Special Issue "Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials for Chemical Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2022 | Viewed by 7759

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ali Othman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA
Interests: functional nanomaterials; chemical sensors; graphene; environmental; colloid and interface chemistry; materials characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the increased use of nanotechnology in many fields including sensors, bioanalytical, medical diagnosis devices, environmental, and emerging applications, there is a great demand for the fabrication of novel nanoscale materials to enhance their physicochemical, catalytic, and electronic properties as well as overall sensing device performance. Nanomaterials, nanocomposites, and hybrid materials, including metals and metal oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbonous (e.g., graphene, graphene oxide, and carbon nanotubes), polymeric, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), and supramolecular have been successfully integrated into the fabrication of bio/chemical sensors, which has led to a rapid expansion of these materials in many applications. Current efforts in the fabrication, functionalization, and engineering of these nanomaterials focus on the tuning and tailoring of their physicochemical, spectroscopic, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, which can significantly enhance the sensitivity, stability, selectivity, and performance of the bio/chemical sensors for various applications.

This Special Issue will highlight state-of-the-art research on nanoscale-based materials and their integration into bio/chemical sensors. We welcome review articles and original research papers that focus on topics that include but are not limited to the following:

  • Nanomaterials, nanocomposites, and hybrid materials for bio/chemical sensors;
  • Engineering, functionalization, and characterization of novel nanomaterials;
  • Nanomaterials-based environmental, biomedical, food packaging, and bioanalytical sensors;
  • Smart nanomaterials for wearable bio/chemical sensors/devices;
  • Emerging applications of nanoscale-based materials for bio/chemical sensors

Dr. Ali Othman
Guest Editor

If you want to learn more information or need any advice, you can contact the Special Issue Editor Tammy Zhang via <[email protected]> directly.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and hybrid materials
  • Bio/chemical sensors
  • Materials preparation and characterization
  • Interface chemistry

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Kinetics of Odorant Recognition with a Graphene-Based Olfactory Receptor Mimicry
Chemosensors 2022, 10(6), 203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10060203 - 27 May 2022
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Malaria vector mosquito species rely on a handful of specific pheromones for mating; one of them, sulcatone (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one), is also found in human exudation. Therefore, a complete understanding of the insect’s olfaction, and rapid real-time methods for odorant detection, are required. Here, we [...] Read more.
Malaria vector mosquito species rely on a handful of specific pheromones for mating; one of them, sulcatone (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one), is also found in human exudation. Therefore, a complete understanding of the insect’s olfaction, and rapid real-time methods for odorant detection, are required. Here, we mimic the odorant recognition of the nerve cells of an insect’s antenna with a synthetic graphene-based bio-electro-interfacial odorant receptor. By this means, we obtain the kinetics of the genuine odorant recognition reaction and compare them to electro-antennogram data that represent the more complex scenario of a living insect. The odorant-binding proteins OBP 9A and 9B only associate with their ligands weakly, showing KDs of between 2.1 mM and 3 mM, while the binding kinetics of OBP proteins depend on the structural feature of a cystine knot and are modulated by the local milieu within a protein-aided enhancement zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Measurement of Pulsating Flow Using a Self-Attachable Flexible Strain Sensor Based on Adhesive PDMS and CNT
Chemosensors 2022, 10(5), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10050187 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Accurate monitoring is needed for pulsating flow in many healthcare and bio applications. Specifically, real-time monitoring of pulsating blood flow provides rich information regarding a patient’s health conditions. This paper proposes a flexible strain sensor capable of detecting the pulsating fluid flow by [...] Read more.
Accurate monitoring is needed for pulsating flow in many healthcare and bio applications. Specifically, real-time monitoring of pulsating blood flow provides rich information regarding a patient’s health conditions. This paper proposes a flexible strain sensor capable of detecting the pulsating fluid flow by directly measuring the circumferential strain induced by a rapid change in the flow rate. The thin and flexible strain sensor consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a Triton-X treatment to enhance the adhesive property and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as the piezoresistive sensing layer. MWCNT integration implements a simple spray-coating method. The adhesive PDMS/CNT strain sensor exhibits a highly adhesive nature and can be attached to a silicone tube’s curved surface. By analyzing the theoretical modeling based on fluid energy equation and solid mechanics, strains induced on the soft tube by the change in flow rate, viscosity, and fluid density can be predicted. We performed the flow rate measurement at varying fluid-flow rates and liquid viscosities, and the results match our prediction. The sensitivity and limit of detection of the presented strain sensor are about 0.55 %min/L and 0.4 L/min, respectively. Both the calculation and experiment confirm that the sensor resistance is most sensitive to the fluid-flow rate, thus, enabling the accurate tracking of pulsating fluids’ flow rate, regardless of the viscosity or density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Electrodes for Paracetamol Sensing Modified with Bismuth Oxide and Oxynitrate Heterostructures: An Experimental and Computational Study
Chemosensors 2021, 9(12), 361; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9120361 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
In this work, novel platforms for paracetamol sensing were developed by the deposition of Bi2O3, Bi5O7NO3 and their heterostructures onto screen-printed carbon-paste electrodes. An easy and scalable solid state synthesis route was employed, and [...] Read more.
In this work, novel platforms for paracetamol sensing were developed by the deposition of Bi2O3, Bi5O7NO3 and their heterostructures onto screen-printed carbon-paste electrodes. An easy and scalable solid state synthesis route was employed, and by setting the calcination temperatures at 500 °C and 525 °C we induced the formation of heterostructures of Bi2O3 and Bi5O7NO3. Cyclic voltammetry measurements highlighted that the heterostructure produced at 500 °C provided a significant enhancement in performance compared to the monophases of Bi2O and Bi5O7NO3, respectively. That heterostructure showed a mean peak-to-peak separation Ep of 411 mV and a sensitivity increment of up to 70% compared to bare electrodes. A computational study was also performed in order to evaluate the geometrical and kinetic parameters of representative clusters of bismuth oxide and subnitrate when they interact with paracetamol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Communication
Enhanced Capacitive Humidity Sensing Performance at Room Temperature via Hydrogen Bonding of Cyanopyridone-Based Oligothiophene Donor
Chemosensors 2021, 9(11), 320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9110320 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
Cyanopyridone-based oligothiophene donors with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters have been evaluated as active layers within simple capacitive devices for humidity sensing at room temperature. Surface studies using atomic force microscopy revealed a self-assembled nanofibrous network with a thin needle-like structure for the [...] Read more.
Cyanopyridone-based oligothiophene donors with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters have been evaluated as active layers within simple capacitive devices for humidity sensing at room temperature. Surface studies using atomic force microscopy revealed a self-assembled nanofibrous network with a thin needle-like structure for the terminal hydroxy example (CP6), devoid in the methyl example (CP1). The sensing performance of each sensor was investigated over a broad range of relative humidity levels as a function of capacitance at room temperature. The sensor CP6 demonstrated favourable features such as high sensitivity (12.2 pF/%RH), quick response/recovery (13 s/20.7 s), wide working range of relative humidity (10%–95% RH), low hysteresis (0.57%), outstanding recyclability, and excellent long-term stability. From the results obtained, hydrophilicity and hydrogen bonding appear to play a vital role in enhancing humidity sensing performance, leading to possible new design directions for simple organic semiconductor-based sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Flexible Wearable Sensors Based in Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diglycidyl Ether (PEGDGE): Analysis of Strain Sensitivity and Proof of Concept
Chemosensors 2021, 9(7), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9070158 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The electromechanical capabilities of carbon nanotube (CNT) doped poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) have been explored. In this regard, the effect of both CNT content and curing conditions were analyzed. The electrical conductivity increased both with CNT content and curing temperature due to [...] Read more.
The electromechanical capabilities of carbon nanotube (CNT) doped poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) have been explored. In this regard, the effect of both CNT content and curing conditions were analyzed. The electrical conductivity increased both with CNT content and curing temperature due to the lower gel time that leads to a lower reaggregation during curing. More specifically, the percolation threshold at 160 and 180 °C curing temperatures is below 0.01 wt.%, and this limit increases up to 0.1 wt.% at 140 °C for an 8 h curing cycle. Moreover, the strain monitoring capabilities were investigated, and the effect of contact resistance was also analyzed. The electrical contacts made with silver ink led to higher values of gauge factor (GF) but presented some issues at very high strains due to their possible detachment during testing. In every case, GF values were far above conventional metallic gauges with a very significant exponential behavior, especially at low CNT content due to a prevalence of tunneling mechanisms. Finally, a proof of concept of fingers and knee motion monitoring was carried out, showing a high sensitivity for human motion sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Article
Thermal and Structural Properties of High Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites: A Comparison Study
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060136 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The effects of functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the properties of nanocomposite sheets prepared from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. Carbon nanotubes were first oxidized, followed by amine group functionalization. The Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results confirm the presence [...] Read more.
The effects of functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the properties of nanocomposite sheets prepared from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated. Carbon nanotubes were first oxidized, followed by amine group functionalization. The Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results confirm the presence of oxygenated and amide groups at the surface of the CNTs after each treatment. The HDPE/CNT nanocomposites sheets were prepared using a melt compounding method. Six types of CNTs were used; pristine Single-walled Carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and pristine Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), oxidized (O-SWCNT and O-MWCNT) and amide (Amide-SWCNT and Amide-MWCNT). All prepared nanocomposite sheets were characterized using Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). TGA results measured increased thermal stability of the polymer with the addition of CNTs, O-MWCNT showed the best enhancement. XRD measurements confirmed that the addition of CNTs did not change the crystal structure of the polymer, although the crystallinity was decreased. The maximum crystallinity decrease resulted from O-SWNTs addition to the polymer matrix. SEM imaging showed that oxidized and functionalized CNTs have more even dispersion in the polymer matrix compared with pristine CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Review

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Review
Recent Advances of Nanostructured Materials for Photoelectrochemical Bioanalysis
Chemosensors 2022, 10(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors10010014 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Nowadays, the emerging photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis has drawn intensive interest due to its numerous merits. As one of its core elements, functional nanostructured materials play a crucial role during the construction of PEC biosensors, which can not only be employed as transducers but [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the emerging photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis has drawn intensive interest due to its numerous merits. As one of its core elements, functional nanostructured materials play a crucial role during the construction of PEC biosensors, which can not only be employed as transducers but also act as signal probes. Although both chemical composition and morphology control of nanostructured materials contribute to the excellent analytical performance of PEC bioassay, surveys addressing nanostructures with different dimensionality have rarely been reported. In this review, according to classification based on dimensionality, zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional nanostructures used in PEC bioanalysis are evaluated, with an emphasis on the effect of morphology on the detection performances. Furthermore, using the illustration of recent works, related novel PEC biosensing patterns with promising applications are also discussed. Finally, the current challenges and some future perspectives in this field are addressed based on our opinions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Review
Fluoro-Substituted Metal Phthalocyanines for Active Layers of Chemical Sensors
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/chemosensors9060133 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Metal phthalocyanines bearing electron-withdrawing fluorine substituents were synthesized a long time ago, but interest in the study of their films has emerged in recent decades. This is due to the fact that, unlike unsubstituted phthalocyanines, films of some fluorinated phthalocyanines exhibit the properties [...] Read more.
Metal phthalocyanines bearing electron-withdrawing fluorine substituents were synthesized a long time ago, but interest in the study of their films has emerged in recent decades. This is due to the fact that, unlike unsubstituted phthalocyanines, films of some fluorinated phthalocyanines exhibit the properties of n-type semiconductors, which makes them promising candidates for application in ambipolar transistors. Apart from this, it was shown that the introduction of fluorine substituents led to an increase in the sensitivity of phthalocyanine films to reducing gases. This review analyzes the state of research over the last fifteen years in the field of applications of fluoro-substituted metal phthalocyanines as active layers of gas sensors, with a primary focus on chemiresistive ones. The active layers on the basis of phthalocyanines with fluorine and fluorine-containing substituents of optical and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are also considered. Attention is paid to the analysis of the effect of molecular structure (central metal, number and type of fluorine substituent etc.) on sensor properties of fluorinated phthalocyanine films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on Bio/Chemical Sensors)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Measurement of Pulsating Flow using a self-attachable flexible strain sensor based on adhesive PDMS and CNT
Authors: Chaehyun Ryu; Jeonhyeong Park; *Hoe Joon Kim
Affiliation: Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea
Abstract: Accurate monitoring of pulsating flow is needed in many healthcare and bio applications. Specifically, real-time monitoring of pulsating blood flow provides rich information regarding the patient's health conditions. This paper proposes a flexible strain sensor capable of detecting the pulsating fluid flow by directly measuring the circumferential strain induced by a rapid change in the flow rate. The thin and flexible strain sensor consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a Triton-X treatment to enhance the adhesive property and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as the piezoresistive sensing layer. MWCNT integration implements a simple spray coating method. The adhesive PDMS/CNT strain sensor exhibits a highly adhesive nature and can be attached to a silicone tube's curved surface. By analyzing the theoretical modeling based on fluid energy equation and solid mechanics, strains induced on the soft tube by the change in flow rate, viscosity, and fluid density can be predicted. We have performed the flow rate measurement at varying fluid flow rates and liquid viscosities, and the results match our prediction with less than 10 % error. The sensitivity and limit of detection of the presented strain sensor are about 0.55 %min/l and 0.4 l/min, respectively. Both the calculation and experiment confirm that the sensor resistance is most sensitive to the fluid flow rate, thus enabling accurate tracking of pulsating fluids' flow rate regardless of their viscosity or density. Findings from this work can be applied to developing artificial vessel and blood vessel monitoring systems and drug injection systems.

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