Special Issue "Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Water Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Long Ho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Aquatic Ecology Research Unit, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Interests: wastewater treatment; environmental modelling; water system analysis; climate change; greenhouse gas emissions; decision support tools
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Peter Goethals
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: aquatic ecology; monitoring; assessment; ecological modelling; water quality management; ecotechnology; decision support tools; sustainability; ISO standards related to water monitoring and assessment documents via the BELGAQUA and B-IWA organisations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past, researchers were mainly focused on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the terrestrial (eco)systems to the atmosphere, while studies have underestimated the fluxes of GHGs from aquatic components (e.g., rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, wetlands, septic tanks, sewer systems, and wastewater treatment plants). However, new evidence has revealed that the fluxes of GHGs within and through water systems are much higher than previously thought. For example, global carbon fluxes from streams and rivers to the atmosphere were estimated around 3.9 Pg C yr-1, which is equivalent to 34% of total anthropogenic emissions from industrial activities and land-use change. Meanwhile, regularly receiving high loads of anthropogenic carbon and nitrogen, millions of ponds and lakes worldwide have become important sources of GHG emissions. Similarly, due to the substantial agglomeration of organic matter and nutrients, septic tanks and (waste)water treatment facilities have also been one of the main GHG sources as they are being considered one of the largest contributors to N2O emissions. On the other hand, coastal wetlands such as mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows sequester and store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests, and thus play an important role in climate change mitigation.

This Special Issue invites research and reviews covering greenhouse gas emissions from natural and anthropogenic water systems. Specifically, papers about greenhouse gas emissions from marine and inland waters, tidal and constructed wetlands, natural and artificial ponds, septic tanks, and (waste)water treatment facilities are welcome as contributions to this Special Issue. Moreover, contributions on mitigation methods based on environmental technologies and nature-based solutions are most welcome.

Dr. Long Ho
Prof. Dr. Peter Goethals
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • greenhouse gas emission
  • greenhouse gas emission modelling and prediction
  • greenhouse gas emission quantification
  • spatial–temporal variations of greenhouse gas emissions
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • methane (CH4)
  • nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • carbon sequestration
  • greenhouse gas footprint

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Variations and Drivers of Methane Fluxes from Double-Cropping Paddy Fields in Southern China at Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Seasonal Timescales
Water 2021, 13(16), 2171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13162171 - 08 Aug 2021
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Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2), and paddy fields are among the largest sources of CH4 emissions. Owing to the scarcity of observational data, the characteristics and influencing factors [...] Read more.
Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide (CO2), and paddy fields are among the largest sources of CH4 emissions. Owing to the scarcity of observational data, the characteristics and influencing factors of CH4 fluxes in paddy fields at different timescales need to be further investigated. Observations of CH4 fluxes via eddy covariance (EC) data were performed over four seasons in two paddy fields in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. The pattern, magnitude and biophysical controls of CH4 emissions were explored by wavelet analysis and stepwise multiplicative modelling. The results revealed a distinct, single-peak diurnal pattern in CH4 fluxes during the vegetative stage in all four rice growing seasons and the reproductive stage of early rice. Large seasonal variations in daily CH4 emissions were observed in the two double-cropping paddy fields, and the soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm (Ts5) explained most of the seasonality of the CH4 fluxes. At the inter-seasonal scale, under local farms’ traditional field management method, reducing the amount and frequency of irrigation during the vegetative stage could decrease CH4 emissions in southern China. This study improves the understanding of CH4 emissions and helps in developing GHG management strategies for paddy fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Water Systems)
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