Special Issue "Performance of Transportation Systems Subjected to Extreme Hydrodynamic Events"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2022 | Viewed by 5128

Special Issue Editors

Asst. R. Prof. Dr. Denis Istrati
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
Interests: tsunami, hurricane, and extreme flooding effects on structures; computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction; resilience of coastal communities to extreme coastal hazards and climate change
Prof. Dr. Ian Buckle
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA
Interests: tsunami performance of coastal bridges and structures; seismic performance of embedded structures and deep foundations; earthquake protective systems in general and seismic isolation in particular
Prof. Dr. Michael Scott
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
Interests: nonlinear structural analysis and dynamics; structural response sensitivity; object-oriented software design; parallel computing and numerical methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last two decades, major water-related natural hazards, such as tsunamis and hurricanes (tropical cyclones) have led to extreme flooding of coastal communities, causing unprecedented loss of human lives, extensive infrastructure damage, and significant economic losses. By washing out bridge decks, piers, and roadways, these extreme hydrodynamic events paralyze entire transportation networks hindering rescue efforts and recovery. In addition to coastal systems, inland transportation systems are also vulnerable to water hazards, as observed in recent flash floods that caused extensive damage to riverine bridges. Given their socio-economic importance, the vulnerability of transportation systems has become a major topic of interest for communities around the world.

The intensity and frequency of extreme flash floods and hurricanes are projected to increase due to climate change and sea-level rise, while major tsunamis, which were traditionally considered rare events, have occurred several times in the last two decades. These trends indicate the need for more research efforts in improving the resilience of transportation systems against such hazards. Therefore, the objective of this Special Issue is to bring together coastal scientists, hydrologists, civil engineers, and risk assessment experts, who aim to understand the effects of extreme hydrodynamic events on bridges and other transportation systems. This Special Issue will document the state-of-the-art in transportation system resilience during extreme hydrodynamic events and identify future needs. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to experimental, numerical, and statistical studies focusing on the following:

  • Hydrodynamic loading on transportation systems
  • Structural performance and failure modes during extreme hydrodynamic events
  • Climate-change effects on transportation infrastructure
  • Impulsive and damming effects of debris on bridges
  • Hydrodynamic scour of bridge piers and roadways
  • Computational fluid dynamics and fluid-structure interaction
  • Numerical methods, such as FEM, FVM, PFEM, and SPH
  • Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methodologies
  • Vulnerability and resilience assessment of bridges and transportation networks
  • Flood protection and mitigation strategies both at the structural and network level

Asst. R. Prof. Dr. Denis Istrati
Prof. Dr. Ian Buckle
Prof. Dr. Michael Scott
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Extreme hydrodynamic loading
  • Tsunamis, hurricanes, tropical cyclones
  • Climate-change and flash floods
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Fluid-structure interaction
  • Water-borne debris loading
  • Hydrodynamic scour
  • Structural performance
  • Risk assessment methodologies
  • Infrastructure resilience
  • Flooding protection strategies

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Floating Large Woody Debris Impact on a Masonry Arch Bridge
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070911 - 01 Jul 2022
Viewed by 293
Abstract
Masonry arch bridges form an essential part of existing transport infrastructure around the world, including mainland Europe and the northeastern US. Recent extreme flood events highlight that masonry arch bridges spanning watercourses are vulnerable to flood-induced hydrodynamic and debris impact loads. When the [...] Read more.
Masonry arch bridges form an essential part of existing transport infrastructure around the world, including mainland Europe and the northeastern US. Recent extreme flood events highlight that masonry arch bridges spanning watercourses are vulnerable to flood-induced hydrodynamic and debris impact loads. When the flow interacts with the bridge superstructure, with or without discrete floating debris, a complex interaction is observed. This paper presents both experimental and numerical studies to investigate this complex phenomenon, including fluid–structure and structure–structure interactions. A typical single-span masonry arch bridge and large woody debris representing a tree log are investigated. Experimental observations from a scaled hydraulic model, with and without debris in the flow, are first presented for the case where the abutment of the bridge is fully submerged. Next, the capability of the numerical method smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in simulating the hydrodynamic behaviour and debris impact observed in the experiment is discussed. Following this, both hydrodynamic and debris-induced pressure–time histories on the bridge are obtained using the SPH model. Results reveal that the debris impact leads to a significantly more localised load on the bridge compared to the situation with hydrodynamic load only. Full article
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Article
3D Numerical Modeling and Quantification of Oblique Wave Forces on Coastal Bridge Superstructures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 860; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10070860 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Simply supported bridges comprise the majority of bridge systems in coastal communities and are susceptible to severe damage from extreme waves induced by storms or tsunamis. However, the effects of oblique wave impacts have been less investigated due to the lack of appropriate [...] Read more.
Simply supported bridges comprise the majority of bridge systems in coastal communities and are susceptible to severe damage from extreme waves induced by storms or tsunamis. However, the effects of oblique wave impacts have been less investigated due to the lack of appropriate numerical models. To address this issue, this study investigates the effects of wave incident angles on coastal bridge superstructures by developing an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Different wave scenarios, including wave height, relative clearance, incident angle, and wavelength are tested. It is found that the maximum wave forces in the horizontal and longitudinal directions could reach 1901 and 862 kN under extreme conditions, respectively, destroying bearing connections. Three surrogate models, i.e., the Gaussian Kriging surrogate model, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and the Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE), are established by correlating the wave parameters with the maximum wave forces. Through comparisons among the three surrogate models, it is found that the 3-order PCE model has better performance in predicting loads in vertical and horizontal directions, while the ANN model is more suitable for results in the longitudinal direction. This study contributes to the optimized design of coastal bridges and also offers an opportunity for future studies to investigate hazard damage-mitigation measures. Full article
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Breaking Focused Waves and Forces on Coastal Deck Structure with Girders
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 768; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10060768 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 396
Abstract
In the present study, breaking focused wave groups were simulated using open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics model REEF3D in order to investigate the breaking wave impact on scaled (1:10) two-dimensional coastal deck structure with girder. The effect of environmental parameters, such as bottom slope [...] Read more.
In the present study, breaking focused wave groups were simulated using open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics model REEF3D in order to investigate the breaking wave impact on scaled (1:10) two-dimensional coastal deck structure with girder. The effect of environmental parameters, such as bottom slope and wave steepness on the breaking and geometric properties of high-crested spilling breakers, was investigated. The effect of the wave breaking location on the impact forces acting on the deck structure located at different airgap positions was studied for three wave impact scenarios: (i) when the wave breaking starts, (ii) when a slightly overturning crest is formed, and (iii) when the wave breaks and a fully overturning crest is formed just before hitting the preceding trough. The peak horizontal impact force was found to be higher when the wave breaks ahead of the structure and the overturning wave crest hits the deck positioned above the still water level. Additionally, the peak vertical impact force attains the peak when the deck is placed at the still water level for different stages of breaking. The peak horizontal impact force shows a parabolic trend, whereas the peak vertical impact forces show a decreasing linear trend with an increase in airgap. Finally, force coefficients are derived for calculating the peak impact force on deck with girders subjected to high-crested spilling breakers. Full article
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Article
Investigation of Barrier Island Highway and Marsh Vulnerability to Bay-Side Flooding and Erosion
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(6), 734; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10060734 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Coastal highways along narrow barrier islands are vulnerable to flooding due to ocean and bay-side events, which create hazardous travel conditions and may restrict access to surrounding communities. This study investigates the vulnerability of a segment of highway passing through the Pea Island [...] Read more.
Coastal highways along narrow barrier islands are vulnerable to flooding due to ocean and bay-side events, which create hazardous travel conditions and may restrict access to surrounding communities. This study investigates the vulnerability of a segment of highway passing through the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in the Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA. Publicly available data, computational modeling, and field observations of shoreline change are synthesized to develop fragility models for roadway flooding and marsh conditions. At 99% significance, peak daily water levels and significant wave heights at nearby monitoring stations are determined as significant predictors of roadway closure due to flooding. Computational investigations of bay-side storms identify peak water levels and the buffer distance between the estuarine shoreline and the roadway as significant predictors of roadway transect flooding. To assess the vulnerability of the marsh in the buffer area, a classification scheme is proposed and used to evaluate marsh conditions due to long-term and episodic (storm) stressors. Marsh vulnerability is found to be predicted by the long-term erosion rate and distance from the shoreline to the 5 m depth contour of the nearby flood tidal channel. The results indicate the importance of erosion mitigation and marsh conservation to enhance the resilience of coastal transportation infrastructure. Full article
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Article
Damage Estimation of a Concrete Pier When Exposed to Extreme Flood and Debris Loading
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 710; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10050710 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, [...] Read more.
The structural safety and serviceability during extreme weather, such as floods and storms, is critical. Due to global warming in the last decades, the increase in the intensity of natural disasters, i.e., flood loading and the durability of the road structures and infrastructures, is becoming critical. Bridges and structures lose their capacity because of ageing over time. On the other hand, the load intensity is another reason for the structural damage. Debris loading due to the flooding on bridges is one of the reasons for the increase in flood loading and eventually structural damage. Measuring the level of structural damage under extreme events is vital in determining the vulnerability and resilience of structures during a disaster. A damage index (DI) can be defined as a measurement tool for the levels of structural damage. Oftentimes, damage indices are developed to measure the deterioration of the system under earthquake loading. Little work has been published on damage indices (DIs) under flood loading, where a uniform pressure is applied to a structure. This paper presents a comprehensive review of DIs published in the literature and compares two approaches to assess the system’s damage utilising finite element methodologies. The structure model developed in the ABAQUS software package is used to predict the failure of a concrete component under applied lateral loading. The model is validated using published experimental work. The model is verified, and then it is used to compute the damage indicators using two primary techniques, including a deflection-based method and an energy loss-based approach. Using the two offered DIs, the change in damage levels is displayed underwater flow uniform loading. A comparison of the two methods is conducted. In this paper, differences between the two concepts are analysed and presented. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study on the Probability of Different Wave Impact Types on a Vertical Wall with Horizontal Slab by Separation of Quasi-static Wave Impacts
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10050615 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 513
Abstract
When the fundamental natural frequency of marine structures is comparable to the dominant frequency of incident waves, the response of the load on the structure will be amplified. Accurately quantifying how wave loads can be amplified by incident wave conditions must thus be [...] Read more.
When the fundamental natural frequency of marine structures is comparable to the dominant frequency of incident waves, the response of the load on the structure will be amplified. Accurately quantifying how wave loads can be amplified by incident wave conditions must thus be considered in any structural analysis, given how sensitive these characteristics are to different wave impact types. Systematic physical model tests of wave impacts on the simple horizontal plate and the vertical wall with a horizontal overhanging cantilever slab were performed. By first comparing quasi-static wave load estimates along a simple horizontal plate (obtained by low-pass filtering the pressure time series at different cut-off frequencies) with quasi-static uplift pressures from established predictive formulations, a cut-off frequency of 7 Hz was found to accurately separate the quasi-static component from impulsive wave impacts. By applying the low-pass filtering approach with the selected cut-off frequency to the pressure measurements for the vertical wall with a horizontal cantilever slab case, the impulsive and quasi-static peaks were attained, which were then used to quantify the probabilities of individual impulsive, dynamic, and quasi-static wave impacts. Incoming wave conditions and structural clearance had a significant effect on the probabilities of different wave impacts. With the increasing wave height and wave steepness, wave impacts on the horizontal slab and vertical wall were increasingly of the impulsive type and less frequently of the quasi-static type, while the probability of dynamic impact types were relatively stable. As the overhanging slab was shifted from elevated to submerged, the dominant type of wave impact on the structure was variable, ranging from impulsive to dynamic to quasi-static as its elevation was lowered. The results indicated that up to 90% of the impacts were of the impulsive type when the overhanging slab was on or slightly over the still water level. Moreover, the presence of the vertical wall increased the magnitude of wave loads and the occurring frequency of impulsive wave impacts for the horizontal slab. Full article
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Article
Experimental Investigation of Wave-Induced Forces on a Large Quasi-Elliptical Cylinder during Extreme Events
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse10040540 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Large quasi-elliptical cylinders are extensively used in ocean engineering. To enhance a better understanding of the hydrodynamic wave force on such quasi-elliptical cylinders during extreme events, a series of experiments on extreme wave interaction with a quasi-elliptical cylinder were conducted. A series of [...] Read more.
Large quasi-elliptical cylinders are extensively used in ocean engineering. To enhance a better understanding of the hydrodynamic wave force on such quasi-elliptical cylinders during extreme events, a series of experiments on extreme wave interaction with a quasi-elliptical cylinder were conducted. A series of waves with various wave heights, wave periods, and wave incident directions were tested to investigate the wave parameter effect and wave directionality effect on the wave forces on the quasi-elliptical structure. The experimental results indicate that the extreme wave-induced forces on the quasi-elliptical cylinder are strongly correlated to the wave period and wave incident direction. The peak forces on the quasi-elliptical model do not vary monotonically with the increasing wave period but show an increase followed by a decrease. Both the longitudinal and transversal forces are significantly increased when the wave incident direction changes from 0° to 45° and the wave directionality effect is enhanced when the wave period is decreased. Additionally, the inertial force equation was applied to the wave force estimation for such quasi-elliptical cylinders, and the inertia coefficient CM was fitted based on the experimental results of α = 0°. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Extreme Wave Impact on Coastal Decks with Different Geometries via the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmse9121342 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Given the documented wave-induced damage of elevated coastal decks during extreme natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes) in the last two decades, it is of utmost significance to decipher the wave-structure-interaction of complex deck geometries and quantify the associated loads. Therefore, this study focuses on [...] Read more.
Given the documented wave-induced damage of elevated coastal decks during extreme natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes) in the last two decades, it is of utmost significance to decipher the wave-structure-interaction of complex deck geometries and quantify the associated loads. Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment of solitary wave impact on open-girder decks that allow the air to escape from the sides. To this end, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) numerical method with a multi-phase compressible formulation is used for the development of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which are validated against a large-scale experimental dataset of a coastal deck. Using the validated model as a baseline, a parametric investigation of different deck geometries with a varying number of girders Ng and three different widths, was conducted. The results reveal that the Ng of a superstructure has a complex role and that for small wave heights the horizontal and uplift forces increase with the Ng, while for large waves the opposite happens. If the Ng is small the wave particles accelerate after the initial impact on the offshore girder leading to a more violent slamming on the onshore part of the deck and larger pressures and forces, however, if Ng is large then unsynchronized eddies are formed in each chamber, which dissipate energy and apply out-of-phase pressures that result in multiple but weaker impacts on the deck. The decomposition of the total loads into slamming and quasi-static components, reveals surprisingly consistent trends for all the simulated waves, which facilitates the development of predictive load equations. These new equations, which are a function of Ng and are limited by the ratio of the wavelength to the deck width, provide more accurate predictions than existing empirical methods, and are expected to be useful to both engineers and researchers working towards the development of resilient coastal infrastructure. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Characterization of Wave-Induced Loads on Simply Supported Bridge Decks During Extreme Events

Title: SPH-FEM Modeling of Large Debris Impact on Bridge Decks Subjected to Extreme Hydrodynamic Events

Title: Numerical simulations of scour development around an oblong bridge pier laboratory model

Title: Compound effects of earthquake and tsunami hazards on coastal bridges

Title: Damage Estimation of the Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Element When Exposed to Extreme Flood and Debris Loading

Title: Experimental study on cut-off frequency for quasi static and impulsive processes separation and occurring probability of wave impact for vertical wall with overhangs

Title: Numerical Investigation of breaking Focused Waves and Forces on Coastal Deck Structure with Girders

Title: Experimental and numerical investigation of floating large woody debris impact on a masonry arch bridge

Title: Influence of Caisson Geometry and Local Scour Characteristics on Hydrodynamic Loads of Deep-water Caisson for Long-span Bridges

Title: Influence of woody debris jam on single bridge pier scour and induced hydraulic head including the process of formation, growth, failure and rebirth

Title: Current and future trends in post-hurricane connectivity to essential facilities in Southeast Louisiana

Title: Vulnerability analysis of structural systems under extreme flood events

Title: Importance of pre-storm morphological factors in predicting storm impacts on a coastal highway

Title: Explaining the flood behavior for the bridge collapse sites

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