Topic Editors

Department of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, University of Valladolid, Campus Duques de Soria, 42004 Soria, Spain
Centro de Estudios de las Energías Renovables, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali 21280, Mexico
1. Department of Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, 06366 Köthen, Germany
2. Electronics Engineering School, Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica, Cartago 159-7050, Costa Rica

Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 April 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (20 June 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Moving towards a global energy matrix based on renewable energy technologies is a topic of special interest to the world community to mitigate environmental pollution and climate change. Proposing more efficient technologies, with higher energy integration and lower costs, will increase the adoption of renewable energies and lead efforts towards sustainable development.

Energy storage systems are a fundamental part of energy systems, as they provide continuity, stability and security of service. Their incorporation into renewable energy technologies is of the utmost importance to avoid intermittency, prolong their use and decarbonize centralized and distributed electrification systems.

We would like to invite submissions of new proposals regarding the research, development and implementation of renewable energy and energy storage technologies, seeking to establish a framework of current and future state of the art for those interested in a broad transdisciplinary space.

Topics of interest for this publication space include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Photovoltaic and thermal solar energy;
  • Wind energy;
  • Hydropower;
  • Geothermal energy;
  • Biomass energy;
  • Nuclear energy;
  • Efficient use of energy;
  • Microgrids;
  • Distributed and centralized generation;
  • Hybrid generation systems;
  • Control of electrical systems;
  • Artificial intelligence applied to clean energy systems;
  • Power generation, transmission and distribution;
  • Cogeneration, trigeneration and multigeneration;
  • Mechanical, thermal, chemical and other energy storage;
  • Energy storage in batteries: lead–acid, lithium–ion, nickel–cadmium, flow batteries, others.

Prof. Dr. Luis Hernández-Callejo
Dr. Jesús Armando Aguilar Jiménez
Prof. Dr. Carlos Meza Benavides
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • photovoltaic and thermal solar energy
  • wind energy
  • artificial intelligence applied to clean energy systems
  • microgrids
  • energy storage in batteries: lead–acid, lithium–ion, nickel–cadmium, flow batteries, others
  • control of electrical systems
  • renewable energies

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 5.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Batteries
batteries
4.0 4.0 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Electronics
electronics
2.9 5.3 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Energies
energies
3.2 6.2 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Solar
solar
- - 2021 16.9 Days CHF 1000
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 6.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400

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Published Papers (36 papers)

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13 pages, 2762 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Potential of Qatari House Roofs for Solar Panel Installations: A Feasibility Survey
by Ayed Banibaqash, Ziad Hunaiti and Maysam Abbod
Solar 2023, 3(4), 650-662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solar3040035 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Qatar’s ambitious Vision 2030 includes a major shift towards clean energy, and residential solar PV installation can be an obvious option, given its abundant sunlight and high power for residential cooling. Despite significant solar panel farm investment, there has been limited progress in [...] Read more.
Qatar’s ambitious Vision 2030 includes a major shift towards clean energy, and residential solar PV installation can be an obvious option, given its abundant sunlight and high power for residential cooling. Despite significant solar panel farm investment, there has been limited progress in deploying solar panels on home roofs, and further research is needed to identify the potential for such an initiative and its impact on the country’s move towards clean energy. This field survey assesses the potential for residential rooftop solar panel installation across Qatar, considering space availability, currently utilized space, remaining space, shading, and roof type. It also provided indications of potential obstacles and shading that might affect panel sunlight exposure. The results showed that there is significant potential for installing solar panels on Qatari homes, which could contribute to a considerable portion of the energy consumed by households during peak usage periods, particularly in the summer months. Moreover, excess energy generated could be exported to other countries with high demand during periods of low demand in Qatar. The study’s findings complement previous research efforts and provide insights for policymakers and stakeholders to develop strategies that endorse the vision for 2030 and promote the transition towards clean energy in Qatar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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23 pages, 5531 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design and Analysis of a Hybrid Hydrogen Energy Storage System for an Island-Based Renewable Energy Community
by Robert Garner and Zahir Dehouche
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7363; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217363 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Installations of decentralised renewable energy systems (RES) are becoming increasing popular as governments introduce ambitious energy policies to curb emissions and slow surging energy costs. This work presents a novel model for optimal sizing for a decentralised renewable generation and hybrid storage system [...] Read more.
Installations of decentralised renewable energy systems (RES) are becoming increasing popular as governments introduce ambitious energy policies to curb emissions and slow surging energy costs. This work presents a novel model for optimal sizing for a decentralised renewable generation and hybrid storage system to create a renewable energy community (REC), developed in Python. The model implements photovoltaic (PV) solar and wind turbines combined with a hybrid battery and regenerative hydrogen fuel cell (RHFC). The electrical service demand was derived using real usage data from a rural island case study location. Cost remuneration was managed with an REC virtual trading layer, ensuring fair distribution among actors in accordance with the European RED(III) policy. A multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) stochastically determines the system capacities such that the inherent trade-off relationship between project cost and decarbonisation can be observed. The optimal design resulted in a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 0.15 EUR/kWh, reducing costs by over 50% compared with typical EU grid power, with a project internal rate of return (IRR) of 10.8%, simple return of 9.6%/year, and return on investment (ROI) of 9 years. The emissions output from grid-only use was reduced by 72% to 69 gCO2e/kWh. Further research of lifetime economics and additional revenue streams in combination with this work could provide a useful tool for users to quickly design and prototype future decentralised REC systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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19 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Battery Degradation Impact on Long-Term Benefits for Hybrid Farms in Overlapping Markets
by Pedro Luis Camuñas García-Miguel, Jaime Alonso-Martinez, Santiago Arnaltes Gómez, Manuel García Plaza and Andrés Peña Asensio
Batteries 2023, 9(10), 483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries9100483 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Participation in the electricity market requires making commitments without knowing the real generation or electricity prices. This is problematic for renewable generators due to their fluctuating output. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) integrated with renewable sources in a hybrid farm (HF) can alleviate [...] Read more.
Participation in the electricity market requires making commitments without knowing the real generation or electricity prices. This is problematic for renewable generators due to their fluctuating output. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) integrated with renewable sources in a hybrid farm (HF) can alleviate imbalances and increase power system flexibility. However, the impact of battery degradation on long-term profitability must be taken into account when choosing the correct market participation strategy. This study evaluates the state-of-the-art on energy management systems (EMS) for HFs participating in day-ahead and intraday markets, incorporating both BESSs’ calendar and cycling degradation. Results suggest that efforts to attain additional profits in intraday markets can be detrimental, especially when the degradation effect is considered in the analysis. A new market participation strategy is proposed that aims to address the limitations of market overlapping and forecasting errors. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can enhance long-term benefits while also reducing battery degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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15 pages, 3317 KiB  
Article
Research on a High-Precision State-of-Charge Estimation Method Based on Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Squares and Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter Applied to LiFePO4 Battery
by Yihui Xia, Zhihao Ye, Liming Huang, Lucheng Sun and Yunxiang Jiang
Electronics 2023, 12(17), 3670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/electronics12173670 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The state-of-charge (SOC) estimation accuracy is closely associated with the estimation method and the battery parameter identification performance. The battery parameter identification method based on forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS) has the advantages of high parameter identification accuracy and fast dynamic response [...] Read more.
The state-of-charge (SOC) estimation accuracy is closely associated with the estimation method and the battery parameter identification performance. The battery parameter identification method based on forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS) has the advantages of high parameter identification accuracy and fast dynamic response speed. On this basis, the performance of two SOC estimation methods, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) are compared and studied. The results show that AEKF has better steady-state and dynamic SOC estimation performance, but the estimation accuracy and dynamic response performance are still not objective. To further improve the performance of SOC estimation, a joint SOC estimation method based on FFRLS-AEKF is proposed, and the SOC estimation experimental results with FFRLS-AEKF and AEKF are conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed joint SOC estimation method based on FFRLS-AEKF has a better steady-state and dynamic performance of SOC estimation. The maximum absolute error of the proposed algorithm is 4.97%. As the battery working time increases, the SOC estimation accuracy continues to converge to the true value, and the average absolute error is reduced to 2.5%. The proposed method and theoretical analysis are proven to be correct and feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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17 pages, 3644 KiB  
Article
Optimal Capacity Configuration of Wind–Solar Hydrogen Storage Microgrid Based on IDW-PSO
by Ge He, Zhijie Wang, Hengke Ma and Xianli Zhou
Batteries 2023, 9(8), 410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries9080410 - 6 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
Because the new energy is intermittent and uncertain, it has an influence on the system’s output power stability. A hydrogen energy storage system is added to the system to create a wind, light, and hydrogen integrated energy system, which increases the utilization rate [...] Read more.
Because the new energy is intermittent and uncertain, it has an influence on the system’s output power stability. A hydrogen energy storage system is added to the system to create a wind, light, and hydrogen integrated energy system, which increases the utilization rate of renewable energy while encouraging the consumption of renewable energy and lowering the rate of abandoning wind and light. Considering the system’s comprehensive operation cost economy, power fluctuation, and power shortage as the goal, considering the relationship between power generation and load, assigning charging and discharging commands to storage batteries and hydrogen energy storage, and constructing a model for optimal capacity allocation of wind–hydrogen microgrid system. The optimal configuration model of the wind, solar, and hydrogen microgrid system capacity is constructed. A particle swarm optimization with dynamic adjustment of inertial weight (IDW-PSO) is proposed to solve the optimal allocation scheme of the model in order to achieve the optimal allocation of energy storage capacity in a wind–hydrogen storage microgrid. Finally, a microgrid system in Beijing is taken as an example for simulation and solution, and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach has the characteristics to optimize the economy and improve the capacity of renewable energy consumption, realize the inhibition of the fluctuations of power, reduce system power shortage, and accelerate the convergence speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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19 pages, 2253 KiB  
Article
Optimal Configuration of Battery Energy Storage for AC/DC Hybrid System Based on Improved Power Flow Exceeding Risk Index
by Yanming Tu, Libo Jiang, Bo Zhou, Xinwei Sun, Tianwen Zheng, Yunyang Xu and Shengwei Mei
Electronics 2023, 12(14), 3169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/electronics12143169 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
After the fault disturbance (DC bi-polar blocking) in the AC/DC hybrid system, when the battery energy storage system (BESS) near the fault location is used to eliminate the power transfer, some sensitive and vulnerable transmission lines still have the problem of power flow [...] Read more.
After the fault disturbance (DC bi-polar blocking) in the AC/DC hybrid system, when the battery energy storage system (BESS) near the fault location is used to eliminate the power transfer, some sensitive and vulnerable transmission lines still have the problem of power flow exceeding the limit value. Therefore, an optimal configuration of BESS for AC/DC hybrid systems based on power flow exceeding risk index is proposed, which is used to eliminate the impact of power transfer on transmission lines. Firstly, considering the line outage distribution factor, the power flow exceeding risk index is established, which is used to judge the sensitive and vulnerable transmission lines on the shortest path power flow after the fault in the AC/DC hybrid system. The shortest path power flow is found by using the Dijkstra algorithm; the transmission lines nodes of the shortest path power flow are selected as candidate nodes for BESS configuration. Secondly, considering the safe and stable operation capability of the transmission lines, a multi-objective optimal mathematical model of BESS configuration for the AC/DC hybrid system is established, which minimizes the annual investment cost of BESS and maximizes the sum of the power flow exceeding risk index. Finally, the CEPRI36V7 power grid model in Power System Analysis Software Package (PSASP) is used for simulation analysis to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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18 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
A Causal Relationship between the New-Type Urbanization and Energy Consumption in China: A Panel VAR Approach
by Cheng Chen, Yajie Gao and Yidong Qin
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su151411117 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 748
Abstract
The accelerated urbanization process has been considered to be the root cause of increasingly severe energy consumption growth in China. However, energy is still an essential factor for the urbanization process, so arbitrarily mitigating energy use currently will unquestionably slow down the urbanization [...] Read more.
The accelerated urbanization process has been considered to be the root cause of increasingly severe energy consumption growth in China. However, energy is still an essential factor for the urbanization process, so arbitrarily mitigating energy use currently will unquestionably slow down the urbanization process. The principal contribution of this paper is to comprehensively analyze the dynamic interaction mechanism between the new-type urbanization and energy consumption, and further put forward a new idea of comparing the benefit of an increase in the level of new-type urbanization resulting from energy consumption and the negative externality of environmental damage related with energy consumption. This paper conducts an empirical study on the causal relationship between new-type urbanization and energy consumption using Chinese provincial administrative units from 1999 to 2020. And we find that new-type urbanization leads to energy consumption negatively and energy consumption leads to new-type urbanization positively for provinces in the eastern region. There is only a one-way effect of energy consumption on new-type urbanization for provinces in the central and northeastern regions, and there is negative feedback causality for provinces in the western region. Additionally, the benefit of an increase in the level of new-type urbanization resulting from energy consumption is larger than the negative externality of environmental damage related to energy consumption for provinces in the eastern, central, and northeastern regions, yet it is totally opposite for provinces in the western region. Finally, we propose some fruitful policy recommendations to construct new-type urbanization under the background of clear reduction targets for energy consumption in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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22 pages, 1918 KiB  
Article
A Health-Aware Energy Storage Sharing Mechanism for a Renewable Energy Base
by Chong Shao, Bolin Zhang, Bo Wei, Wenfei Liu, Yong Yang and Zhaoyuan Wu
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5356; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16145356 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
With the increasing global demand for renewable energy (RE), the growing share of new energy sources has become an inevitable trend. However, due to the uncertainty and fluctuation of renewable energy generation, this poses challenges to the stability of the power system. To [...] Read more.
With the increasing global demand for renewable energy (RE), the growing share of new energy sources has become an inevitable trend. However, due to the uncertainty and fluctuation of renewable energy generation, this poses challenges to the stability of the power system. To mitigate the volatility of wind power output, ensure reliable power supply, and improve energy storage utilization, shared energy storage (SES) can be deployed in renewable energy bases (REBs) to alleviate the pressure on the power supply. However, electrochemical energy storage (EES) faces issues such as lifespan degradation and maintenance cost allocation. In this regard, this paper establishes an EES characterization model considering the dynamic degradation characteristics of batteries and analyzes the coupled relationship between lifespan degradation laws and key parameters in SES operation. Additionally, to assess the impact of electrochemical energy storage’s dynamic degradation characteristics on energy capacity allocation and operational strategies, an optimization model for SES in REBs is developed. Building upon this, a cost allocation mechanism is designed based on the marginal contribution in both the day-ahead and the real-time markets to address the differing demands for SES among different units within the REBs. Case studies are conducted to validate the rationality of the proposed optimization model for SES in REBs and the adaptability of the cost allocation mechanism. The results provide valuable insights for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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32 pages, 19417 KiB  
Article
Research on Low-Frequency Stability under Emergency Power Supply Scheme of Photovoltaic and Battery Access Railway Traction Power Supply System
by Ying Wang, Yueyang Xin, Ziyun Xie, Xiuqing Mu and Xiaoqiang Chen
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16124814 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Photovoltaics and batteries can be connected to a traction power supply system through a railway power conditioner (RPC) to switch between different control strategies. This can address power quality issues or provide emergency traction for locomotives that unexpectedly lose power and even break [...] Read more.
Photovoltaics and batteries can be connected to a traction power supply system through a railway power conditioner (RPC) to switch between different control strategies. This can address power quality issues or provide emergency traction for locomotives that unexpectedly lose power and even break through traditional energy barriers in the railway field, achieving a low-carbon power supply for railway energy, and a mutual backup with substations. However, methods to coordinate the control strategies of PV and the battery locomotive traction have not been clearly revealed, nor has the actual stability of the system. In this study, to address the above issues, an emergency power supply scheme is proposed for the first time that utilizes a dual-mode RPC inverter combined with a coordinated control strategy for the PV and battery, achieving the traction of locomotives. In addition, a one-dimensional impedance model was established for the PV system, battery system, locomotive (CRH3), and RPC projected onto the dq coordinate system, and the critical amplitude margin (CAM) was defined to quantitatively analyze the sensitivity and laws of different parameters concerning the low-frequency stability of the system. At the same time, impedance ratios and passive criteria were used to reveal the stability mechanism, and parameter adjustment criteria and design suggestions were put forward. Finally, the feasibility of the emergency power supply scheme of the “PV–battery locomotive network” coupling system and the correctness of the low-frequency stability study were verified using the Starsim semi-physical experiment platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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11 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Harmonic Distortion and Hosting Capacity in Electrical Distribution Systems with High Photovoltaic Penetration: The Impact of Electric Vehicles
by Miguel Dávila-Sacoto, L. G. González, Luis Hernández-Callejo, Óscar Duque-Perez, Ángel L. Zorita-Lamadrid, Víctor Alonso-Gómez and J. L. Espinoza
Electronics 2023, 12(11), 2415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/electronics12112415 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Electric vehicles and the charging stations and their operation require a thorough examination to evaluate the effects on the electrical network. This becomes particularly challenging in the case of high photovoltaic penetration, due to the variability of the solar resource and vehicle connection [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles and the charging stations and their operation require a thorough examination to evaluate the effects on the electrical network. This becomes particularly challenging in the case of high photovoltaic penetration, due to the variability of the solar resource and vehicle connection patterns, which cater to individual user preferences. The current study investigates the impact of harmonics generated by charging stations and electric vehicles on different photovoltaic penetration scenarios within an electrical distribution system. DC and AC charging stations are analyzed. The findings reveal a third harmonic magnitude increase exceeding 300% compared to other cases. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the effects of current and voltage variations on end-users and substation transformers. The impact of harmonics on the hosting capacity of the network is also analyzed, resulting in a 37.5% reduction in the number of vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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27 pages, 11417 KiB  
Article
Balancing Electricity Supply and Demand in a Carbon-Neutral Northern Europe
by Lisa Göransson
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16083548 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
This work investigates how to balance the electricity supply and demand in a carbon-neutral northern Europe. Applying a cost-minimizing electricity system model including options to invest in eleven different flexibility measures, and cost-efficient combinations of strategies to manage variations were identified. The results [...] Read more.
This work investigates how to balance the electricity supply and demand in a carbon-neutral northern Europe. Applying a cost-minimizing electricity system model including options to invest in eleven different flexibility measures, and cost-efficient combinations of strategies to manage variations were identified. The results of the model were post-processed using a novel method to map the net load before and after flexibility measures were applied to reveal the contribution of each flexibility measure. The net load was mapped in the space spanned by the amplitude, duration and number of occurrences. The mapping shows that, depending on cost structure, flexibility measures contribute to reduce the net load in three different ways; (1) by reducing variations with a long duration but low amplitude, (2) by reducing variations with a high amplitude but short duration and low occurrence or (3) by reducing variations with a high amplitude, short duration and high occurrence. It was found that cost-efficient variation management was achieved by combining wind and solar power and by combining strategies (1–3) to manage the variations. The cost-efficient combination of strategies depends on electricity system context where electricity trade, flexible hydrogen and heat production (1) manage the majority of the variations in regions with good conditions for wind power while stationary batteries (3) were the main contributors in regions with good conditions for solar power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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16 pages, 14848 KiB  
Article
Sheet Metal Design Approach for 3D Shaped Facade Elements with Integrated Solar Thermal Functionality
by Peter Scholz, Dieter Weise, Linda Schmidt, Martin Dembski, Alexander Stahr, Martin Dix, Florin Duminica, Sebastien Le Craz and Jiri Koziorek
Solar 2023, 3(2), 213-228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/solar3020014 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1807
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the development of a 3D formed and metal-based facade element that combines a custom design and solar thermal functionality. To achieve this, a novel simplified solar thermal collector structure was developed using formed sheet metal half-shells with [...] Read more.
This paper provides an overview of the development of a 3D formed and metal-based facade element that combines a custom design and solar thermal functionality. To achieve this, a novel simplified solar thermal collector structure was developed using formed sheet metal half-shells with an integrated channel structure on the inside and a special absorber coating on the outside. The sheet metal half-shells were manufactured by highly innovative incremental sheet forming (ISF), which allows seamless integration into existing facades. As a part of this paper, the initial test results on thermal efficiency and the energy accumulation of the new collector type are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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29 pages, 8554 KiB  
Article
Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) Modelling of Short-Term Gas Storage in a Depleted Gas Reservoir—A Case Study from South Germany
by Muhammad Zain-Ul-Abedin and Andreas Henk
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3389; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16083389 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
This study addresses the use of former gas storage facilities as short-term storage for renewable energy through power-to-gas (PtG) technology in Germany. Three test cases with coupled thermal-hydromechanical (THM) modelling were conducted to evaluate short-term injection and production schedules. The operating rates were [...] Read more.
This study addresses the use of former gas storage facilities as short-term storage for renewable energy through power-to-gas (PtG) technology in Germany. Three test cases with coupled thermal-hydromechanical (THM) modelling were conducted to evaluate short-term injection and production schedules. The operating rates were controlled by the upper and lower limits of the wellbore pressure. The maximum difference in pore pressure and effective stress was 0.6 MPa in all cases. Fault reactivation analysis was performed on the THM models to estimate fault stability. The critical pore pressure for safe reservoir operation was determined to be 1.25 times the original pore pressure, corresponding to a WBHP value of 20.25 MPa. The upper limit of the gas injection rate for safe storage operation was estimated to be between 100,000 and 150,000 m3/day. The thermal stresses were found to be negligible for short-term cases. The storage capacity of PtG technology was reported to be up to 1,322,400 kWh/d of renewable electricity, which can contribute to Germany becoming a greenhouse gas neutral country by 2050. The workflows and results of the study are applicable to all gas storage in a porous medium, including methane, CO2, and hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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21 pages, 4221 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Regional Integrated Energy Systems Performance by Energy Storage Devices Based on a Bi-Level Dynamic Optimization Model
by Baohong Jin, Zhichao Liu and Yichuan Liao
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2629; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16062629 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
In the context of energy transformation, the importance of energy storage devices in regional integrated energy systems (RIESs) is becoming increasingly prominent. To explore the impact of energy storage devices on the design and operation of RIESs, this paper first establishes a bi-level [...] Read more.
In the context of energy transformation, the importance of energy storage devices in regional integrated energy systems (RIESs) is becoming increasingly prominent. To explore the impact of energy storage devices on the design and operation of RIESs, this paper first establishes a bi-level dynamic optimization model with the total system cost as the optimization objective. The optimization model is used to optimize the design of three RIESs with different energy storage devices, including System 1 without an energy storage device, System 2 with a thermal energy storage (TES) device, and System 3 with TES and electrical energy storage (EES) devices. According to the design and operation results, the impact of energy storage devices on the operational performance of RIESs is analyzed. The results show that under the design conditions, energy storage devices can significantly increase the capacity of the combined heating and power units and absorption chillers in System 2 and System 3 and reduce the capacity of the ground source heat pumps and gas boilers; the impact of the TES device on System 3 is more significant. Affected by systems’ configuration, the operating cost, carbon tax, and total cost of System 2 are reduced by 2.9%, 5.5%, and 1.5% compared with System 1, respectively. The EES device can more significantly reduce the operating cost of System 3, with a reduced rate of 5.7% compared with that in System 1. However, the higher equipment cost makes the total cost reduction rate of System 3 less than that of System 1, which is 1.75%. Similar to the design conditions, under the operation conditions, the TES device can effectively reduce the carbon tax, operating cost, and total cost of System 2, while System 3 with an EES device can significantly reduce its operating cost regardless of whether the energy price changes or not. To some extent, this study systematically elucidated the impact of TES and EES devices on the optimal design and operation performance of RIESs and provided a certain reference for the configuration of energy storage devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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22 pages, 1228 KiB  
Review
Maximizing the Integration of a Battery Energy Storage System–Photovoltaic Distributed Generation for Power System Harmonic Reduction: An Overview
by Adedayo Owosuhi, Yskandar Hamam and Josiah Munda
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16062549 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
The highly variable power generated from a battery energy storage system (BESS)–photovoltaic distributed generation (PVDG) causes harmonic distortions in distribution systems (DSs) due to the intermittent nature of solar energy and high voltage rises or falls in the BESS. Harmonic distortions are major [...] Read more.
The highly variable power generated from a battery energy storage system (BESS)–photovoltaic distributed generation (PVDG) causes harmonic distortions in distribution systems (DSs) due to the intermittent nature of solar energy and high voltage rises or falls in the BESS. Harmonic distortions are major concerns in the DS, especially when the sizes and locations of these resources are sub-optimal. As a result, many studies are being performed on the optimal allocation of BESS/PVDG systems in distribution network systems. In this regard, this paper seeks to review the existing planning models, optimization methods and renewable energy resources that uncertainty models have employed in solving BESS/PVDGs allocation problems in terms of obtaining optimal solutions/allocations and curtailing the harmonic contents of the DSs. However, studies on optimal allocation planning of BESS/PVDGs have achieved minimum cost but were not able to meet the standard harmonic level of the DSs. The results identified GA, PSO and AIS as some of the most used methodologies while LP, MILP and different configurations of NLP were used in the model formulations of BESS/PVDGs problems. The results also revealed DC-link voltage and switching and grid voltage harmonics as the notable causes and sources of harmonic distortions in BESS/PVDG systems. The current allocation models presented in the recent literature for the planning of BESS/PVDGs do not include the variables necessary for curtailing the harmonic contents in their planning formulations. This paper, therefore, recommends an improved and all-encompassing planning model with an efficient intelligent search algorithm capable of obtaining a global optimum solution and curtailing harmonic distortions from the BESS/PVDG-connected DSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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15 pages, 6296 KiB  
Article
Parallel Water Column Technique for Obtaining a Smooth Output Power of the Pump as a Turbine at a Variable Water Flow Rate
by Sajjad Hussain, Muhammad Humza, Tanveer Yazdan, Ghulam Abbas and Han-Wook Cho
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app13053232 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Hydro generation is the simplest and oldest method of electricity generation, with a century of successful operation. Using a pump as a turbine (PAT) is an optimal solution for minimizing the cost, particularly in low-head and small-scale hydro plants. Commercially available centrifugal pumps [...] Read more.
Hydro generation is the simplest and oldest method of electricity generation, with a century of successful operation. Using a pump as a turbine (PAT) is an optimal solution for minimizing the cost, particularly in low-head and small-scale hydro plants. Commercially available centrifugal pumps have become a popular solution for small-scale hydro and pumped-hydro facilities owing to their simple geometry, ease of operation, maintenance, and abundant availability in local markets. Variations in the water flow in hydro facilities, such as pumped-hydro and small-scale hydro facilities, are common; however, a PAT is unable to respond to variable flows because it is a fixed-speed device. To overcome this problem, different techniques have been suggested by researchers: (a) a system of parallel PATs; (b) geometrical modifications in the impeller of the PAT; and (c) power electronics-based variable frequency drives. All the aforementioned techniques have limitations, such as low output, high cost, complexity, transportation, and operation and maintenance. In this study, a simple and economical technique is proposed to smooth the output of a PAT on variable/decreasing water flow profiles. In the proposed technique, water columns connected in parallel (PWCs) are used to produce a pressurized water flow, as they have a convergent nozzle at the outlet. The PWC creates more space for water, and this additional mass of water boosts the water flow at the outlet. In this manner, the PWC technique maintains the flow at the inlet of the turbine. A serial integration of five PWCs with the same dimensions was conducted to inject the additional flow into the existing PAT penstock, governing a 37-kW generator. The design flow was maintained at 192.1 L/s without any additional power usage at the inlet of the PAT, and the output was smoothed even at the minimum water flow/head. Pump design and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using ANSYS software, whereas generator simulations were performed using MATLAB/Simulink software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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21 pages, 6765 KiB  
Article
Optimal Configuration of Energy Storage Systems in High PV Penetrating Distribution Network
by Jinhua Zhang, Liding Zhu, Shengchao Zhao, Jie Yan and Lingling Lv
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16052168 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
In this paper, a method for rationally allocating energy storage capacity in a high-permeability distribution network is proposed. By constructing a bi-level programming model, the optimal capacity of energy storage connected to the distribution network is allocated by considering the operating cost, load [...] Read more.
In this paper, a method for rationally allocating energy storage capacity in a high-permeability distribution network is proposed. By constructing a bi-level programming model, the optimal capacity of energy storage connected to the distribution network is allocated by considering the operating cost, load fluctuation, and battery charging and discharging strategy. By constructing four scenarios with energy storage in the distribution network with a photovoltaic permeability of 29%, it was found that the bi-level decision-making model proposed in this paper saves 2346.66 yuan and 2055.05 yuan, respectively, in daily operation cost compared to the scenario without energy storage and the scenario with single-layer energy storage. After accessing IEEE-33 nodes for simulation verification, it was found that the bi-level decision-making model proposed in this paper has a good inhibition effect on voltage fluctuation and load fluctuation after energy storage configuration. In addition, this paper analyzes the energy storage that can be accessed by photovoltaic distribution networks with different permeability and finds that when photovoltaic permeability reaches 45% and corresponding energy storage is configured, the economic and energy storage benefits of the system are the best. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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9 pages, 2966 KiB  
Communication
Novel Pr-Doped BaLaInO4 Ceramic Material with Layered Structure for Proton-Conducting Electrochemical Devices
by Nataliia Tarasova, Anzhelika Bedarkova and Irina Animitsa
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app13031328 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
One of the urgent tasks of applied materials science is the creation of novel high-effective materials with target properties. In the area of energy systems, there is a problem in the conversion of chemical energy to electricity without mechanical work. Hydrogen energy provides [...] Read more.
One of the urgent tasks of applied materials science is the creation of novel high-effective materials with target properties. In the area of energy systems, there is a problem in the conversion of chemical energy to electricity without mechanical work. Hydrogen energy provides a way using electrochemical devices such as protonic ceramic fuel cells. Novel advanced proton-conducting materials with the top characteristics of target properties are strictly needed. Layered perovskites are a novel and promising class of protonic conductors. In this work, the layered perovskite BaLa0.9Pr0.1InO4 was obtained and investigated as a protonic conductor for the first time. The possibility for water intercalation and proton transport is proved. It was shown that isovalent doping Pr3+ → La3+ leads to an increase in the crystal lattice size, proton concentration and proton mobility. The proton conductivity value for doped BaLa0.9Pr0.1InO4 composition is 18 times greater than for undoped BaLaInO4 composition. Layered perovskites based on BaLaInO4 are promising materials for application in proton-conducting electrochemical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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25 pages, 15449 KiB  
Article
Energy Cost Minimization with Hybrid Energy Storage System Using Optimization Algorithm
by Krzysztof Rafał, Weronika Radziszewska, Oskar Grabowski, Hubert Biedka and Jörg Verstraete
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 518; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app13010518 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to develop an effective control method for a hybrid energy storage system composed by a flow battery for daily energy balancing and a lithium-ion battery to provide peak power. It is assumed that the system operates behind [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to develop an effective control method for a hybrid energy storage system composed by a flow battery for daily energy balancing and a lithium-ion battery to provide peak power. It is assumed that the system operates behind the meter, the goal is to minimize the energy cost in the presence of a PV installation (as an example of a local renewable source) and energy prices are determined by 3-zone tariffs. The article presents the application of an optimization method to schedule the operation of each battery in the system. The authors have defined an optimization method aimed at minimizing the total cost of the system, taking into account energy costs and batteries depreciation. The techno-economical model of the system, including battery degradation, is constructed and the cost optimization methods are implemented in Python. The results are validated with real energy and price profiles and compared with conventional control strategies. The advantages of optimization in terms of energy cost are discussed. The experiment shows that not only is a hybrid energy system successful in lowering the total operation cost and in increasing self-consumption but also that the implemented methods have slightly different properties, benefits and issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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17 pages, 6025 KiB  
Article
Application of Paraffin-Based Phase Change Materials for the Amelioration of Thermal Energy Storage in Hydronic Systems
by Dua’a S. Malkawi, Rabi Ibrahim Rabady, Mosa’b S. Malkawi and Said Jereis Al Rabadi
Energies 2023, 16(1), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en16010126 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the improvement in the thermal performance of energy storage for a hydronic system when it is equipped with evacuated tubes integrated within a hot water tank. The PCM shell in the bottom section is thicker than at the [...] Read more.
This study aims at investigating the improvement in the thermal performance of energy storage for a hydronic system when it is equipped with evacuated tubes integrated within a hot water tank. The PCM shell in the bottom section is thicker than at the top to maintain a uniform, minimal water temperature difference of 5 °C between the top and bottom sections of the hot water tank. The thermal performance of the system was analyzed in diverse months when the ambient temperature fluctuated. The results have revealed that the thermal performance in December, March, and June was 80%, 81%, and 84%, respectively, meaning that the thermal performance is optimal in warm weather. The results confirmed that the system had boosted the presence of hot water throughout the whole day, including the time of the sun’s absence, due to the release of stored PCM latent heat. The designed system solves the overheating problem and expands the availability of hot water through the cold weather. The system is characterized by lower heat losses because the average water temperature has decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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39 pages, 4618 KiB  
Review
Optimal Planning of Battery Energy Storage Systems by Considering Battery Degradation due to Ambient Temperature: A Review, Challenges, and New Perspective
by Chico Hermanu Brillianto Apribowo, Sarjiya Sarjiya, Sasongko Pramono Hadi and Fransisco Danang Wijaya
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries8120290 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7715
Abstract
In recent years, the goal of lowering emissions to minimize the harmful impacts of climate change has emerged as a consensus objective among members of the international community through the increase in renewable energy sources (RES), as a step toward net-zero emissions. The [...] Read more.
In recent years, the goal of lowering emissions to minimize the harmful impacts of climate change has emerged as a consensus objective among members of the international community through the increase in renewable energy sources (RES), as a step toward net-zero emissions. The drawbacks of these energy sources are unpredictability and dependence on nature, leading to unstable load power supply risk. One way to overcome instability in the power supply is by using a battery energy storage system (BESS). Therefore, this study provides a detailed and critical review of sizing and siting optimization of BESS, their application challenges, and a new perspective on the consequence of degradation from the ambient temperature. It also reviews advanced battery optimization planning that considers battery degradation, technologies, degradation, objective function, and design constraints. Furthermore, it examines the challenges encountered in developing the BESS optimization model and evaluates the scope of the proposed future direction to improve the optimized BESS, especially its battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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23 pages, 1481 KiB  
Review
Voltage Optimization in PV-Rich Distribution Networks—A Review
by Marina Dubravac, Krešimir Fekete, Danijel Topić and Marinko Barukčić
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12426; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app122312426 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
There is a rising trend to integrate different types of distributed generation (DG), especially photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the roofs of existing consumers, who then become prosumers. One of the prosumer impacts is voltage violations, which conventional strategies find hard to solve. However, [...] Read more.
There is a rising trend to integrate different types of distributed generation (DG), especially photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the roofs of existing consumers, who then become prosumers. One of the prosumer impacts is voltage violations, which conventional strategies find hard to solve. However, some prosumers, such as those with PV with inverters in their configurations, can actively participate in voltage optimization. To help find the optimal PV inverter setting with the objective of voltage optimization, an optimal power flow (OPF) can be a promising and reliable tool. This paper tries to shed light on the complex problem of voltage optimization in distribution networks (DNs) with PV prosumers. Relevant scientific papers are analyzed and optimization characteristics such as objective functions, variables, and constraints are summarized. Special attention is given to the systematization and classification of papers according to the mathematical formulation of the optimization problem (linear, nonlinear, integer, etc.) and the applied solving methods. Both analytical and computational intelligence optimization methods as well as their advantages and limitations are considered. Papers are also categorized according to the distribution network model used for testing the developed solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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24 pages, 9359 KiB  
Article
Thermal Performance Analysis of a Double-Pass Solar Air Collector: A CFD Approach
by Irving A. Chávez-Bermúdez, Norma A. Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eduardo Venegas-Reyes, Loreto Valenzuela and Naghelli Ortega-Avila
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app122312199 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
Solar air heaters can reduce climate change by replacing conventional fossil fuel-burning technologies in drying and space heating applications. Concentrating solar technologies, such as compound parabolic concentrators, allow air temperatures up to 120 °C; however, it is desirable to improve their heat transfer [...] Read more.
Solar air heaters can reduce climate change by replacing conventional fossil fuel-burning technologies in drying and space heating applications. Concentrating solar technologies, such as compound parabolic concentrators, allow air temperatures up to 120 °C; however, it is desirable to improve their heat transfer to reduce the space requirements for their installation. In this work, a parabolic concentrator composed of a flat receiver designed to recover heat from the cover–receiver–reflectors cavity is analyzed, operating it as a U-shape double pass solar heater. With this operation, first, the air flows through the cavity, and then it is incorporated into the duct, where the dominant heat gain occurs due to the capture of solar radiation. Thus, four input–output configurations in the cavity were modeled through dynamic simulations to determine the influence of the inlet and outlet air flow positions on the solar concentrator outlet temperature. Therefore, the incorporation of the first pass has a contribution of between 36% and 45% in useful energy gain, showing that this appropriate and relatively simple strategy can be implemented to improve the thermal performance of solar air collectors, resulting in instantaneous efficiencies higher than 75%. However, the simulation results demonstrate that the position of the inlets and outlets does not significantly impact the efficiency and outlet temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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16 pages, 8040 KiB  
Article
Research on Dynamic Reserve and Energy Arbitrage of Energy Storage System
by Jia-Zhang Jhan, Tzu-Ching Tai, Pei-Ying Chen and Cheng-Chien Kuo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 11953; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app122311953 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Replacing the traditional rotating generators with renewable energy will reduce the grid’s inertia and with it the minimum frequency when N-1 contingency occurs triggering an Under-Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS). This study proposes a method for the energy storage system (ESS) to simultaneously provide [...] Read more.
Replacing the traditional rotating generators with renewable energy will reduce the grid’s inertia and with it the minimum frequency when N-1 contingency occurs triggering an Under-Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS). This study proposes a method for the energy storage system (ESS) to simultaneously provide energy arbitrage, reserve capacity, and assist N-1 contingency, by modifying the restriction formula of economic dispatch (ED) and limiting the SOC range of the ESS. Let the ESS join the Spinning Reserve. Through the PSS®E iterative ESS charging power required at moments when the frequency of contingency is too low in the ED. Let the ESS act as a N-1 contingency extra frequency reserve. This would prevent UFLS and still maintain the demand. The proposed method is applicable to different types of ESS. The method allows energy storages, originally designed for energy arbitrage, to participate in frequency support and spinning reserve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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15 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Energy Storage Capacity Planning Method for Improving Offshore Wind Power Consumption
by Hao Yu, Xiaojuan Yang, Honglin Chen, Suhua Lou and Yong Lin
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su142114589 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
This paper proposes a method of energy storage capacity planning for improving offshore wind power consumption. Firstly, an optimization model of offshore wind power storage capacity planning is established, which takes into account the annual load development demand, the uncertainty of offshore wind [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method of energy storage capacity planning for improving offshore wind power consumption. Firstly, an optimization model of offshore wind power storage capacity planning is established, which takes into account the annual load development demand, the uncertainty of offshore wind power, various types of power sources and line structure. The model aims at the lowest cost of investment, operation and maintenance of the system, and takes lower than a certain abandoned wind level as the strict constraint to obtain two parameters of power capacity and energy capacity of energy storage on the source side. Secondly, taking a coastal power grid as a typical case, the energy storage capacity planning method is verified. Finally, the key factors affecting offshore wind power consumption are summarized, and the sensitivity analysis is carried out from the point of view of the transmission protocol of the transmission lines outside the province and the capacity allocation of the tie lines in the province. This study will be helpful for the planning and operation of the high-proportion of offshore wind energy power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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14 pages, 4622 KiB  
Article
Influence of Several Phosphate-Containing Additives on the Stability and Electrochemical Behavior of Positive Electrolytes for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
by Xukun Zhang, Fancheng Meng, Linquan Sun, Zhaowu Zhu, Desheng Chen and Lina Wang
Energies 2022, 15(21), 7829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/en15217829 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
The poor operational stability of electrolytes is a persistent impediment in building redox flow battery technology; choosing suitable stability additives is usually the research direction to solve this problem. The effects of five phosphate containing additives (including 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), hexamethylene diamine tetramethylene [...] Read more.
The poor operational stability of electrolytes is a persistent impediment in building redox flow battery technology; choosing suitable stability additives is usually the research direction to solve this problem. The effects of five phosphate containing additives (including 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), hexamethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (HDTMPA), amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMPA), sodium ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMPS), and diethyl triamine pentamethylene phosphonic acid (DTPMP)) on the thermal stability and electrochemical performance of the positive electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery were investigated. With 0.5 wt% addition, most of the selected additives were able to improve the thermal stability of the electrolyte. HEDP and HDTMPA extended the stability time of the pentavalent vanadium electrolyte at 50 °C from 5 days (blank sample) to 30 days and 15 days, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the electrolyte was further investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady state polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. It was found that most of the additives enhanced the electrochemical activity of the positive electrolyte, and the diffusion coefficients, exchange current densities, and reaction rate constants of V(IV) species became larger with the addition of these additives. It is verified that the thermal stability and electrochemical stability of the electrolyte are significantly improved by the combination of ATMPA + HEDP or ATMPA + HDTMPA. This study provides a new approach to improve the stability of the positive electrolyte for vanadium redox flow battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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31 pages, 7845 KiB  
Review
Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Photovoltaic Systems: A Review
by Héctor Felipe Mateo Romero, Miguel Ángel González Rebollo, Valentín Cardeñoso-Payo, Victor Alonso Gómez, Alberto Redondo Plaza, Ranganai Tawanda Moyo and Luis Hernández-Callejo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10056; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app121910056 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5337
Abstract
This article analyzes the relationship between artificial intelligence (AI) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energies, and the investment of businesses and governments is increasing every year. AI is used to solve the most important problems [...] Read more.
This article analyzes the relationship between artificial intelligence (AI) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energies, and the investment of businesses and governments is increasing every year. AI is used to solve the most important problems found in PV systems, such as the tracking of the Max Power Point of the PV modules, the forecasting of the energy produced by the PV system, the estimation of the parameters of the equivalent model of PV modules or the detection of faults found in PV modules or cells. AI techniques perform better than classical approaches, even though they have some limitations such as the amount of data and the high computation times needed for performing the training. Research is still being conducted in order to solve these problems and find techniques with better performance. This article analyzes the most relevant scientific works that use artificial intelligence to deal with the key PV problems by searching terms related with artificial intelligence and photovoltaic systems in the most important academic research databases. The number of publications shows that this field is of great interest to researchers. The findings also show that these kinds of algorithms really have helped to solve these issues or to improve the previous solutions in terms of efficiency or accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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28 pages, 3245 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Review on Energy Storage Systems and Their Application in Deregulated Systems
by Mitul Ranjan Chakraborty, Subhojit Dawn, Pradip Kumar Saha, Jayanta Bhusan Basu and Taha Selim Ustun
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/batteries8090124 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 10394
Abstract
Electrical energy is critical to the advancement of both social and economic growth. Because of its importance, the electricity industry has historically been controlled and operated by governmental entities. The power market is being deregulated, and it has been modified throughout time. Both [...] Read more.
Electrical energy is critical to the advancement of both social and economic growth. Because of its importance, the electricity industry has historically been controlled and operated by governmental entities. The power market is being deregulated, and it has been modified throughout time. Both regulated and deregulated electricity markets have benefits and pitfalls in terms of energy costs, efficiency, and environmental repercussions. In regulated markets, policy-based strategies are often used to deal with the costs of fossil fuel resources and increase the feasibility of renewable energy sources. Renewables may be incorporated into deregulated markets by a mix of regulatory and market-based approaches, as described in this paper, to increase the systems economic stability. As the demand for energy has increased substantially in recent decades, particularly in developing nations, the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions has increased fast, as have fuel prices, which are the primary motivators for programmers to use renewable energy sources more effectively. Despite its obvious benefits, renewable energy has considerable drawbacks, such as irregularity in generation, because most renewable energy supplies are climate-dependent, demanding complex design, planning, and control optimization approaches. Several optimization solutions have been used in the renewable-integrated deregulated power system. Energy storage technology has risen in relevance as the usage of renewable energy has expanded, since these devices may absorb electricity generated by renewables during off-peak demand hours and feed it back into the grid during peak demand hours. Using renewable energy and storing it for future use instead of expanding fossil fuel power can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is a desire to maximize the societal benefit of a deregulated system by better using existing power system capacity through the implementation of an energy storage system (ESS). As a result, good ESS device placement offers innovative control capabilities in steady-state power flow regulation as well as dynamic stability management. This paper examines numerous elements of renewable integrated deregulated power systems and gives a comprehensive overview of the most current research breakthroughs in this field. The main objectives of the reviews are the maximization of system profit, maximization of social welfare and minimization of system generation cost and loss by optimal placement of energy storage devices and renewable energy systems. This study will be very helpful for the power production companies who want to build new renewable-based power plant by sighted the present status of renewable energy sources along with the details of several EES systems. The incorporation of storage devices in the renewable-incorporated deregulated system will provide maximum social benefit by supplying additional power to the thermal power plant with minimum cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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18 pages, 3676 KiB  
Article
Optimization of PV and Battery Energy Storage Size in Grid-Connected Microgrid
by Selahattin Garip and Saban Ozdemir
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 8247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12168247 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3651
Abstract
This paper proposes a new method to determine the optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) in a grid-connected microgrid (MG). Energy cost minimization is selected as an objective function. Optimum BESS and PV size are determined via [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new method to determine the optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) in a grid-connected microgrid (MG). Energy cost minimization is selected as an objective function. Optimum BESS and PV size are determined via a novel energy management method and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to obtain minimum total cost. The MG was designed to use its own energy as much as possible, which is produced from renewable energy resources. Since it is a grid-connected system, it can demand energy from the grid within the determined limit with penalty. It differs from the studies in the literature in terms of optimizing both parameters such as PV and BESS size, being a grid-connected self-contained MG structure and controlling the grid energy by an energy management algorithm and optimizing the parameter via PSO with an energy management system (EMS). Results are compared for different PV and BESS. Moreover, effectiveness of the novel energy management method with PSO is compared with the genetic algorithm, which is the one of the well-known optimization algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve optimum PV and BESS size with minimum cost by using the new energy management method with the PSO algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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13 pages, 3060 KiB  
Article
A Resonant Ring Topology Approach to Power Line Communication Systems within Photovoltaic Plants
by José Ignacio Morales-Aragonés, Matthew St. Michael Williams, Víctor Alonso Gómez, Sara Gallardo-Saavedra, Alberto Redondo-Plaza, Diego Fernández-Martínez, Francisco José Sánchez-Pacheco, Juan Gabriel Fajardo Cuadro and Luis Hernández-Callejo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(16), 7973; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12167973 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Within this study, single-cable propagation facilitated by PV strings’ wiring characteristics is considered for an adapted design of PLC electronics. We propose to close the communications signal path, resulting in a ring topology where a resonance condition could be implemented. A PLC topology [...] Read more.
Within this study, single-cable propagation facilitated by PV strings’ wiring characteristics is considered for an adapted design of PLC electronics. We propose to close the communications signal path, resulting in a ring topology where a resonance condition could be implemented. A PLC topology using the resulting circular closed-loop path of a PV series string as its physical communication support is designed and leveraged for practical use. When the path length or the number of transceivers is changed, the resonance properties that come with the circular path as the physical support are affected but are shown to be preserved with the application of automatic adjustable tuning. This automatic tuning guarantees that the resonance improves propagation parameters and reverts the system to its optimal values at the chosen carrier frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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12 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Renewable Heat Policy in China: Development, Achievement, and Effectiveness
by Chengcheng Xiong and Mohd Sayuti Hassan
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9297; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14159297 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Heat is the largest energy end-use sector, accounting for half of the global final energy consumption and more than 40% of energy-related CO2 emissions. China produces more than one-quarter of global heat. Policy interventions are of great necessity to overcome the economic [...] Read more.
Heat is the largest energy end-use sector, accounting for half of the global final energy consumption and more than 40% of energy-related CO2 emissions. China produces more than one-quarter of global heat. Policy interventions are of great necessity to overcome the economic and non-economic barriers the sector encounters. The purpose of this study is to explore the evolution history of China’s renewable heat policies over the last 20 years and to assess the effectiveness of the current policy system. The evolution of the policies is strongly linked to China’s socio-economic background and is driven by various factors at each stage. A policy intensity index model is formulated to further dive into the dynamic characteristics of renewable heating. The results indicate that regulation-based instruments are always preferred, with varying degrees of lag for the other three types of instrument. Since the inception of the clean heating program in 2017, the intensity of renewable heating has increased dramatically, revealing that renewable heating has received increasing policy attention and is gradually becoming a key pillar in the context of climate change targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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19 pages, 8133 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Power Output from a Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module with Repaired Cell-in-Hotspots
by Koo Lee, Sungbae Cho, Junsin Yi and Hyosik Chang
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/electronics11152307 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Recycling of problematic photovoltaic modules as raw materials requires considerable energy. The technology to restore cells in hotspot modules at a relatively low cost is more economical than replacing them with new modules. Moreover, a technology that restores power by replacing a cell-in-hotspot [...] Read more.
Recycling of problematic photovoltaic modules as raw materials requires considerable energy. The technology to restore cells in hotspot modules at a relatively low cost is more economical than replacing them with new modules. Moreover, a technology that restores power by replacing a cell-in-hotspot of a photovoltaic module with a new cell rather than replacing the whole module is useful for operating power plants. In particular, power plants that receive government subsidies have to use certified modules of specific models; the modules cannot be replaced with other modules. Before putting resources into module restoration, predicting the power of a module to be restored by replacing a cracked cell with a new cell is essential. Therefore, in this study, the module output amount after restoration was calculated using the previously proposed relative power loss analysis method and the recently proposed cell-to-module factor analysis method. In addition, the long-term degradation coefficient of the initial cell and the loss due to the electrical mismatch between the initial and new cell were considered. The output of the initial cell was estimated by inversely calculating the cell-to-module factor. The differences between the power prediction value and the actual experimental result were 1.12% and 3.20% for samples 190 A and 190 B, respectively. When the initial rating power and tolerance of the module were corrected, the differences decreased to 0.10% and 2.01%, respectively. The positive mismatch, which restores cells with a higher power, has no loss due to the reverse current; thus, the efficiency of the modules is proportional to the average efficiency of each cell. In this experiment, the electrical mismatches were only 0.37% and 0.34%. This study confirmed that even if a replacement cell has a higher power (<20%) than the existing cell, the power loss is not significantly affected, and heat generation of the existing normal cell is not observed. Hence, it was concluded that when some cells are damaged in a crystalline solar cell, the module could be restored by replacing only those cells instead of disposing of the entire module. However, for commercialization of the proposed method, a long-term reliability test of the module repaired using this method must be performed to confirm the results. Following this, recycling cells instead of recycling modules will be an economical and eco-friendly alternative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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16 pages, 6515 KiB  
Article
A Modified Modulation Strategy for an Active Neutral-Point-Clamped Five-Level Converter in a 1500 V PV System
by Guodong Chen and Jiatao Yang
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/electronics11152289 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
With the development of 1500 V photovoltaic (PV) systems in recent decades, multilevel inverters such as the five-level inverter have gained much attention for their higher equivalent output frequency and low semiconductor devices’ voltage stress. Among five-level inverters, the active neutral-point-clamped five-level (ANPC-5L) [...] Read more.
With the development of 1500 V photovoltaic (PV) systems in recent decades, multilevel inverters such as the five-level inverter have gained much attention for their higher equivalent output frequency and low semiconductor devices’ voltage stress. Among five-level inverters, the active neutral-point-clamped five-level (ANPC-5L) inverter is very competitive due to its simple structure and control methods. However, with its conventional commutation strategy, the topology of the ANPC five-level converter has the security risk of overvoltage in the power device when switching to dead time under special conditions, which affects the reliability and safety of the switch state switching process. In this paper, this issue is analyzed in detail and a modified commutation strategy is proposed. Meanwhile, a novel soft start-up method adopted to an ANPC-5L inverter is also proposed. A prototype is also set up to analyze the issue of traditional switching commutation strategies and to verify the effectiveness of the proposed commutation strategy and the soft start-up method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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16 pages, 4651 KiB  
Article
Impact Analysis of a Battery Energy Storage System Connected in Parallel to a Wind Farm
by Nicolau K. L. Dantas, Amanda C. M. Souza, Andrea S. M. Vasconcelos, Washington de A. S. Junior, Guilherme Rissi, Celso Dall’Orto, Alexandre M. A. Maciel, José F. C. Castro, Yang Liu and Pedro Rosas
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4586; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134586 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2723
Abstract
Increasing wind generation insertion levels on electrical grids through power converters may cause instabilities in the AC grid due to the intermittent wind nature. Integrating a Battery Electric Energy Storage System (BESS) in wind generation can smooth the power injection at the Common [...] Read more.
Increasing wind generation insertion levels on electrical grids through power converters may cause instabilities in the AC grid due to the intermittent wind nature. Integrating a Battery Electric Energy Storage System (BESS) in wind generation can smooth the power injection at the Common Coupling Point (PCC), contributing to the power system voltage and frequency stability. In this article, it is proposed to analyze the operation of a lithium-ion battery technology based 1 MW/1.29 MWh BESS connected in parallel with wind generation with a capacity of 50.4 MW. The main characteristics investigated are power smoothing and power factor correction. Experimental results show that BESS contributes to smoothing the active power and correcting the power factor of wind generation, improving the quality of electrical energy at the PCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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23 pages, 17099 KiB  
Article
Evaluating and Analyzing the Degradation of a Battery Energy Storage System Based on Frequency Regulation Strategies
by Chen-Han Wu, Jia-Zhang Jhan, Chih-Han Ko and Cheng-Chien Kuo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app12126111 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
The capacity aging of lithium-ion energy storage systems is inevitable under long-term use. It has been found in the literature that the aging performance is closely related to battery usage and the current aging state. It follows that different frequency regulation services, C-rates, [...] Read more.
The capacity aging of lithium-ion energy storage systems is inevitable under long-term use. It has been found in the literature that the aging performance is closely related to battery usage and the current aging state. It follows that different frequency regulation services, C-rates, and maintaining levels of SOC during operation will produce different battery aging rates. In the simulations, the researchers used real frequency data to generate SOC curves based on the Taiwan frequency regulation services under different C-rates and different battery SOC target levels. Then, the aging formula of lithium iron batteries (LiFePO4 battery, LFP battery) and the proposed improved rainflow counting algorithm were used. The capacity aging situation and economy under different usage scenarios were analyzed. The simulation results showed that using a high C-rate and a low SOC level had a higher net profit, and the income of dReg was more than that of sReg. The SOC of BESS has an important impact on the life cycle. Keeping the SOC at a lower level will help prolong the life cycle and increase the net income. In dReg0.5, maintaining the SOC at 30% would yield 8.5% more lifetimes than 50%, 20.6% more lifetimes than 70%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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16 pages, 5184 KiB  
Article
Temperature Regulation Model and Experimental Study of Compressed Air Energy Storage Cavern Heat Exchange System
by Peng Li, Zongguang Chen, Xuezhi Zhou, Haisheng Chen and Zhi Wang
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6788; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su14116788 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
The first hard rock shallow-lined underground CAES cavern in China has been excavated to conduct a thermodynamic process and heat exchange system for practice. The thermodynamic equations for the solid and air region are compiled into the fluent two-dimensional axisymmetric model through user-defined [...] Read more.
The first hard rock shallow-lined underground CAES cavern in China has been excavated to conduct a thermodynamic process and heat exchange system for practice. The thermodynamic equations for the solid and air region are compiled into the fluent two-dimensional axisymmetric model through user-defined functions. The temperature regulation model and experimental study results show that the charging time determines the air temperature and fluctuates dramatically under different charging flow rates. The average air temperature increases with increasing charging flow and decreasing charging time, fluctuating between 62.5 °C and −40.4 °C during the charging and discharging processes. The temperature would reach above 40 °C within the first 40 min of the initial pressurization stage, and the humidity decreases rapidly within a short time. The use of the heat exchange system can effectively control the cavern temperature within a small range (20–40 °C). The temperature rises and regularly falls with the control system’s switch. An inverse relationship between the temperature and humidity and water vapor can be seen in the first hour of the initial discharging. The maximum noise is 92 and 87 decibels in the deflation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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