Special Issue "Satellite, Aerial and Ground-Based Remote Sensing for Archaeological and Heritage Research"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Deodato Tapete
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Italian Space Agency (ASI), Via del Politecnico snc, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: earth observation; radar and optical remote sensing; InSAR; time series analysis; Earth Sciences; environmental geology; natural hazards; urban environments; geoheritage; geoconservation; cultural heritage
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last two years, Geosciences has published two successful editions of a Special Issue Series dedicated to “Remote Sensing and Geosciences for Archaeology” and “Earth Observation, Remote Sensing and Geoscientific Ground Investigations for Archaeological and Heritage Research”, which have attracted 22 and 15 high-quality peer-review papers, respectively, outlining the state-of-the-art of research in the fields of archaeological remote sensing and geosciences.

Building upon this success, this third edition of the Special Issue Series aims to gather original research articles, reviews, and technical notes, on how Satellite, Aerial, and Ground-Based Remote Sensing techniques (either well established or recently developed) are used alone or in combination by archaeologists, image analysts, practitioners, and private companies to:

  • search for buried features and investigate cropmarks;
  • understand cultural landscapes and their past use;
  • predict the archaeological potential in areas where infrastructure and urban development are planned;
  • assess the condition of archaeological records and heritage assets.

Therefore, I would like to invite you to submit articles about your recent work, experimental research or case studies, with respect to the above topic and falling within one of the following domains:

  • Archaeological prospection;
  • Digital archaelogical fieldwork;
  • Condition assessment of heritage assets;
  • GIS analysis of spatial settlement patterns in modern landscapes;
  • Assessment of natural or human-induced threats to conservation;
  • Education and capacity building in EO and RS for archaeology;

I also encourage you to approach me by sending a short abstract outlining the purpose of the research and the principal results obtained, in order to verify at an early stage if the contribution you intend to submit fits with the objectives of the Special Issue.

Dr. Deodato Tapete
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earth observation
  • Aerial photography
  • Aerial remote sensing
  • Ground-based sensors
  • Drones
  • In situ measurements
  • Data processing
  • Analytical methods
  • Data integration
  • Validation
  • Accuracy assessment
  • Archaeological prospection
  • Digital archaeological fieldwork
  • Condition assessment
  • Pattern recognition
  • Capacity building

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
GIS Analysis and Spatial Networking Patterns in Upland Ancient Warfare: The Roman Conquest of Dacia
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences11010017 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Generally seen as natural peripheries, upland landscapes present particular challenges both in terms of living, and of recording past human activity within. LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology has now brought considerable improvement in our ability to record and map surviving archaeological features, [...] Read more.
Generally seen as natural peripheries, upland landscapes present particular challenges both in terms of living, and of recording past human activity within. LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology has now brought considerable improvement in our ability to record and map surviving archaeological features, but not necessarily increased our appreciation of local agency. Though the iconic landscape around the Iron Age Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa Regia (Romania) and its Roman conquest have long caught the attention of specialists and the wider public, both previous research and more recent results from an airborne LiDAR survey leave considerable gaps in our understanding of networking potential across this challenging landscape. Based on LiDAR and satellite-generated high- and mid-resolution topographic data, our paper employs an innovative combination of GIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis tools to examine the spatial relationships between Roman military bases, Dacian targets, and the wider landscape as an integral part of a wider interdisciplinary archaeological research. This helped us formulate and test spatial and historical hypotheses, according to which all known and potential Roman military bases in the study area functioned as part of a system where each contributed individual advantages in securing their domination across the landscape. Our research highlighted the advantages and challenges for Comărnicelu as one of the key Roman logistical nodes, and for the attackers at Şesului and Muncelu working in tandem to besiege and subdue Sarmizegetusa Regia. Our study raises doubts with respect of the fall and destruction of the hillfort at Vârfu lui Hulpe as a result of a Roman siege, making space for alternative political narratives. Ultimately, our findings help build a better understanding of this iconic world heritage landscape and its Roman conquest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Photogrammetry in the Study of the Antique and Medieval Archaeological Site of Markul (Village Markula, Ochamchira Region, Republic of Abkhazia) in Northwestern Colchis Area (Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus)
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 489; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10120489 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
The Markul settlement is an architectural site of the local population of northwestern Colchis. It is located in the village of Markula, Ochamchira region, Republic of Abkhazia. Traditional and modern digital methods are combined here to study the settlement. Panorama images acquired by [...] Read more.
The Markul settlement is an architectural site of the local population of northwestern Colchis. It is located in the village of Markula, Ochamchira region, Republic of Abkhazia. Traditional and modern digital methods are combined here to study the settlement. Panorama images acquired by a drone are used to outline a final orthometric model of the landscape of the entire settlement. An ancient road was discovered after detailed analysis of the finished model. Field studies have confirmed the existence of the road. Photogrammetry is similarly used here to study the architectural remains of the Alakhash-abaa tower and the results suggest that it was erected in the Roman period. The excavation results also support this conclusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Following the Roman Army between the Southern Foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains and the Northern Plains of Castile and León (North of Spain): Archaeological Applications of Remote Sensing and Geospatial Tools
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 485; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10120485 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 15376
Abstract
Sixty-six new archaeological sites have been discovered thanks to the combined use of different remote sensing techniques and open access geospatial datasets (mainly aerial photography, satellite imagery, and airborne LiDAR). These sites enhance the footprint of the Roman military presence in the northern [...] Read more.
Sixty-six new archaeological sites have been discovered thanks to the combined use of different remote sensing techniques and open access geospatial datasets (mainly aerial photography, satellite imagery, and airborne LiDAR). These sites enhance the footprint of the Roman military presence in the northern fringe of the River Duero basin (León, Palencia, Burgos and Cantabria provinces, Spain). This paper provides a detailed morphological description of 66 Roman military camps in northwestern Iberia that date to the late Republic or early Imperial eras. We discuss the different spatial datasets and GIS tools used for different geographic contexts of varied terrain and vegetation. Finally, it stresses out the relevance of these novel data to delve into the rationale behind the Roman army movements between the northern Duero valley and the southern foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains. We conclude that methodological approaches stimulated by open-access geospatial datasets and enriched by geoscientific techniques are fundamental to understand the expansion of the Roman state in northwestern Iberia during the 1st c. BC properly. This renewed context set up a challenging scenario to overcome traditional archaeological perspectives still influenced by the cultural-historical paradigm and the pre-eminence of classical written sources. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Terrestrial Laser Scanner for the Formal Assessment of a Roman-Medieval Structure—The Cloister of the Cathedral of Tarragona (Spain)
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 427; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10110427 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
The use of massive data capture techniques in architectural heritage has enhanced the development of new methodologies that have an important impact on their conservation and understanding. The research proposes the study of formal anomalies in the cloister of the Cathedral of Tarragona [...] Read more.
The use of massive data capture techniques in architectural heritage has enhanced the development of new methodologies that have an important impact on their conservation and understanding. The research proposes the study of formal anomalies in the cloister of the Cathedral of Tarragona (c. 12th century). It is a relevant Gothic construction in Catalonia, with the special singularity that part of its structure is raised over an important pre-existing Roman wall. The investigation is based on a point cloud obtained with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and the systematization of the 3D analysis methodology of the point cloud through different reference shapes. In general terms, the construction is in good condition, so the discrepancies between real construction and the shapes of reference are small, with some exceptions. Nevertheless, the different approximations used allowed us to identify some relevant features, such as the variability of the form of rib vaults, and the influence of the criteria used in the definition and location of reference forms. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Drones over the “Black Desert”: The Advantages of Rotary-Wing UAVs for Complementing Archaeological Fieldwork in the Hard-to-Access Landscapes of Preservation of North-Eastern Jordan
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10110426 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The increasing availability and sinking costs of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones, has resulted in these devices becoming relatively commonplace on archaeological sites. The advantages of being able to rapidly obtain bespoke high-resolution images from the air are conspicuous to [...] Read more.
The increasing availability and sinking costs of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones, has resulted in these devices becoming relatively commonplace on archaeological sites. The advantages of being able to rapidly obtain bespoke high-resolution images from the air are conspicuous to anyone familiar with archaeological fieldwork; meanwhile the possibilities of subsequently processing such images together with their metadata to obtain digital elevation models (DEMs) and three-dimensional (3-D) models provide additional bonuses to analysis and interpretation. The recent use of a rotary-wing drone by the Western Harra Survey (WHS), an archaeological project co-directed by the author in the “Black Desert”, or Harra, of north-eastern Jordan, showcases these advantages in the context of a landscape that (a) is subject to negligible transformation processes and (b) is difficult to access, both by vehicle and on foot. By using processed drone imagery to record in detail prehistoric basalt structures visible on the surface and their surroundings, morphological site typologies hypothesised from satellite imagery were confirmed, relative dating within sites ascertained, structural features and damage documented, spatial relationships to natural resources established, offsite features traced, modern threats to heritage catalogued, and practically inaccessible sites investigated. Together, these results, most of which were only obtainable and all of which were obtained more rapidly by using a drone, represent significant insights into this underrepresented region, and provide a case-study for the benefits of these devices in other landscapes of a similar nature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Being Enclosed as a Lifestyle: Complex Neolithic Settlements of Eastern Croatia Re-Evaluated through Aerial and Magnetic Survey
Geosciences 2020, 10(10), 384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10100384 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Archeological excavations and field survey of Neolithic sites during the last 100 years have formed a certain framework within which we developed an interpretation of Neolithic life in this area. Even though researchers have stressed the importance of sites, region, or period in [...] Read more.
Archeological excavations and field survey of Neolithic sites during the last 100 years have formed a certain framework within which we developed an interpretation of Neolithic life in this area. Even though researchers have stressed the importance of sites, region, or period in their publications, most of the results revealed very modest remains of Neolithic settlements, too small or too scarce to provide insight in settlement size, organization, and other aspects of life. A combination of non-destructive methods of research is proving to be a more effective means of Neolithic site detection and interpretation. Here, we present the sites Gorjani-Kremenjača, Koritna-Pašnik, Gat-Svetošnice, Ivanovac-Korođvar, Klisa-Groblje, and Brdo, whose size and shape were defined through a combination of the analysis of aerial and satellite imagery and geomagnetic survey. Experience in combined research strategies will help us in our efforts to define parameters in recognizing regularities in the remains of settlement organization visible only from the air. Our results showed a complex network of densely populated settlements with elaborate internal organization and infrastructure varying in size from 10 to 50 ha. All settlements were surrounded by at least one set of ditches. Their internal organization was complex and suggests dense habitation. Many sites have several ditched spaces organized in complex systems. Obtained data and results provide a comprehensive review in a wider European context. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Toward a High-Definition Remote Sensing Approach to the Study of Deserted Medieval Cities in the Near East
Geosciences 2020, 10(9), 369; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10090369 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
The variability of currently available remote sensing datasets raises the question of which specific processing methods should be used for feature detection and feature extraction in both large and small-scale overhead images. In some cases, particular analyses allow us to carry out feature [...] Read more.
The variability of currently available remote sensing datasets raises the question of which specific processing methods should be used for feature detection and feature extraction in both large and small-scale overhead images. In some cases, particular analyses allow us to carry out feature detection much more easily and effectively. The high-definition approach enables enhanced analysis of remote sensing data using all the spectral and graphical potential of multi-temporal ordered components. The deserted urban site of Kona Makhmūr, Iraqi Kurdistan, is taken as a case study to demonstrate this fine-grained approach. The analysis described in this paper is based on the complementary use of a variety of overlayed imagery, augmented by data from terrestrial surveys. The resulting map substantially enhances our knowledge of the built environment and the economic and environmental conditions of this early Islamic-period site. Spectral analysis of raster images allowed us to detect the real shapes of features, and with the addition of digital elevation model (DEM) (created via unmanned aerial system (UAV)) we were also able to interpret the state of preservation of the overground relics and the diachronic dynamics of their degradation. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Combined Use of 3D Metric Survey and GPR for the Diagnosis of the Trapezophoros with Two Griffins Attacking a Doe of Ascoli Satriano (Foggia, Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10080307 - 09 Aug 2020
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Protection and conservation are not feasible without a deeper knowledge of the cultural heritage of the subject of intervention. A careful analysis of documentation, a detailed visual inspection of surfaces, and a systematic diagnosis of the inner properties are the basis for planning [...] Read more.
Protection and conservation are not feasible without a deeper knowledge of the cultural heritage of the subject of intervention. A careful analysis of documentation, a detailed visual inspection of surfaces, and a systematic diagnosis of the inner properties are the basis for planning preventive strategies of restoration. Digital noninvasive techniques represent an advantageous tool with useful outputs to estimate the state of health of cultural heritage in order to minimize the progress of degradation. This paper deals with a 3D metric survey through photogrammetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tests applied to the study of the trapezophoros with two griffins attacking a doe of Ascoli Satriano, a masterpiece of ancient art that needs to be protected. This work provided information on both visible and hidden defects, such as numerous cracks that affect the sculpture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Integrating Point Process Models, Evolutionary Ecology and Traditional Knowledge Improves Landscape Archaeology—A Case from Southwest Madagascar
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10080287 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Landscape archaeology has a long history of using predictive models to improve our knowledge of extant archaeological features around the world. Important advancements in spatial statistics, however, have been slow to enter archaeological predictive modeling. Point process models (PPMs), in particular, offer a [...] Read more.
Landscape archaeology has a long history of using predictive models to improve our knowledge of extant archaeological features around the world. Important advancements in spatial statistics, however, have been slow to enter archaeological predictive modeling. Point process models (PPMs), in particular, offer a powerful solution to explicitly model both first- and second-order properties of a point pattern. Here, we use PPMs to refine a recently developed remote sensing-based predictive algorithm applied to the archaeological record of Madagascar’s southwestern coast. This initial remote sensing model resulted in an 80% true positive rate, rapidly expanding our understanding of the archaeological record of this region. Despite the model’s success rate, it yielded a substantial number (~20%) of false positive results. In this paper, we develop a series of PPMs to improve the accuracy of this model in predicting the location of archaeological deposits in southwest Madagascar. We illustrate how PPMs, traditional ecological knowledge, remote sensing, and fieldwork can be used iteratively to improve the accuracy of predictive models and enhance interpretations of the archaeological record. We use an explicit behavioral ecology theoretical framework to formulate and test hypotheses utilizing spatial modeling methods. Our modeling process can be replicated by archaeologists around the world to assist in fieldwork logistics and planning. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Ground-Penetrating Radar Survey for the Study of the Church of Saint Cosma in Helerito (Tagliacozzo, L’Aquila, Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10060244 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 838
Abstract
This paper deals with the application of geophysical prospections to the study of the Church of Saint Cosma in Helerito inside the Monastery of Saints Cosma and Damiano (Tagliacozzo, L’Aquila, Italy). The research aimed to verify the presence of buried ancient archaeological structures [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the application of geophysical prospections to the study of the Church of Saint Cosma in Helerito inside the Monastery of Saints Cosma and Damiano (Tagliacozzo, L’Aquila, Italy). The research aimed to verify the presence of buried ancient archaeological structures of a construction phase older than the current building. Thus, a grid of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles was carried out inside the building in the available spaces using a radar unit equipped with a multi-frequency antenna of 200–600 MHz. The analysis of 2D radargrams and horizontal slices relative to different temporal ranges led to the identification of significant regular patterns of the amplitude of the electromagnetic signals. The results suggest the presence of a buried structure below the analyzed surface. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Imaging Buried Archaeological Features through Ground Penetrating Radar: The Case of the Ancient Saepinum (Campobasso, Italy)
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10060225 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
The archaeological area of Saepinum is considered the symbol of the history of Roman civilization in Molise region (Italy). It was a Samnite commercial forum and service center, then it became a Roman municipium, and, later, it was transformed into a medieval and [...] Read more.
The archaeological area of Saepinum is considered the symbol of the history of Roman civilization in Molise region (Italy). It was a Samnite commercial forum and service center, then it became a Roman municipium, and, later, it was transformed into a medieval and modern rural village. Although the archaeological excavations brought to light different important public buildings, such as the theater, the forum, the basilica, different temples, and the main streets, today, there is still much to discover and study inside the well-preserved city walls. For this purpose, a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was realized in the space between the theater and the decumanus, allowing imaging of a complex regular pattern of archaeological features belonging to thermal buildings still buried in the soil. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Contribution of Geophysics to the Knowledge of the Hidden Archaeological Heritage of Montenegro
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10050187 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Montenegro is a land of great history which needs attention and care for a deeper knowledge and its making at the disposal of new generations. It is still a territory to be discovered, studied, and disclosed. It is important to understand how much [...] Read more.
Montenegro is a land of great history which needs attention and care for a deeper knowledge and its making at the disposal of new generations. It is still a territory to be discovered, studied, and disclosed. It is important to understand how much hidden heritage there is still in this area to explore and exploit, but on the other hand, how much known heritage exists to protect and monitor, preventing its destruction and loss. In this context, Montenegro is heavily investing in the management of cultural heritage through initiatives for identification, protection, preservation, enhancement and fruition of them. In the frame of the knowledge, the use of non-destructive geophysical methods can be helpful for a cognitive investigation immediately in the bud of any archaeological verification project, safeguarded through preventive archaeology operations and the exploration of large areas within archaeological parks. In this paper, the results of geophysical prospections at the Hellenistic-Illyrian site of Mjace, the roman towns of Doclea and Municipium S, the medieval city of Svač, and the Stećci medieval tombstones graveyards of Novakovići, Žugića, and Plužine are presented. The study allowed the reconnaissance of new buried structures in the soil and has provided an updated view of the rich archaeological heritage of Montenegro. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Discovery of the Theater of Akragas (Valley of Temples, Agrigento, Italy): An Archaeological Confirmation of the Supposed Buried Structures from a Geophysical Survey
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences10050161 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
The theater of the ancient city of Akragas has been researched for centuries and, in 2016, a multidisciplinary and multi-scale research work that involved topographic studies, analysis of satellite images, geomorphological characterization of the land, archaeological surveys, and non-invasive geophysical surveys led to [...] Read more.
The theater of the ancient city of Akragas has been researched for centuries and, in 2016, a multidisciplinary and multi-scale research work that involved topographic studies, analysis of satellite images, geomorphological characterization of the land, archaeological surveys, and non-invasive geophysical surveys led to its discovery. In this work, a comparison between the archaeological structures hypothesized by geophysical results and the archaeological structure excavated is presented. The area of about 5.500 m2 was investigated using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The survey highlighted a series of resistivity highs arranged on concentric semicircles defining perfectly the presence of an articulate building attributable to a theatrical complex of imposing dimensions (diameter of about 95 m). Archaeological excavation led to the identification of the summa cavea with the discovery of foundation-level structures arranged on a semicircle, on which the tiers were located, and cuts in the rock with seat imprints. The overlap of the technical layouts obtained from the documentation of archaeological excavation on the modelled resistivity maps shows the perfect correspondence between the features of the resistivity highs and the ancient structures actually found. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Documentation of Archaeology-Specific Workflow for Airborne LiDAR Data Processing
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geosciences11010026 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Airborne LiDAR is a widely accepted tool for archaeological prospection. Over the last decade an archaeology-specific data processing workflow has been evolving, ranging from raw data acquisition and processing, point cloud processing and product derivation to archaeological interpretation, dissemination and archiving. Currently, though, [...] Read more.
Airborne LiDAR is a widely accepted tool for archaeological prospection. Over the last decade an archaeology-specific data processing workflow has been evolving, ranging from raw data acquisition and processing, point cloud processing and product derivation to archaeological interpretation, dissemination and archiving. Currently, though, there is no agreement on the specific steps or terminology. This workflow is an interpretative knowledge production process that must be documented as such to ensure the intellectual transparency and accountability required for evidence-based archaeological interpretation. However, this is rarely the case, and there are no accepted schemas, let alone standards, to do so. As a result, there is a risk that the data processing steps of the workflow will be accepted as a black box process and its results as “hard data”. The first step in documenting a scientific process is to define it. Therefore, this paper provides a critical review of existing archaeology-specific workflows for airborne LiDAR-derived topographic data processing, resulting in an 18-step workflow with consistent terminology. Its novelty and significance lies in the fact that the existing comprehensive studies are outdated and the newer ones focus on selected aspects of the workflow. Based on the updated workflow, a good practice example for its documentation is presented. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop