Special Issue "Animal Domestication and Breeding"

A special issue of Genes (ISSN 2073-4425). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Anna V Kukekova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Sciences, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
Interests: domestication; behavior genetics; genetics of complex traits; animal behavior; genomics and transcriptomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Domesticated animals differ from their wild ancestors in many ways, such as behavior, physiology, morphology, and appearance. Although the timing, geographic location, and number of domestication events remain unsettled for many domestic species, genome biology has started to unveil domestication-related signals in their genomes. The most common livestock and companion species went through thousands of years of adaptation, associated with living in close proximity to humans, but their genomes also harbor more recent changes linked to selective breeding and breed formation. Continuous selection for traits of interest, in combination with modern breeding techniques, have produced animals which better serve human needs but not without tradeoffs such as reduced effective population size and health-related issues. In contrast to the species which have been domesticated in prehistoric times, a growing number of urban populations of wild species are currently adapting to living in human dominated environments. These populations, together with populations of species which have been domesticated experimentally, provide an opportunity to give insight into the genetics of domestication-related traits that are often difficult to study in historically domesticated species. This Special Issue welcomes papers related to genetics of animal domestication, animal breeding, selection, and adaptation to novel environments.

Prof. Anna V Kukekova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Domestication
  • Inherited diseases
  • Animal breeding
  • Urbanization
  • Adaptation
  • Mammals
  • Birds

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Identification, Molecular Characterization, and Tissue Expression Profiles of Three Smad Genes from Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Genes 2021, 12(10), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101536 - 28 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Smads are involved in a variety of biological activities by mediating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals. The full-length coding sequences (CDSs) of buffalo Smads 1, 4, and 5 were isolated and identified through RT-PCR in this study. Their lengths are 1398 [...] Read more.
Smads are involved in a variety of biological activities by mediating bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals. The full-length coding sequences (CDSs) of buffalo Smads 1, 4, and 5 were isolated and identified through RT-PCR in this study. Their lengths are 1398 bp, 1662 bp, and 1398 bp, respectively. In silico analysis showed that their transcriptional region structures, as well as their amino acid sequences, physicochemical characteristics, motifs, conserved domains, and three-dimensional structures of their encoded proteins are highly consistent with their counterparts in the species of Bovidae. The three Smad proteins are all hydrophilic without the signal peptides and transmembrane regions. Each of them has an MH1 domain and an MH2 domain. A nuclear localization sequence was found in the MH1 domain of buffalo Smads 1 and 5. Prediction showed that the function of the three Smads is mainly protein binding, and they can interact with BMPs and their receptors. The three genes were expressed in all 10 buffalo tissues assayed, and their expression in the mammary gland, gonad, and spleen was relatively high. The results here indicate that the three buffalo Smads may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes in a variety of tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Domestication and Breeding)
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Article
Prediction of Genetic Resistance for Scrapie in Ungenotyped Sheep Using a Linear Animal Model
Genes 2021, 12(9), 1432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12091432 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Selection based on scrapie genotypes could improve the genetic resistance for scrapie in sheep. However, in practice, few animals are genotyped. The objectives were to define numerical values of scrapie resistance genotypes and adjust for their non-additive genetic effect; evaluate prediction accuracy of [...] Read more.
Selection based on scrapie genotypes could improve the genetic resistance for scrapie in sheep. However, in practice, few animals are genotyped. The objectives were to define numerical values of scrapie resistance genotypes and adjust for their non-additive genetic effect; evaluate prediction accuracy of ungenotyped animals using linear animal model; and predict and assess selection response based on estimated breeding values (EBV) of ungenotyped animals. The scrapie resistance (SR) was defined by ranking scrapie genotypes from low (0) to high (4) resistance based on genotype risk groups and was also adjusted for non-additive genetic effect of the haplotypes. Genotypes were simulated for 1,671,890 animals from pedigree. The simulated alleles were assigned to scrapie haplotypes in two scenarios of high (SRh) and low (SRl) resistance populations. A sample of 20,000 genotyped animals were used to predict ungenotyped using animal model. Prediction accuracies for ungenotyped animals for SRh and SRl were 0.60 and 0.54, and for allele content were from 0.41 to 0.71, respectively. Response to selection on SRh and SRl increased SR by 0.52 and 0.28, and on allele content from 0.13 to 0.50, respectively. In addition, the selected animals had large proportion of homozygous for the favorable haplotypes. Thus, pre-selection prior to genotyping could reduce genotyping costs for breeding programs. Using a linear animal model to predict SR makes better use of available information for the breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Domestication and Breeding)
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Article
A KRT71 Loss-of-Function Variant Results in Inner Root Sheath Dysplasia and Recessive Congenital Hypotrichosis of Hereford Cattle
Genes 2021, 12(7), 1038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/genes12071038 - 04 Jul 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Genodermatoses, such as heritable skin disorders, mostly represent Mendelian conditions. Congenital hypotrichosis (HY) characterize a condition of being born with less hair than normal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological phenotype of a breed-specific non-syndromic form of HY in [...] Read more.
Genodermatoses, such as heritable skin disorders, mostly represent Mendelian conditions. Congenital hypotrichosis (HY) characterize a condition of being born with less hair than normal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinicopathological phenotype of a breed-specific non-syndromic form of HY in Hereford cattle and to identify the causative genetic variant for this recessive disorder. Affected calves showed a very short, fine, wooly, kinky and curly coat over all parts of the body, with a major expression in the ears, the inner part of the limbs, and in the thoracic-abdominal region. Histopathology showed a severely altered morphology of the inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle with abnormal Huxley and Henle’s layers and severely dysplastic hair shafts. A genome-wide association study revealed an association signal on chromosome 5. Homozygosity mapping in a subset of cases refined the HY locus to a 690 kb critical interval encompassing a cluster of type II keratin encoding genes. Protein-coding exons of six positional candidate genes with known hair or hair follicle function were re-sequenced. This revealed a protein-changing variant in the KRT71 gene that encodes a type II keratin specifically expressed in the IRS of the hair follicle (c.281delTGTGCCCA; p.Met94AsnfsX14). Besides obvious phenocopies, a perfect concordance between the presence of this most likely pathogenic loss-of-function variant located in the head domain of KRT71 and the HY phenotype was found. This recessive KRT71-related form of hypotrichosis provides a novel large animal model for similar human conditions. The results have been incorporated in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) database (OMIA 002114-9913). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Domestication and Breeding)
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