Next Issue
Volume 13, December
Previous Issue
Volume 13, October

Diversity, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 101 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image):

Issi saaneq, a medium-sized long-necked sauropodomorph, is a newly discovered species of plant-eating dinosaur from Greenland, which lived during the Late Triassic (214 million years ago).

The remains of these dinosaurs were recovered in expeditions during the 1990s and were originally assigned to Plateosaurus; however, as this article has explored, enough anatomical differences in the skull bones allowed it to be recognized as a new genus and species. Together with the European Plateosaurus, Issi saaneq form the group of plateosaurid sauropodomorphs.

This new dinosaur increases the diversity of dinosaurs during the Late Triassic and allows us to start retracing the evolutionary routes and timing for the iconic group of sauropods that roamed the Earth for almost 150 million years. View this paper

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Cyanobacterial Diversity of the Northern Polar Ural Mountains
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110607 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 261
Abstract
This study provides new results from an inventory of cyanobacterial species from the Northern Polar Ural Mountains. The article also compiles all existing published data on the cyanobacterial diversity of the region. This ecoregion is located in a unique geographical position in the [...] Read more.
This study provides new results from an inventory of cyanobacterial species from the Northern Polar Ural Mountains. The article also compiles all existing published data on the cyanobacterial diversity of the region. This ecoregion is located in a unique geographical position in the transition between the sub-Arctic and low Arctic zones and heterogeneous natural conditions. Likely, the unexplored biodiversity of this area’s terrestrial cyanobacteria is high. In total, 52 localities were studied, with 232 samples collected. Cyanobacterial samples were studied under a light microscope. Species were identified based on morphological characteristics only. A total of 93 species of cyanobacteria were identified in different habitats; 70 species were found on wet rocks, 35 on the shores of water bodies, 27 in slow streams, and 21 on waterfalls. In total, 37 species are reported as part of the Ural flora for the first time, while three species (Chroococcus ercegovicii, Gloeocapsopsis cyanea, Gloeothece tepidariorum) were detected in Russian territory for the first time. The composition of the cyanobacterial flora of the Polar Urals was compared with the flora of the nearby Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. According to the Sorensen similarity index, the Polar Urals’ flora is more like the flora of Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Water Quality Analysis in a Subtropical River with an Adapted Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP) Index
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110606 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Subtropical rivers in developing countries often lack adequate monitoring, which makes it difficult to comprehensively determine their water quality when faced with different anthropic impacts. There are no proper protocols in the regulations to incorporate indicators and adapt them to different biogeographic regions, [...] Read more.
Subtropical rivers in developing countries often lack adequate monitoring, which makes it difficult to comprehensively determine their water quality when faced with different anthropic impacts. There are no proper protocols in the regulations to incorporate indicators and adapt them to different biogeographic regions, limiting the potential success of conservation and restoration of river ecosystems. This study proposes implementing macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in river ecosystems, and modifying the calibration of the widely used Biomonitoring Working Party (BMWP) index for its adaptation in a subtropical river. The Duero River, Mexico, was used as an example in this study. Data were explored with multivariate statistics, and the water quality and habitat values were averaged to obtain the families’ bioindication values and the index categories. The BMWP adequately described a deterioration gradient from the origin to the river mouth (from fair to extremely polluted), with some intermediate recovery points related to the presence of springs. Its performance was compared with other biological indices and exhibited a positive relationship with all of them. In addition, how BMWP changed over time was analyzed by examining previous samples, and highlighted increased river deterioration over time. A calibrated BMWP will allow for long-term monitoring at a low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Insects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation Challenges)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Integrative Descriptions of Two New Mesobiotus Species (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae) from Vietnam
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110605 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 292
Abstract
To date, 34 tardigrade taxa have been recorded from Vietnam and this includes only two macrobiotid species belonging to the genus Mesobiotus. In this paper, two additional species of this genus, one of the M. harmsworthi group and one of the M. [...] Read more.
To date, 34 tardigrade taxa have been recorded from Vietnam and this includes only two macrobiotid species belonging to the genus Mesobiotus. In this paper, two additional species of this genus, one of the M. harmsworthi group and one of the M. furciger group, are reported and described as new for science (Mesobiotus imperialis sp. nov., Mesobiotus marmoreus sp. nov.). Both descriptions have an integrative character providing detailed morphological and morphometric data collected by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy that are linked to genetic data. The latter constitute DNA sequences of molecular markers that are commonly used in tardigrade taxonomy. The genus phylogeny is also provided, elucidating the phylogenetic position of the newly discovered taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Diversity of Flower Visiting Beetles at Higher Elevations on the Yulong Snow Mountain (Yunnan, China)
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110604 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Background: Flowers are one of the important microhabitats promoting beetle diversity, but little is known about variation in the diversity of these insects at higher elevations. We do not know how divergent habitats influence the distribution of beetles among montane flora. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: Flowers are one of the important microhabitats promoting beetle diversity, but little is known about variation in the diversity of these insects at higher elevations. We do not know how divergent habitats influence the distribution of beetles among montane flora. Methods: We sampled beetles systematically in angiosperm flowers at 12 sites at two elevations (2700 m and 3200 m) and in two habitats (meadows and forests) for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) on the Yulong Snow Mountain in Yunnan, southwestern China. Beetle diversity among sites were compared. Their interactions with flowers of identified plant species were analyzed using bipartite networks approach. Results: We collected 153 species of beetles from 90 plant species recording 3391 interactions. While plant species richness was lower at the higher, 3200 m elevation regardless of habitat type, beetle species richness was not significantly different among sites. Plant-beetle interaction networks were strongly modular and specialized. The structure of networks showed greater differences between elevations than between habitats. The turnover of networks was determined by species composition showing a weak influence by interaction rewiring. Conclusion: Our study showed a high diversity of beetles in flowers at higher elevations within this mountain complex. The role of beetles in plant–insect interactions within some sections of temperate, montane sites appear to be underestimated and warrant further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Diversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Range Shifts in the Worldwide Expansion of Oenothera drummondii subsp. drummondii, a Plant Species of Coastal Dunes
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110603 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Oenothera drummondii is a coastal dunes plant species from the North American continent that has affected the natural structure and dynamics of Spanish, Israeli, and Chinese shores as an invasive species. In South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and France, it is reported as [...] Read more.
Oenothera drummondii is a coastal dunes plant species from the North American continent that has affected the natural structure and dynamics of Spanish, Israeli, and Chinese shores as an invasive species. In South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and France, it is reported as a naturalized species. Ecological niche and species distribution modeling has been widely used as a tool to find potential global invasions and assess invasion effects. Herein, we modeled the ecological niche and the potential distribution of Oenothera drummondii, using the Köppen–Geiger climate classification, bioclimatic variables and occurrence records that have been validated in their native and non-native distribution. In the native area, the temperature and precipitation values are higher compared to non-native zones, where the low temperatures and the absence of humidity are the main climatic limitations for the species. In the environmental space, new distribution areas were identified and a partial overlap between the native and non-native niches detected. This suggests that climate matching is not occurring for the species, and that the potential invasion of coastal dune areas seems to be higher than previously observed. Therefore, new potential invasion areas, where the species is not yet distributed, were also identified. Our predictions could be used to establish ecosystem management measures to mitigate the invasion of Oenothera drummondii, helping to prevent possible negative impacts on fragile coastal ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Invasions and Conservation in Coastal Dune Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Studies on Algae from the Order Synurales (Chrysophyceae) in Northern Vietnam
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110602 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 208
Abstract
The present paper focuses on the flora of synuralean algae from four northern provinces in Vietnam: Bac Kan, Hanoi, Ninh Binh, and Thanh Hoa. Fifty-five water bodies were studied, including territories within national parks Ba Be, Ba Vi, Cuc Phuong, Ben En, and [...] Read more.
The present paper focuses on the flora of synuralean algae from four northern provinces in Vietnam: Bac Kan, Hanoi, Ninh Binh, and Thanh Hoa. Fifty-five water bodies were studied, including territories within national parks Ba Be, Ba Vi, Cuc Phuong, Ben En, and Trang An Wetland—The World Cultural and Natural Heritage and Van Long Wetland Nature Reserve. Samples were obtained from natural lakes and wetlands, artificial reservoirs and ponds, and small temporary water bodies. Electron microscopy allowed for the discovery of 39 taxa, 37 of which belonged to the genus Mallomonas and two to the genus Synura. Six taxa of the genus Mallomonas and two taxa from the genus Synura were not identified to the lower rank. Five taxa are reported for the first time in Vietnam. The most diverse flora was observed in natural protected water bodies. Eutrophic and hypereutrophic water bodies, which were prevalent in the study area, had a reduced number of selected species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity: Evolution, Taxonomy and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Old Brains in Alcohol: The Usability of Legacy Collection Material to Study the Spider Neuroarchitecture
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110601 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Natural history collections include rare and significant taxa that might otherwise be unavailable for comparative studies. However, curators must balance the needs of current and long-term research. Methods of data extraction that minimize the impact on specimens are therefore favored. Micro-CT has the [...] Read more.
Natural history collections include rare and significant taxa that might otherwise be unavailable for comparative studies. However, curators must balance the needs of current and long-term research. Methods of data extraction that minimize the impact on specimens are therefore favored. Micro-CT has the potential to expose new character systems based on internal anatomy to taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis without dissection or thin sectioning for histology. However, commonly applied micro-CT protocols involve critical point drying, which permanently changes the specimen. Here, we apply a minimally destructive method of specimen preparation for micro-CT investigation of spider neuroanatomy suitable for application to legacy specimens in natural history collections. We used two groups of female spiders of the common species Araneus diadematus—freshly captured (n = 11) vs. legacy material between 70 and 90 years old (n = 10)—to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the viability of micro-CT scanning and the impact of aging on their neuroarchitecture. We statistically compared the volumes of the supraesophageal ganglion (syncerebrum) and used 2D geometric morphometrics to analyze variations in the gross shape of the brain. We found no significant differences in the brain shape or the brain volume relative to the cephalothorax size. Nonetheless, a significant difference was observed in the spider size. We considered such differences to be explained by environmental factors rather than preservation artifacts. Comparison between legacy and freshly collected specimens indicates that museum specimens do not degrade over time in a way that might bias the study results, as long as the basic preservation conditions are consistently maintained, and where lapses in preservation have occurred, these can be identified. This, together with the relatively low-impact nature of the micro-CT protocol applied here, could facilitate the use of old, rare, and valuable material from collections in studies of internal morphology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Italian Vascular Flora: New Findings, Updates and Exploration of Floristic Similarities between Regions
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110600 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
The tradition of floristic studies in Italy has made it possible to obtain a good knowledge of plant diversity both on a national and regional scale. However, the lack of knowledge for some areas, advances in plant systematics and human activities related to [...] Read more.
The tradition of floristic studies in Italy has made it possible to obtain a good knowledge of plant diversity both on a national and regional scale. However, the lack of knowledge for some areas, advances in plant systematics and human activities related to globalization, highlight the need for further studies aimed at improving floristic knowledge. In this paper, based on fieldwork and herbaria and literature surveys, we update the knowledge on the Italian vascular flora and analyze the floristic similarities between the administrative regions. Four taxa, all exotic, were recorded for the first time in Italy and Europe. In detail, Elaeodendron croceum, Kalanchoë blossfeldiana, and Sedum spathulifolium var. spathulifolium were found as casual aliens, while Oxalis brasiliensis was reported as historical record based on some herbarium specimens. Furthermore, Kalanchoë laxiflora was confirmed as a casual alien species for Italy and Europe. Status changes for some taxa were proposed at both national and regional levels, as well as many taxa were reported as new or confirmed at the regional level. Currently the Italian vascular flora comprises 9150 taxa of which 7547 are native (of which 1598 are Italian endemics) and 1603 are exotic at the national level. The multivariate analysis of updated floristic data on a regional scale showed a clear distribution along the latitudinal gradient, in accordance with the natural geographical location of the regions in Italy. This pattern of plants distribution was not affected by the introduction of alien species. Despite some taxonomic and methodological issues which are still open, the data obtained confirm the important role of floristic investigations in the field and in herbaria, as well as the collaborative approach among botanists, in order to improve the knowledge of the Italian and European vascular flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Conservation of Vascular Flora)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Salinity Affects Freshwater Invertebrate Traits and Litter Decomposition
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110599 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 196
Abstract
We evaluated the effect of seawater intrusion in coastal ecosystems on the freshwater invertebrate community and on leaf litter decomposition under realistic scenarios in six outdoor freshwater mesocosms containing fauna and flora, to which increasing volumes of seawater were added. The resulting salinity [...] Read more.
We evaluated the effect of seawater intrusion in coastal ecosystems on the freshwater invertebrate community and on leaf litter decomposition under realistic scenarios in six outdoor freshwater mesocosms containing fauna and flora, to which increasing volumes of seawater were added. The resulting salinity values were 0.28 (control, freshwater only), 2.0, 3.3, 5.5, 9.3, and 15.3 mS cm−1. The effect of salinity was assessed for 65 days after seawater intrusion, by computing the deviation of values in each treatment in relation to the control. Our results show that seawater intrusion into freshwaters will affect the invertebrate communities and organic matter decomposition, with salinities of up to 3.3–5.5 mS cm−1 having opposite effects to salinities of more than 9.3 mS cm−1. There was a net negative effect of the two highest salinities on mass loss and richness of the invertebrates associated with the decomposing leaves. Regarding the invertebrate communities of the mesocosms, there was a net negative effect of the intermediate salinity levels on abundance and richness. Invertebrate life cycle traits conferring resilience and resistance tended to increase with low and decrease with high salinity values, while avoidance traits showed an opposite trend, and these responses were more pronounced on the later stage community. These wave-like responses of the invertebrate species traits to increasing salinity suggest that the life-history and physiological adaptations most suitable to cope with osmotic stress will differ between low and high salinity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Long-Term Patterns of Amphibian Diversity, Abundance and Nutrient Export from Small, Isolated Wetlands
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 598; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110598 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Seasonally inundated wetlands contribute to biodiversity support and ecosystem function at the landscape scale. These temporally dynamic ecosystems contain unique assemblages of animals adapted to cyclically wet–dry habitats. As a result of the high variation in environmental conditions, wetlands serve as hotspots for [...] Read more.
Seasonally inundated wetlands contribute to biodiversity support and ecosystem function at the landscape scale. These temporally dynamic ecosystems contain unique assemblages of animals adapted to cyclically wet–dry habitats. As a result of the high variation in environmental conditions, wetlands serve as hotspots for animal movement and potentially hotspots of biogeochemical activity and migratory transport of nutrient subsidies. Most amphibians are semi-aquatic and migrate between isolated wetlands and the surrounding terrestrial system to complete their life cycle, with rainfall and other environmental factors affecting the timing and magnitude of wetland export of juveniles. Here we used a long-term drift fence study coupled with system-specific nutrient content data of amphibians from two small wetlands in southeastern Georgia, USA. We couple environmental data with count data of juveniles exiting wetlands to explore the controls of amphibian diversity, production and export and the amphibian life-history traits associated with export over varying environmental conditions. Our results highlight the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in amphibian flux with hydroperiod length and temperature driving community composition and overall biomass and nutrient fluxes. Additionally, specific life-history traits, such as development time and body size, were associated with longer hydroperiods. Our findings underscore the key role of small, isolated wetlands and their hydroperiod characteristics in maintaining amphibian productivity and community dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amphibian Ecology in Geographically Isolated Wetlands)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Phylogenetic Placement of the Plesioclytini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110597 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The tribe Plesioclytini was recently erected for a single genus of cerambycine longhorn beetle. The group was diagnosed from a proposed sister lineage, the diverse Clytini; however, a formal phylogenetic analysis was not performed due to limitations in data availability. Here, we present [...] Read more.
The tribe Plesioclytini was recently erected for a single genus of cerambycine longhorn beetle. The group was diagnosed from a proposed sister lineage, the diverse Clytini; however, a formal phylogenetic analysis was not performed due to limitations in data availability. Here, we present a phylogenetic reconstruction from five loci, that Plesioclytini is not sister to Clytini, but is instead only distantly related. Subsequent morphological investigations provide additional support for this placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Coleoptera)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Systematics and Biogeography of the New World Genus Plumolepilius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110596 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, 2016 is a leaf litter weevil genus that inhabits montane broadleaf forests from southern Mexico to northern Panama. The genus consists of 27 species, 22 distributed in the Chiapas Highlands province (Mexican Transition Zone) and 5 found in the [...] Read more.
Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, 2016 is a leaf litter weevil genus that inhabits montane broadleaf forests from southern Mexico to northern Panama. The genus consists of 27 species, 22 distributed in the Chiapas Highlands province (Mexican Transition Zone) and 5 found in the Pacific dominion (Neotropical region) in Costa Rica and Panamá. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Plumolepilius based on 20 external body characters and 9 characters from the genitalia. The first dichotomy of the cladogram separates two species from the Pacific dominion from the remaining species of Plumolepilius from the Chiapas Highlands province and three species restricted to the Pacific dominion. We hypothesize that redundant distributions in the taxon-area cladogram of the genus may be due to dispersal events, probably during the Pleistocene glaciations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Coleoptera)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Predation Pressure of Invasive Marsh Frogs: A Threat to Native Amphibians?
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110595 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Anurans have been introduced in many parts of the world and have often become invasive over large geographic areas. Although predation is involved in the declines of invaded amphibian populations, there is a lack of quantitative assessments evaluating the potential risk posed to [...] Read more.
Anurans have been introduced in many parts of the world and have often become invasive over large geographic areas. Although predation is involved in the declines of invaded amphibian populations, there is a lack of quantitative assessments evaluating the potential risk posed to native species. This is particularly true for Pelophylax water frogs, which have invaded large parts of western Europe, but no studies to date have examined their predation on other amphibians in their invaded range. Predation of native amphibians by marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) was assessed by stomach flushing once a month over four months in 21 ponds in southern France. Nine percent of stomachs contained amphibians. Seasonality was a major determinant of amphibian consumption. This effect was mediated by body size, with the largest invaders ingesting bigger natives, such as tree frogs. These results show that invasive marsh frogs represent a threat through their ability to forage on natives, particularly at the adult stage. The results also indicate that large numbers of native amphibians are predated. More broadly, the fact that predation was site- and time-specific highlights the need for repeated samplings across habitats and key periods for a clear understanding of the impact of invaders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2021 Feature Papers by Diversity’s Editorial Board Members)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Biodiversity Management in a Mediterranean National Park: The Long, Winding Path from a Species-Centred to an Ecosystem-Centred Approach
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110594 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 250
Abstract
The Port-Cros National Park (PCNP), established in 1963, was one of the earliest terrestrial and marine parks in the Mediterranean Sea. From 2012, it engaged in a major redefinition and extension of its territory (N-PCNP—New Port-Cros National Park). This case is particularly interesting [...] Read more.
The Port-Cros National Park (PCNP), established in 1963, was one of the earliest terrestrial and marine parks in the Mediterranean Sea. From 2012, it engaged in a major redefinition and extension of its territory (N-PCNP—New Port-Cros National Park). This case is particularly interesting insofar as the protected area has been competently and efficiently managed since its creation, and protection and management measures have been strictly implemented: in the Mediterranean, the PCNP has often been considered as a benchmark. Here, we critically analyse almost 60 years of the management of the biodiversity and the human uses, with their share of successes and failures, certain operations which are today regarded as errors, and a doctrine today of a priori non-interventionism, in contrast to the doctrine in vogue in the early years. Of particular interest is the change in outlook with regard to actions favouring flagship species, such as building a tower for bats, setting up artificial nests for seabirds, and constructing an artificial reef at sea. The question of the natural arrival of the wild boar, a native species, and the hostility of the public and some species-centred scientists, is particularly instructive. We analyse these changes in the light of the ongoing trends in concepts in ecology and nature conservation, and the shift from a species-centred to an ecosystem-centred approach. It is worth emphasizing that a critical review of almost 60 years of management is a very rare exercise in a national park anywhere in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Sea)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Wild Beets (Beta spp.) from the Western Iberian Peninsula and the Azores and Madeira Islands
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110593 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In this work, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we present new insights into the genetic diversity, differentiation, and structure of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima of western Iberia and the Azores and Madeira islands and of B. macrocarpa from southern Portugal. B. macrocarpa [...] Read more.
In this work, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we present new insights into the genetic diversity, differentiation, and structure of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima of western Iberia and the Azores and Madeira islands and of B. macrocarpa from southern Portugal. B. macrocarpa occurs only in southern Portugal and frequently in sympatry with B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, showing genetic introgression. B. macrocarpa has a better-defined structure than B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which has a high degree of admixture. A great differentiation (FST ranging from 0.277 to 0.184) was observed among the northern populations of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. In contrast, only a small differentiation (FST ranging from 0.000 to 0.026) was detected among the southern B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations. The inland B. vulgaris subsp. maritima populations (“RIO” and “VMT”) are distinct from each other, which also occurs with the two islands’ populations (“MAD” and “AZO”). The existence of two distinct Atlantic Sea currents can explain the fact that Madeira is related to the southern populations, while the Azores is related to the northern populations. We consider that understanding the relationships existing within Beta spp. is key to future genetic studies and for the establishment of conservation measures. Our results show that the southern coastal areas of Portugal should be considered as a potential site for in situ conservation of the beet wild relatives. Special attention is needed in what concerns B. macrocarpa because this is a rare species that also occurs in a sympatric relationship with B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Two New Species of the Genus Longipedia Claus, 1863 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Longipediidae) from Korea, with an Update and a Key to Species
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110590 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Benthic harpacticoids were collected from Korean waters. Two species were identified as members of the genus Longipedia Claus, 1863, because they have an extremely elongated distal segment of the P2 endopod. Longipedia koreana sp. nov. is morphologically most closely related to L. [...] Read more.
Benthic harpacticoids were collected from Korean waters. Two species were identified as members of the genus Longipedia Claus, 1863, because they have an extremely elongated distal segment of the P2 endopod. Longipedia koreana sp. nov. is morphologically most closely related to L. nichollsi Wells, 1980 and L. scotti Sars, 1903, but it can clearly be distinguished from both species based on the following morphological characteristics: P1 coxa with strong spinules near the outer margin and the distal element being much bigger than the proximal elements, P2 coxa with a small inner seta on the anterior surface, P4 exopod first segment without an inner element, and the P5 with a rectangular exopod (more than 3.5 times as long as wide). L. ulleungensis sp. nov. is similar to L. brevispinosa Gurney, 1927, L. spinulosa Itô, 1981, and L. weberi Scott A., 1909. However, L. ulleungensis sp. nov. is characterized by the P2 coxa with a reduced inner seta, the P4 exopod second segment without an inner seta, and the anal operculum with a long median projection, a single spine, and a group of outer spines on each side. In a molecular analysis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes, the inter-specific variation was 22.525–23.102% and 1.325–1.382% of COI and 18S rRNA between the two new species, respectively. A key to the family Longipediidae is provided herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Proceedings of Experts on Aquatic Life (PEAL))
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Perceptions of Local Inhabitants towards Land Management Systems Used in the Rainforest Area of Ecuador: An Evaluation Based on Visual Rating of the Main Land Use Types
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110592 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Land management policy and practice affects a wide segment of stakeholders, including the general population of a given area. This study evaluates the perceptions of local inhabitants towards the land management systems used in the rainforest area of Ecuador—namely, unmanaged (natural) forest, managed [...] Read more.
Land management policy and practice affects a wide segment of stakeholders, including the general population of a given area. This study evaluates the perceptions of local inhabitants towards the land management systems used in the rainforest area of Ecuador—namely, unmanaged (natural) forest, managed forest, croplands, and pasturelands. Data collected as ratings on 12 pictures were used to check the aggregated perceptions by developing the relative frequencies of ratings, in order to see how the perception rating data were associated with the types of land management systems depicted by the pictures, and to see whether the four types of land management could be mathematically represented by a clustering solution. A distinctive result was that the natural forests were the most positively rated, while the managed forests were the least positively rated among the respondents. It seems, however, that human intervention was not the landscape-related factor affecting this perception, since croplands and pasturelands also received high ratings. The ratings generated a clear clustering solution only in the case of forest management, indicating three groups: natural forests, managed forests, and the rest of the land management systems. Based on the results of this study, a combination of the four land use systems would balance the expectations of different stakeholders from the area, while also being consistent to some extent with the current diversity in land management systems. However, a more developed system of information propagation would be beneficial to educate the local population with regards to the benefits and drawbacks of different types of land management systems and their distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Management and Biodiversity Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elevational Patterns of Blowfly Parasitism in Two Hole Nesting Avian Species
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110591 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Climate change is predicted to cause shifts in parasite distributions, leading to encounters with new hosts. Mountains offer a natural experimental background to study how parasite distributions vary across climatic gradients. Parasite abundance is generally assumed to decrease with ascending elevation, as colder [...] Read more.
Climate change is predicted to cause shifts in parasite distributions, leading to encounters with new hosts. Mountains offer a natural experimental background to study how parasite distributions vary across climatic gradients. Parasite abundance is generally assumed to decrease with ascending elevation, as colder climates may preclude several parasites to complete their life cycles. The present study analyses the elevational variation in the prevalence and intensity of the blowfly Protocalliphora azurea found in the nests of two hosts—the coal tit (Periparus ater) and great tit (Parus major)—in Sierra Nevada (SE Spain). Protocalliphora azurea adults are free-living flies, while their larvae are nest-dwelling parasites that feed on nestling blood. In contrast to initial predictions, P. azurea larvae were less prevalent at lower elevations. In Mediterranean environments, the colder and damper climate of medium and high elevations might favour this parasite. Alternatively, greater anthropogenic perturbation in lowland environments may have a negative impact on the parasite. The findings also show that the two host species had similar parasite loads. As coal tits are half the size of great tits, this suggests that the coal tits were more severely parasitised. In conclusion, the generalised assumption that parasite abundance decreases with elevation does not hold true for the present case and elevational parasite patterns probably depend on specific host–parasite systems and climatic conditions in the mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bird Parasites II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Paramecium bursaria—A Complex of Five Cryptic Species: Mitochondrial DNA COI Haplotype Variation and Biogeographic Distribution
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110589 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Ciliates are a diverse protistan group and many consist of cryptic species complexes whose members may be restricted to particular biogeographic locations. Mitochondrial genes, characterized by a high resolution for closely related species, were applied to identify new species and to distinguish closely [...] Read more.
Ciliates are a diverse protistan group and many consist of cryptic species complexes whose members may be restricted to particular biogeographic locations. Mitochondrial genes, characterized by a high resolution for closely related species, were applied to identify new species and to distinguish closely related morphospecies. In the current study, we analyzed 132 sequences of COI mtDNA fragments obtained from P. bursaria species collected worldwide. The results allowed, for the first time, to generate a network of COI haplotypes and demonstrate the relationships between P. bursaria strains, as well as to confirm the existence of five reproductively isolated haplogroups. The P. bursaria haplogroups identified in the present study correspond to previously reported syngens (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5), thus we decided to propose the following binominal names for each of them: P. primabursaria, P. bibursaria, P. tribursaria, P. tetrabursaria, and P. pentabursaria, respectively. The phylogeographic distribution of P. bursaria species showed that P. primabursaria and P. bibursaria were strictly Eurasian, except for two South Australian P. bibursaria strains. P. tribursaria was found mainly in Eastern Asia, in two stands in Europe and in North America. In turn, P. tetrabursaria was restricted to the USA territory, whereas P. pentabursaria was found in two European localities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryptic Biodiversity in Freshwater Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Involvement of a Fishing Community in the Eradication of the Introduced Cactus Mouse (Peromyscus eremicus cedrosensis) from San Benito Oeste Island, Mexico
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110588 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
San Benito Archipelago is internationally important for the conservation of 13 species of seabirds. San Benito Oeste, the largest and only inhabited island, was declared mammal-free in 2000 after a series of eradications conducted in collaboration between the fishing cooperative Pescadores Nacionales de [...] Read more.
San Benito Archipelago is internationally important for the conservation of 13 species of seabirds. San Benito Oeste, the largest and only inhabited island, was declared mammal-free in 2000 after a series of eradications conducted in collaboration between the fishing cooperative Pescadores Nacionales de Abulón, the Mexican conservation organization, Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C., and the Mexican Government. The archipelago remained mammal-free until 2006, when an unusual invader, the Cedros island cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus cedrosensis), was accidentally introduced to San Benito Oeste island. The same collaboration scheme involving locals, conservationists, and authorities was once again put in motion, delivering tangible results. Research informed the mouse eradication strategy, the local community supported the operation, and the mouse eradication was successfully implemented in December 2013. To date (8 years later), no mammals have been recorded in the archipelago, which suggests community-led island biosecurity is working. In addition, this collaborative restoration work contributed to the creation of the Baja California Pacific Islands Biosphere Reserve, protecting 21 islands, including the San Benito Archipelago, and 97 islets in the Mexican Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socioecology and Biodiversity Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Moisture and Salinity Drive the Vegetation Composition of Wadi Hargan, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 587; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110587 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Wetlands are represented in Saudi Arabia in the form of mangrove, sabkha, and wadi (valleys) systems, and these habitats are considered as a sanctuary for biodiversity. The present study aimed to identify different vegetation groups in a wetland site in Wadi Hargan near [...] Read more.
Wetlands are represented in Saudi Arabia in the form of mangrove, sabkha, and wadi (valleys) systems, and these habitats are considered as a sanctuary for biodiversity. The present study aimed to identify different vegetation groups in a wetland site in Wadi Hargan near Alqurainah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to relate different plant communities and plant diversity to soil moisture, salinity, and other soil properties. Floristic analysis and vegetation structure were investigated within 15 stands along the wadi and were subjected to correlation analysis with soil factors via multivariate analysis. The floristic survey revealed the presence of 111 plant species belonging to 39 families. The most represented families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Papilionaceae, which accounted for the largest proportion (55.4%) of the total species. The therophytes were the dominant life form, where they were represented by 46.9% of the total number of species. The application of cluster analysis (TWINSPAN) to the importance value of each species based on the relative cover and density led to the recognition of four plant communities: (A) Phragmites australisTamarix nilotica community, (B) Zygophyllum coccineumAcacia gerrardii community, (C) Lycium shawiiZygophyllum coccineum community, and (D) Rhazya stricta community. The soil analysis and correlation test revealed significant variations in the content of salinity, moisture, CO3, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, and Na among the plant communities. It can be concluded that soil moisture and salinity factors were the fundamental driving forces for plant community structure in the studied wadi. The wadi was moderately grazed, mainly by camels; thereby, the invasive plant Rhazya stricta dominated the central region of the wadi. Also, human interference was observed at the end of the wadi, where some weeds sprouted such as Malva parviflora. The presence of those two rare wetland species, Adiantum capillus-veneris and Ficus salicifolia, in the study area, showed the unique properties of the studied wadi and necessitate an urgent biodiversity conservation action to protect its natural vegetation from overgrazing and human interference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An MPA Design Approach to Benefit Fisheries: Maximising Larval Export and Minimising Redundancy
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110586 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
In the design of marine protected areas (MPAs), tailoring reserve placement to facilitate larval export beyond reserve boundaries may support fished populations and fisheries through recruitment subsidies. Intuitively, capturing such connectivity could be purely based on optimising larval dispersal metrics such as export [...] Read more.
In the design of marine protected areas (MPAs), tailoring reserve placement to facilitate larval export beyond reserve boundaries may support fished populations and fisheries through recruitment subsidies. Intuitively, capturing such connectivity could be purely based on optimising larval dispersal metrics such as export strength. However, this can lead to inefficient or redundant larval connectivity, as the subset of sites with the best connectivity metrics might share many of the same connections, making them, collectively, poor MPA candidates to provide recruitment subsidies to unprotected sites. We propose a simple, dynamic algorithm for reserve placement optimisation designed to select MPAs sequentially, maximising larval export to the overall network, whilst accounting for redundancy in supply from multiple sources. When applied to four regions in the Caribbean, the algorithm consistently outperformed approaches that did not consider supply redundancy, leading to, on average, 20% greater fished biomass in a simulated model. Improvements were most apparent in dense, strongly connected systems such as the Bahamas. Here, MPA placement without redundancy considerations produced fishery benefits worse than random MPA design. Our findings highlight the importance of considering redundancy in MPA design, and offer a novel, simple approach to improving MPA design for achieving fishery objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Connectivity among Tropical Coastal Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prediction of Sites with a High Probability of Wild Mammal Roadkill Using a Favourability Function
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 585; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110585 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Roads are one of the main causes of loss of biodiversity, with roadkill one of the main causes of mortality. The aim of this research was to identify sites with a high probability of roadkill of medium and large mammals, and the environmental [...] Read more.
Roads are one of the main causes of loss of biodiversity, with roadkill one of the main causes of mortality. The aim of this research was to identify sites with a high probability of roadkill of medium and large mammals, and the environmental variables that would explain it. We used the favourability function (F) to build the predictive models. There were 57 explanatory variables, and we collected 685 records of 10 species of medium and large native wild mammals from the ECOBIO Uruguay databases. They were grouped into native forest and grassland species, according to the main habitat. Two models were developed, one with all the variables and one with the anthropogenic variables. For both groups, the model obtained with all the variables was the most significant according to the evaluation indices used. This made it possible to identify the hot spots of roadkill (F > 0.6) for each of the groups. The anthropic variables were the ones that best explained these hot spots. This allowed the identification of sites where the probability of roadkill is high and requires a monitoring plan to implement mitigation measures in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evolution of Beak and Feather Disease Virus across Three Decades of Conservation Intervention for Population Recovery of the Mauritius Parakeet
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110584 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are key contributors to the current global biodiversity crisis. Psittaciformes (parrots) are one of the most vulnerable avian taxa and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is the most common viral disease in wild parrots. PBFD is caused by [...] Read more.
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are key contributors to the current global biodiversity crisis. Psittaciformes (parrots) are one of the most vulnerable avian taxa and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is the most common viral disease in wild parrots. PBFD is caused by the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), which belongs to the Circoviridae family and comprises a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. BFDV is considered to have spread rapidly across the world and, in 2005, an outbreak of PBFD was documented in the recovering population of the Mauritius parakeet (Alexandrinus eques). The Mauritius parakeet was once the world’s rarest parrot and has been successfully recovered through 30 years of intensive conservation management. Molecular surveillance for the prevalence of BFDV was carried out across a 24-year sample archive spanning the period from 1993 to 2017, and DNA sequencing of positive individuals provided an opportunity to assess patterns of phylogenetic and haplotype diversity. Phylogenetic analyses show variation in the extent of viral diversification within the replicase protein (Rep). Timeseries of BFDV prevalence and number of haplotypes reveal that two subsequent waves of infection occurred in 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 following the initial outbreak in 2005. Continued disease surveillance to determine the frequency and intensity of subsequent waves of infection may benefit future translocation/reintroduction planning. The continued growth of the Mauritius parakeet population despite the presence of BFDV bodes well for its long-term persistence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Algae and Cyanobacteria Diversity and Bioindication of Long-Term Changes in the Hula Nature Reserve, Israel
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110583 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Lake Hula, the core of one of the most extensive wetland complexes in the Eastern Mediterranean, was drained in 1951–1958. However, about 350 hectares of papyrus marshes were allocated in the southwestern part of the previous lake and became the Hula Nature Reserve [...] Read more.
Lake Hula, the core of one of the most extensive wetland complexes in the Eastern Mediterranean, was drained in 1951–1958. However, about 350 hectares of papyrus marshes were allocated in the southwestern part of the previous lake and became the Hula Nature Reserve status, the first of two wetlands in Israel included in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. The list of algae and cyanobacteria species of Lake Hula was compiled by us for the first time based on data from publications of 1938–1958, as well as our research in the Hula Nature Reserve, obtained within the framework of the monitoring program for 2007–2013. The list includes 225 species and intraspecies of algae and cyanobacteria belonging to eight phyla. The dynamics of the species richness of algae and cyanobacteria flora for 1938–2013 are shown. Species-bioindicators of water quality have been identified, and the change in their composition by ecological groups for a period of about a hundred years has been shown. Based on the species richness of algae communities, water quality indices were calculated with particular attention to changes in trophic status during the study period. The algae flora of Lake Hula and Hula Nature Reserve was found to be similar, but bioindication has revealed an increase in salinity and organic pollution in recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Organisms Diversity and Bio-Indication of Water Resources II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genetic Diversity of a Rising Invasive Pest in the Native Range: Population Genetic Structure of Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in South Korea
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110582 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The red-necked longhorn beetle (RLB; Aromia bungii [Faldermann, 1835]) is an emerging invasive pest. From its native range of East Asia, it invaded Europe and Japan in the early 2010s. Despite its increasing importance, the molecular resources of RLB are scarce, and its [...] Read more.
The red-necked longhorn beetle (RLB; Aromia bungii [Faldermann, 1835]) is an emerging invasive pest. From its native range of East Asia, it invaded Europe and Japan in the early 2010s. Despite its increasing importance, the molecular resources of RLB are scarce, and its invasive dynamics are largely unknown. In the present study, we carried out the first analysis of its population genetic structure in South Korea, which is part of its native range, using 1248 bp cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences of 199 individuals from 18 localities. We found that in South Korea, RLB has a moderate population genetic structure and can be divided into three geographical subgroups: central, southeastern, and southwestern subgroup. Comparative analyses with two Chinese, one German, and ten Italian RLB sequences yielded non-significant results because of largely missing genetic data from other native areas. Nevertheless, as it provided the first population genetic data for this invasive alien species (IAS) whose range is increasing, our research is a crucial molecular resource for future invasive dynamics research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Coleoptera)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Additions to the Knowledge of Corticioid Xylodon (Schizoporaceae, Hymenochaetales): Introducing Three New Xylodon Species from Southern China
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110581 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Three wood-inhabiting fungal species, Xylodon gossypinus, X. macrosporus, and X. sinensis spp. nov. were collected from southern China, with the similar function to decompose rotten wood, which are here proposed as new taxa based on a combination of morphological features and molecular [...] Read more.
Three wood-inhabiting fungal species, Xylodon gossypinus, X. macrosporus, and X. sinensis spp. nov. were collected from southern China, with the similar function to decompose rotten wood, which are here proposed as new taxa based on a combination of morphological features and molecular evidence. Xylodon gossypinus is characterized by the resupinate basidiomata with cotton hymenophore, and ellipsoid basidiospores; X.macrosporus is characterized by the resupinate basidiomata having the cracking hymenophore with pale yellowish hymenial surface, and larger basidiospores 8–10.5 × 7.5–9 µm; and X. sinensis differs by its grandinioid hymenial surface and subglobose basidiospores measuring as 3–5 × 2.5–4 µm. Sequences of ITS and nLSU rRNA markers of the studied samples were generated, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The ITS+nLSU analysis in Hymenochaetales revealed that the three new species clustered into the Schizoporaceae family, located in genus Xylodon; based on the ITS dataset, X. gossypinus was a sister to X. ussuriensis; X. macrosporus closely grouped with X.follis with a high support; and X.sinensis was retrieved as two sisters to X. attenuatus and X. yarraensis with a lower support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Hidden Fungal Diversity in Asia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Five New Earthworm Mitogenomes (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae): Mitochondrial Phylogeny of Lumbricidae
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 580; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110580 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Identification based on conventional morphological characteristics is typically difficult and time-consuming. The development of molecular techniques provides a novel strategy that relies on specific mitochondrial gene fragments to conduct authentication. For this study, five newly sequenced partial mitogenomes of earthworms (Bimastos parvus [...] Read more.
Identification based on conventional morphological characteristics is typically difficult and time-consuming. The development of molecular techniques provides a novel strategy that relies on specific mitochondrial gene fragments to conduct authentication. For this study, five newly sequenced partial mitogenomes of earthworms (Bimastos parvus, Dendrobaena octaedra, Eisenia andrei, Eisenia nordenskioldi, and Octolasion tyrtaeum) with lengths ranging from 14,977 to 15,715 were presented. Each mitogenome possessed a putative control region that resided between tRNA-Arg and tRNA-His. All of the PCGs were under negative selection according to the value of Ka/Ks. The phylogenetic trees supported the classification of Eisenia and Lumbricus; however, the trees based on cox1 did not. Through various comparisons, it was determined that cox1 fragments might be more suitable for molecular identification. These results lay the foundation for further phylogenetic studies on Lumbricidae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Earthworms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Use of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) for Describing the Species Diversity of Two Coral Reefs in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 579; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110579 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS) have been proposed as a standardized, passive, nondestructive sampling tool. This study assessed the ability of ARMS to capture the cryptic species diversity of two coral reefs by recording species richness and taxonomic representativeness using conventional taxonomy. The [...] Read more.
Autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS) have been proposed as a standardized, passive, nondestructive sampling tool. This study assessed the ability of ARMS to capture the cryptic species diversity of two coral reefs by recording species richness and taxonomic representativeness using conventional taxonomy. The capacity of ARMS, as artificial substrates, to favor the establishment of nonindigenous species over native species was also evaluated. The use of ARMS allowed the detection of 370 species morphotypes from nine phyla, yielding 13 new records of geographic distribution expansion, one exotic species for the Gulf of México and the Caribbean Sea, and six newly described species. It was also possible to make spatial comparisons of species richness between both reefs. ARMS captured cryptic diversity exceptionally well, with the exception of echinoderms. Furthermore, these artificial structures did not hinder the colonization ability of native species; in fact, the colonization patterns on the structures themselves represented the spatial differences in the structure of benthic assemblages. This study represents the first effort to make a conventional taxonomic description of the cryptic fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula using ARMS. It is recommended to assess coral reef species diversity, but more taxonomists specialized in marine invertebrates are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coral Reef Ecology and Biodiversity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A Forest Pool as a Habitat Island for Mites in a Limestone Forest in Southern Norway
Diversity 2021, 13(11), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/d13110578 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Forest water bodies, e.g., pools, constitute ‘environmental islands’ within forests, with specific flora and fauna thus contributing considerably to the landscape biodiversity. The mite communities of Oribatida and Mesostigmata in two distinctive microhabitats, water-soaked Sphagnum mosses at the edge of a pool and [...] Read more.
Forest water bodies, e.g., pools, constitute ‘environmental islands’ within forests, with specific flora and fauna thus contributing considerably to the landscape biodiversity. The mite communities of Oribatida and Mesostigmata in two distinctive microhabitats, water-soaked Sphagnum mosses at the edge of a pool and other mosses growing on the medium-wet forest floor nearby, were compared in a limestone forest in Southern Norway. In total, 16,189 specimens of Oribatida representing 98 species, and 499 specimens of Mesostigmata, from 23 species, were found. The abundance and species number of Oribatida were significantly lower at the pool, while the abundance and species richness of Mesostigmata did not differ. Both the communities of Oribatida and of Mesostigmata differed among the microhabitats studied and analysis showed significant differences between the community structures in the two microhabitats. The most abundant oribatid species in Sphagnum mosses was Parachipteria fanzagoi (Jacot, 1929), which made up over 30% of all Oribatida, followed by Atropacarus striculus (C.L. Koch, 1835) and Tyrphonothrus maior (Berlese, 1910) (14% and 12% of Oribatida, respectively). Among Mesostigmata Paragamasus parrunciger (Bhattacharyya, 1963) dominated (44% of Mesostigmata), followed by P. lapponicus (Trägårdh, 1910) (14% of Mesostigmata). Most of these species, except P. lapponicus, were either absent or very uncommon in the other microhabitat studied. The specific acarofauna of the forest pool shows the importance of such microhabitats in increasing forest diversity. In addition, a quarter of the mite species found had not been reported from Norwegian broadleaf forests before, including five new species records for Norway and four new to Fennoscandia, all found in the medium-wet microhabitat. Most of these species are rarely collected and have their northernmost occurrence in the studied forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropods Associated with Forest Soil and Wood)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop