapatite nanocomposite (CNCHN) that had either been enriched or not enriched with sheep bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in rats. Methods: A total of sixty rats were divided into groups, and an implant with or without BM-MSCs was performed subcutaneously in 20 animals (euthanized after 7 and 30 days), comparing them to 10 control animals, and in the calvaria of 20 animals (euthanized after 20 and 60 days), comparing to with 10 control animals. Subcutaneous and calvaria histologies were performed after euthanasia. Results: The subcutaneous tissue showed that CNCHN did not prompt an exacerbated inflammatory response or signs of necrosis. The histomorphological analysis by the calvaria score of the rats showed that the control group had lower scores at 20 and 60 days for bone neoformation, relative to the CNCHN groups, which showed no significant statistical differences, suggesting that the nanocomposite assisted in the regenerative process of defects in the calvaria, but with no repair potentiation when using BM-MSCs. Conclusion: CNCHN has biocompatibility and osteoconductive potential, showing promising results in bone defects. Full article
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Case Report
Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma: Case Presentation with Review of Literature
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 112-117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030012 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a rare neoplasm with an intermediate malignant potential, that mostly occurs in the subcutis and features varying proportions of epithelioid, ovoid and spindle cells in a nodular and syncytial growth pattern, with hemorrhagic pseudovascular spaces. Here, we report the [...] Read more.
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a rare neoplasm with an intermediate malignant potential, that mostly occurs in the subcutis and features varying proportions of epithelioid, ovoid and spindle cells in a nodular and syncytial growth pattern, with hemorrhagic pseudovascular spaces. Here, we report the clinical case of a 68-year-old man who presented with AFH on the right arm; the disease relapsed a few years after surgical excision. We also conduct a brief review of the literature, focusing on the biological and genetic characteristics and the differential diagnosis from other more or less similar entities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Osteology)
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Article
Quality of Mini C-Arm Imaging in Post-Reduction Evaluation of Distal Radius Fractures
Osteology 2021, 1(3), 105-111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/osteology1030011 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Following closed reduction of distal radius fractures, formal radiographs are often obtained despite previous verification on fluoroscopy. A prospective collection of 60 consecutive distal radius fractures was obtained to compare the quality of the fluoroscopic images obtained from a mini C-arm versus formal [...] Read more.
Following closed reduction of distal radius fractures, formal radiographs are often obtained despite previous verification on fluoroscopy. A prospective collection of 60 consecutive distal radius fractures was obtained to compare the quality of the fluoroscopic images obtained from a mini C-arm versus formal radiographs. The images were reviewed by six orthopedic surgeons and one radiologist. The likelihood that further imaging was deemed necessary to guide treatment decisions was 1.9 times higher in the mini C-arm imaging cohort (95% CI: 1:34, 2.69). While mini C-arm remains a useful reduction aid, formal radiographs should still be obtained to document post-reduction alignment and to guide treatment decisions. Full article
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