Special Issue "The Biofilm Hurdle; Diagnostics and Treatment Challenges, Resistance Development, Gene Exchange, Evolution and Identification"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Lene Karine Vestby
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Department of Analysis and Diagnostics, Oslo, Norway
Interests: biofilm developent; evolution in biofilm; resistance development; treatment; infections; industrial biofilms; microscopy; gene exchange

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biofilms are almost ubiquitous in nature and can be a hurdle. Biofilms can be a challenge concerning identification, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition, biofilms can be an ideal place for the development of antibiotic resistance, especially when treatment/removal is inefficient. This is the case for many different areas, including infections in humans and animals, in industrial settings such as in the feed and food industry, and in nature, to mention a few.

Bacteria in biofilm can tolerate much higher doses of antibiotics, antiseptics, and other biocides than planktonic bacteria. Although proven efficient on planktonic bacteria, different compounds have very different efficacy when the bacteria are in a biofilm. This can be due to reduced penetration through the biofilm matrix, development of resistance in the biofilm, or neutralization by matrix components, for example. For this reason, it is important to have technology for and knowledge regarding efficient treatment/removal of biofilms in the fight to combat antibiotic resistance. In clinical settings, confocal and electron microscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to identify an infection caused by biofilm-forming microorganisms. These techniques are expensive, require specialized personnel, and are rarely available outside the university hospital environment. It is also important to combat biofilms in the feed and food environment as this could be a place for the spread of antibiotic-resistant clones.

This Special Issue will welcome all articles related to biofilms and antibiotic resistance. This includes articles on methods to detect biofilms and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria in biofilms, treatment strategies, and studies on the role of biofilm matrix components, as well as evolution studies.

Dr. Lene Karine Vestby
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Biofilm
  • Treatment strategies
  • Evolution in biofilm
  • Clinical biofilm infections
  • Industrial biofilms
  • Gene exchange

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Biofilm and Spore Formation of Clostridium perfringens and Its Resistance to Disinfectant and Oxidative Stress
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040396 - 06 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Clostridium perfringens is a major human pathogen that causes gastroenteritis via enterotoxin production and has the ability to form spores and biofilms for environmental persistence and disease transmission. This study aimed to compare the disinfectant and environmental resistance properties of C. perfringens vegetative [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens is a major human pathogen that causes gastroenteritis via enterotoxin production and has the ability to form spores and biofilms for environmental persistence and disease transmission. This study aimed to compare the disinfectant and environmental resistance properties of C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores in planktonic and sessile conditions, and to examine the nucleotide polymorphisms and transcription under sessile conditions in C. perfringens strains isolated from meat. The sporulation rate of sessile C. perfringens TYJAM-D-66 (cpe+) was approximately 19% at day 5, while those of CMM-C-80 (cpe−) and SDE-B-202 (cpe+) were only 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively, at day 7. When exposed to aerobic conditions for 36 h, TYJAM-D-66, CMM-C-80, and SDE-B-202 vegetative cells showed 1.70 log, 5.36 log, and 5.67 log reductions, respectively. After treatment with sodium hypochlorite, the survival rates of TYJAM-D-66 vegetative cells (53.6%) and spores (82.3%) in biofilms were higher than those of planktonic cells (9.23%). Biofilm- and spore-related genes showed different expression within TYJAM-D-66 (–4.66~113.5), CMM-C-80 (–3.02~2.49), and SDE-B-202 (–5.07~2.73). Our results indicate the resistance of sessile cells and spores of C. perfringens upon exposure to stress conditions after biofilm formation. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of the Genes Associated with Biofilm and Toxins Synthesis amongst the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030241 - 28 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens, with an increasing isolation frequency in nosocomial outbreaks. The hypothesis tested was whether carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains display an altered carriage of the virulence factor genes, depending on the type [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens, with an increasing isolation frequency in nosocomial outbreaks. The hypothesis tested was whether carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains display an altered carriage of the virulence factor genes, depending on the type of carbapenem resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate, by PCR, the frequency of 10 chosen virulence factors genes (phzM, phzS, exoT, exoY, exoU, toxA, exoS, algD, pilA and pilB) and the genotype distribution in 107 non-duplicated carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. P. aeruginosa genes involved in phenazine dyes and exoenzyme T synthesis were noted with the highest frequency (100%). Fimbriae-encoding genes were detected with the lowest incidence: 15.9% and 4.7% for pilin A and B, respectively. The differences observed between the exoS gene prevalence amongst the carbapenemase-positive and the carbapenemase-negative strains and the pilA gene prevalence amongst the strains of different origins were statistically significant. Virulence genes’ prevalence and the genotype distribution vary amongst P. aeruginosa strains resistant to carbapenems, especially in terms of their carbapenemase synthesis ability and the strain origin. Full article
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