Special Issue "Advanced Restorative and Dental Materials: Biological, Physical, and Chemical Properties"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Claudio Poggio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Interests: restorative dentistry; endodontics; dental materials
Prof. Dr. Andrea Scribante
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; adhesive dentistry; dental materials; adhesive dentistry; CAD/CAM; intraoral scanner; computerized cast; shear; bond strength; bracket; fiber-reinforced composite; miniscrew; microbiome; oral microbiology; probiotics; remineralization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dentistry is one of the medical sciences most related to materials. The efficacy of treatments like bleaching, direct and indirect restorations, endodontics, as well as the application of mobile and fixed prostheses, dental implants, or orthodontic appliances is strictly determined by the properties of the used materials. Despite the fact that many of these treaments, although historical, still maintain validity, an increasing number of new proposals have been introduced in recent years. This development was favoured by the introduction of advanced techniques in dentistry, such as nanotechnologies or CAD/CAM.

However, clinicians should consider the specific properties of these new materials to make the best choice for their patients. In particular, biocompatibility is a key point because each material must be tolerated by the human organism. Furthermore, the discussion of the possible bacterial colonisation of their surface is equally important, considering its aetiopathogenetic role in decay, periodontitis, and peri-implantitis.

Finally, physical and chemical properties must also be taken into account to ensure high-resistant treatments, as well as the maintenance of the initial characteristics of the products, preventing alteration of their original validity.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest developments in the field of dental materials. It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue. Research articles, review articles, and communications are all welcome.

Prof. Claudio Poggio
Prof. Andrea Scribante
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • glass ionomer cements
  • composite resins
  • universal adhesives
  • bleaching agents
  • aesthetic restorative materials
  • CAD/CAM dental materials

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Role of the Crystallographic Phase of NiTi Rotary Instruments in Determining Their Torsional Resistance during Different Bending Conditions
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14216324 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 394
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the role of the crystallographic phase of Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in determining their torsional resistance during different bending conditions, such as different degrees and angles of curvature. 200 F-One 20.04 instruments (Fanta Dental, Shanghai, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the role of the crystallographic phase of Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in determining their torsional resistance during different bending conditions, such as different degrees and angles of curvature. 200 F-One 20.04 instruments (Fanta Dental, Shanghai, China) were used, 100 austenitic instruments and 100 martensitic instruments. Each group was divided in 5 subgroups according to the different bending conditions (straight canal, 90° or 60° of curvature degrees and 3 mm or 5 mm of radius of curvature). The static torsional test was performed by using a device composed of an electric motor capable of recording torque values (N·cm); a vice used to secure the instruments at 3 mm from the tip; and artificial canals, which allow instruments to remain flexed during test. Each instrument was rotated at 500 rpm with a torque limit set to 5.5 Ncm until its fracture. Torque at Fracture (TtF) was registered. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation was conducted. The collected data confirm that an increase in the angle of curvature and a decrease in the radius of curvature of the artificial canals lead to an increase of TtF values with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05), both in the austenitic and martensitic groups. Regarding the comparison between austenitic and martensitic groups in the same bending condition, a statistically significant difference was found only when the torsional test was performed in the canals with the degrees of curvature of 90° and the radius of curvature of 3 mm and 5 mm, with the austenitic instruments showing a higher TtF than the martensitic ones. In conclusion, it can be stated that the crystallographic phase influences the maximum torque at fracture when the instruments are subjected to severe bending and that the radius of curvature significantly influences their torsional resistance. Full article
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Communication
Computer Aided Design Modelling and Finite Element Analysis of Premolar Proximal Cavities Restored with Resin Composites
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14092366 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
This study evaluated the stress distribution in five different class II cavities of premolar models restored with conventional or bulk-fill flowable composite by means of finite element analysis (FEA) under shrinkage and occlusal loading. An upper validated premolar model was imported in the [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the stress distribution in five different class II cavities of premolar models restored with conventional or bulk-fill flowable composite by means of finite element analysis (FEA) under shrinkage and occlusal loading. An upper validated premolar model was imported in the software, and five class II cavities with different occlusal extensions and dimensions were prepared: horizontal cavity on the mesial surface (horizontal slot), mesio-occlusal cavity, mesial cavity (vertical slot), tunnel type cavity and direct access cavity. The models were restored with conventional or bulk-fill flowable resin composite. The tested materials were considered as homogeneous, linear, and isotropic. The Maximum Principal Stress criteria was chosen to evaluate the tensile stress results. The lowest shrinkage stress value was observed in the direct access cavity restored with bulk-fill flowable resin composite (36.12 MPa). The same cavity, restored with conventional composite showed a score of 36.14 MPa. The horizontal slot cavity with bulk-fill flowable showed a score of 46.71 MPa. The mesio-occlusal cavity with bulk-fill flowable had a score of 53.10 MPa, while with conventional composite this was 55.35 MPa. Higher shrinkage stress was found in the vertical slot cavity with conventional resin 56.14 MPa, followed by the same cavity with bulk-fill flowable 56.08 MPa. Results indicated that the use of bulk-fill flowable composite resin more significantly decreased the polymerization shrinkage stress magnitude. The larger the cavity and the volume of material necessary to restore the tooth, the greater the residual stress on enamel and dentin tissue. Full article
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Article
Mechanical Behavior of Different Restorative Materials and Onlay Preparation Designs in Endodontically Treated Molars
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1923; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14081923 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of the combination of three different onlay preparation designs and two restorative materials on the stress distribution, using 3D-finite element analysis. Six models of first lower molars were created according to three preparation designs: non-retentive (nRET), traditional with [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of the combination of three different onlay preparation designs and two restorative materials on the stress distribution, using 3D-finite element analysis. Six models of first lower molars were created according to three preparation designs: non-retentive (nRET), traditional with occlusal isthmus reduction (IST), and traditional without occlusal isthmus reduction (wIST); and according to two restorative materials: lithium-disilicate (LD) and nanoceramic resin (NR). A 600 N axial load was applied at the central fossa. All solids were considered isotropic, homogeneous, and linearly elastic. A static linear analysis was performed, and the Maximum Principal Stress (MPS) criteria were used to evaluate the results and compare the stress in MPa on the restoration, cement layer, and tooth structure (enamel and dentin). A novel statistical approach was used for quantitative analysis of the finite element analysis results. On restoration and cement layer, nRET showed a more homogeneous stress distribution, while the highest stress peaks were calculated for LD onlays (restoration: 69–110; cement layer: 10.2–13.3). On the tooth structure, the material had more influence, with better results for LD (27–38). It can be concluded that nRET design showed the best mechanical behavior compared to IST and wIST, with LD being more advantageous for tooth structure and NR for the restoration and cement layer. Full article
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Article
Combined Effect of Melittin and DNase on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms and Its Susceptibility to Sodium Hypochlorite
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13173740 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Biofilm communities are tolerant to antimicrobials and difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melittin, an antimicrobial peptide, either alone or in combination with deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis [...] Read more.
Biofilm communities are tolerant to antimicrobials and difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melittin, an antimicrobial peptide, either alone or in combination with deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms, and biofilm susceptibility to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Biofilms of E. faecalis were developed in root canals of bovine teeth. The biofilms were treated with distilled water (control), melittin, DNase, or DNase+melittin. The antibiofilm effects of the treatments were analyzed using colony forming unit (CFU) assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The susceptibility of DNase+melittin-treated biofilms to NaOCl (0%, 2.5% and 5%) was investigated by the CFU assay. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Specimens treated with DNase+melittin showed a more significant decrease in the CFUs, eDNA level, and biofilm formation rate than those treated only with melittin or DNase (p < 0.05). CLSM analysis showed DNase+melittin treatment significantly reduced the volume of biofilms and extracellular polymeric substance compared to either treatment alone (p < 0.05). FE-SEM images showed a high degree of biofilm disruption in specimens that received DNase+melittin. 2.5% NaOCl in specimens pretreated with DNase+melittin showed higher antibacterial activity than those treated only with 5% NaOCl (p < 0.05). This study highlighted that DNase improved the antibiofilm effects of melittin. Moreover, DNase+melittin treatment increased the susceptibility of biofilms to NaOCl. Thus, the complex could be a clinical strategy for safer use of NaOCl by reducing the concentration. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of 10-Methacryloyloxidecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate Monomer in Self-Etching Two-Bottled Dental Adhesive System: Comparison with Commercial Products
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13163553 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Dentin bonding is a key in restorative dentistry. Here, we developed a self-etching two-bottle adhesive system containing 10-methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogen phosphate monomer (MDP) and the physical, mechanical, and biocompatible properties were evaluated. The characteristics of MDP were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Tests [...] Read more.
Dentin bonding is a key in restorative dentistry. Here, we developed a self-etching two-bottle adhesive system containing 10-methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogen phosphate monomer (MDP) and the physical, mechanical, and biocompatible properties were evaluated. The characteristics of MDP were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Tests for water sorption and solubility, the shear-bond strengths to dentin and enamel, and cytotoxicity were performed. The newly-blended experimental group showed the lowest thickness and water sorption and solubility values. The shear bond strength of enamel and dentin were comparable to control groups (the three other products were ClearfilTM, UniFil®, and AdheSE®). All test groups showed 60% of cell viability. In this study, the properties of the newly-synthesized adhesive are comparable with the others. The fundamental goal of this study is to get the MDP patent released, as it is intended for domestic production. For this purpose, this dentin adhesive was developed and compared with the commercial product. Full article
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Article
Fracture Load of CAD/CAM Feldspathic Crowns Influenced by Abutment Material
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13153407 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
In vitro studies investigating the mechanical properties of dental reconstructions use various materials to replicate prepared teeth. However, no uniform recommendation exists as to which material is most suitable for standardized testing. The purpose of this study was to identify a material that [...] Read more.
In vitro studies investigating the mechanical properties of dental reconstructions use various materials to replicate prepared teeth. However, no uniform recommendation exists as to which material is most suitable for standardized testing. The purpose of this study was to identify a material that resembles human dentin in fracture load tests. Sixteen human teeth were scanned with an intraoral scanner to obtain copies of the original crown morphology and were then prepared for crowns. Replica dies of the prepared teeth including the root morphology were fabricated with a Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and divided into four groups: (A) reinforced composite (RC); (B) human dentin (HD); (C) polymethyl methacrylate (PM); and (D) hybrid ceramic (HC). Sixty-four feldspar ceramic crowns were designed with the biocopy mode, fabricated with a CAD/CAM system, luted on the dies, and then with the roots embedded in polymethyl methacrylate. Care was taken to position all specimens of the same morphology identically. Thermo-mechanical load cycling was performed in a chewing simulator followed by fractural loading of the crowns. A mixed effect linear model was fitted to the data, and pairwise contrasts were estimated on the marginal means and corrected for multiple testing according to Tukey (α = 0.05). The means for fracture load (N) were 2435 N (95% CI (2162, 2709)) for hybrid ceramic, 1838 N (95% CI (1565, 2112)) for reinforced composite, 1670 N (95% CI (1396, 1943)) for human tooth and 1142 N (95% CI (868, 1415)) for polymethyl methacrylate abutment materials. Post-hoc pairwise contrasts revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference among all groups except for reinforced composite and human dentin (p = 0.76). The results indicate that the mechanical properties of abutment dies play a significant role for a possible substitution of natural teeth in in vitro studies. Full article
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Article
Optical and Mechanical Properties of Highly Translucent Dental Zirconia
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13153395 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The aim was to evaluate the translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence of highly translucent zirconia, lithium disilicate, and bovine teeth. One mm-thick specimens of five monolithic zirconia systems, two glass-ceramics, and bovine enamel/dentin were investigated. A spectrophotometer (Ci7600) was used to measure the CIELab [...] Read more.
The aim was to evaluate the translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence of highly translucent zirconia, lithium disilicate, and bovine teeth. One mm-thick specimens of five monolithic zirconia systems, two glass-ceramics, and bovine enamel/dentin were investigated. A spectrophotometer (Ci7600) was used to measure the CIELab color coordinates, and the translucency and opalescence values were obtained. For evaluating the fluorescence emission, the differences in spectral reflectance by the UV component of illumination were calculated. The microstructures of ceramic specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope and the chemical compositions were determined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mechanical properties were appraised with three-point bending strength, indentation fracture toughness, and Vickers hardness. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test (α = 0.05). A higher yttria content (5 mol%) significantly improved the translucency of zirconia ceramics, while they were less translucent than lithium disilicate (p < 0.05). Lowering the alumina content below 0.05 wt.% enhanced the translucency (p < 0.05), but a small amount of alumina was still required to obtain full densification. 0.05 wt.% Fe was used to increase the chroma of zirconia specimens without compromising their mechanical properties. The Er-containing zirconia specimen showed a maximal fluorescence emission at 430 nm. The degree of opalescence was affected by the microstructures of ceramic materials. The microstructure, incorporation of a secondary phase, and sintering behavior can have a strong impact on the final mechanical and optical properties of dental ceramics. Addition of small amounts of metal oxides can affect the translucency, opalescence or fluorescence qualities of zirconia Full article
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Article
In Vitro Study of Shear Bond Strength in Direct and Indirect Bonding with Three Types of Adhesive Systems
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2644; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13112644 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remaining index (ARI) using one conventional and two novel adhesive systems with clinical step reduction and direct and indirect bonding. A sample of 72 human premolars were divided into six groups [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remaining index (ARI) using one conventional and two novel adhesive systems with clinical step reduction and direct and indirect bonding. A sample of 72 human premolars were divided into six groups of 12 samples. The first three groups (G1, G2, G3) were bonded with a direct technique, while the remaining groups (G4, G5, G6) were bonded by the indirect technique. Groups G1 and G4 used conventional acid-etching primer composite (XT); groups G2 and G5 used self-etching bonding (BO), and groups G3 and G6 had an acid-etching treatment followed by a self-adhesive composite (OC). All groups were exposed to thermocycling. Shear bond strength was analyzed with a universal test machine, and the ARI was examined with 4× magnification. The results showed statistically significant differences between the three adhesive systems. The highest strength values were observed in the XT group G1 (13.54 ± 4 MPa), while the lowest were shown in the BO G2 samples (5.05 ± 2 MPa). There was no significant difference between the direct or indirect bonding techniques on the three compared groups. The type of primer and bonding material significantly influenced the SBS. Values with self-etching bonding were below the minimum recommended for clinical use (5.9–7.8 MPa). There was no difference between indirect and direct bonding techniques. The lowest ARI scores (0–1) were observed in both self-etching and BO groups. Further clinical studies are needed to compare in vivo results. Full article
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Article
Influence of Different Surface Pretreatments on Shear Bond Strength of an Adhesive Resin Cement to Various Zirconia Ceramics
Materials 2020, 13(3), 652; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13030652 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of surface pretreatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of an adhesive resin cement (G-CEM Link Force TM, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to three different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics: (1) [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of surface pretreatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of an adhesive resin cement (G-CEM Link Force TM, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to three different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics: (1) Copran Zirconia Monolith HT, COP; (2) Katana ML Zirconia, KAT; and (3) Metoxit Z-CAD HTL Zirconia, MET. In total, 45 cylinders (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm height) for each type of zirconia ceramic were prepared used a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machine (software CEREC 4.2). Each type of zirconia was subdivided into three groups and each group received a different surface pretreatment; 15 samples were not conditioned as control (groups COP 1, KAT 1, MET 1), 15 samples were air-borne particle abraded with aluminum dioxide particles of 50-μm size at 0.3 MPa for 20 s (groups COP 2, KAT 2, MET 2), and 15 samples were hot-etched with a solution of hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride (groups COP 3, KAT 3, MET 3). After specimen fabrication, the adhesive cement–ceramic interface was analyzed using an SBS test. Subsequently, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was measured. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Air-borne particle abraded specimens showed the highest SBS values for COP and KAT groups. For MET, no significant difference was reported between air-borne particle abraded specimens and untreated controls. The lowest values were detected for acid-etched groups. A higher frequency of ARI = “1” and ARI = “2” was reported in control and air-borne particle abraded groups, whereas ARI = “3” was detected in hot-etched groups. No correlation was found between ARI score and shear bond strength. Air-borne particle abrasion is considered the best treatment for Zirconia Copran and Zirconia Katana ML, if it is followed by using dual-curing resin cement. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Effectiveness of Osseodensification Drilling Protocol for Implant Site Osteotomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14051147 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Many different osteotomy procedures has been proposed in the literature for dental implant site preparation. The osseodensification is a drilling technique that has been proposed to improve the local bone quality and implant stability in poor density alveolar ridges. This technique determines an [...] Read more.
Many different osteotomy procedures has been proposed in the literature for dental implant site preparation. The osseodensification is a drilling technique that has been proposed to improve the local bone quality and implant stability in poor density alveolar ridges. This technique determines an expansion of the implant site by increasing the density of the adjacent bone. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the osseodensification technique for implant site preparation through a literature review and meta-analysis. The database electronic research was performed on PubMed (Medline) database for the screening of the scientific papers. A total of 16 articles have been identified suitable for the review and qualitative analysis—11 clinical studies (eight on animals, three on human subjects), four literature reviews, and one case report. The meta-analysis was performed to compare the bone-to-implant contact % (BIC), bone area fraction occupied % (BAFO), and insertion torque of clockwise and counter-clockwise osseodensification procedure in animal studies. The included articles reported a significant increase in the insertion torque of the implants positioned through the osseodensification protocol compared to the conventional drilling technique. Advantages of this new technique are important above all when the patient has a strong missing and/or low quantity of bone tissue. The data collected until the drafting of this paper detect an improvement when the osseodensification has been adopted if compared to the conventional technique. A significant difference in BIC and insertion torque between the clockwise and counter-clockwise osseodensification procedure was reported, with no difference in BAFO measurements between the two approaches. The effectiveness of the present study demonstrated that the osseodensification drilling protocol is a useful technique to obtain increased implant insertion torque and bone to implant contact (BIC) in vivo. Further randomized clinical studies are required to confirm these pieces of evidence in human studies. Full article
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Review
Commercially Available Fluoride-Releasing Restorative Materials: A Review and a Proposal for Classification
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13102313 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Resin composite and glass ionomer cement (GIC) are the most commonly used dental materials to perform direct restorations. Both have specific characteristics that explain their popularity and their limits. More than 20 years ago, the first attempt (followed by others) to combine the [...] Read more.
Resin composite and glass ionomer cement (GIC) are the most commonly used dental materials to perform direct restorations. Both have specific characteristics that explain their popularity and their limits. More than 20 years ago, the first attempt (followed by others) to combine the advantages of these two families was performed with compomers, but it was not very successful. Recently, new formulations (also called ‘smart materials’) with claimed ion release properties have been proposed under different family names, but there are few studies on them and explanations of their chemistries. This comprehensive review aims to gather the compositions; the setting reactions; the mechanical, self-adhesive, and potential bulk-fill properties; and the ion release abilities of the large existing families of fluoride-releasing restorative materials and the new restorative materials to precisely describe their characteristics, their eventual bioactivities, and classify them for an improved understanding of these materials. Based on this work, the whole GIC family, including resin-modified and highly viscous formulations, was found to be bioactive. Cention N (Ivoclar Vivadent, AG, Schaan, Lietschentein) is the first commercially available bioactive resin composite. Full article
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