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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 9 (May-1 2021) – 656 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A desirable neighborhood should ideally be a ‘sweet spot’ in the sense of being green and walkable at the same time. However, these two characteristics of a neighborhood are rarely investigated within the same research scope. We addressed this gap in the context of a large metropolitan city (i.e., Sydney) in Australia by using suburb level walkability (Walk Score®) and greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. From the fine-sourced data and multi-layered analysis within the geographic information system (GIS), we found an overall negative relationship between walkability and greenness with significant local variability. These results indicate that walkability and greenness have inverse or mixed associations in the Sydney metropolitan area. Ongoing planning efforts should focus on turning the neighborhoods into ‘sweet spots’. View this paper.
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Article
Acute Effects of Handheld Loading on Standing Broad Jump in Youth Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5046; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095046 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the acute effects of handheld loading on standing broad jump (SBJ) performance and biomechanics. Fifteen youth male athletes (mean age: 14.7 ± 0.9 years; body mass: 59.3 ± 8.0 kg; height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m) volunteered to participate [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the acute effects of handheld loading on standing broad jump (SBJ) performance and biomechanics. Fifteen youth male athletes (mean age: 14.7 ± 0.9 years; body mass: 59.3 ± 8.0 kg; height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were assigned to perform SBJ with and without 4 kg dumbbells in a random order. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using 10 infrared high-speed motion-capture cameras at a 250 Hz sampling rate and two force platforms at a 1000 Hz sampling rate. A paired t-test was applied to all variables to determine the significance between loading and unloading SBJs. Horizontal distance (p < 0.001), take-off distance (p = 0.001), landing distance (p < 0.001), horizontal velocity of center of mass (CoM; p < 0.001), push time (p < 0.001), vertical impulse (p = 0.003), and peak horizontal and vertical ground reaction force (GRF; p < 0.001, p = 0.017) were significantly greater in loading SBJ than in unloading SBJ. The take-off vertical velocity of CoM (p = 0.001), take-off angle (p < 0.001), peak knee and hip velocity (p < 0.001, p = 0.007), peak ankle and hip moment (p = 0.006, p = 0.011), and peak hip power (p = 0.014) were significantly greater in unloading SBJ than in loading SBJ. Conclusions: Acute enhancement in SBJ performance was observed with handheld loading. The present findings contribute to the understanding of biomechanical differences in SBJ performance with handheld loading and are highly applicable to strength and conditioning training for athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine and Sports Science)
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Article
The Reciprocal Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Health and the Influence of Sex: A European SHARE-Analysis Based on Structural Equation Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5045; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095045 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
It is well recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of health, but many studies fail to address the possibility of reverse causation. We aim to investigate the reciprocal relationship between trajectories of SES and health, and how these associations differ [...] Read more.
It is well recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of health, but many studies fail to address the possibility of reverse causation. We aim to investigate the reciprocal relationship between trajectories of SES and health, and how these associations differ by sex. We performed a longitudinal study including 29,824 men and 37,263 women aged 50+ participating in at least two consecutive waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Using structural equation modeling, we found that baseline household income and wealth led to improvements in cognitive function, grip strength, quality of life and depressive symptoms, and a better initial health led to higher income and wealth for both sexes. However, the results indicated that the relative effect of cognitive function and grip strength on SES trajectories was overall greater than the corresponding effect of SES on health changes, particularly regarding income among women, but for quality of life and depressive symptoms, the reverse was indicated, though most pronounced for the associations with wealth. The reciprocal associations between SES and physical function were stronger for men than for women, whereas most associations with cognitive function and mental health were similar between sexes. This study demonstrates that both social causation and health selection contribute to social inequalities in health, but the influence of each direction and the importance of sex differences may vary according to the health outcomes investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statistical and Epidemiological Methods in Public Health)
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Article
Reorienting Primary Health Care Services for Non-Communicable Diseases: A Comparative Preparedness Assessment of Two Healthcare Networks in Malawi and Zambia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5044; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095044 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Despite positive NCD policies in recent years, majority of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) health systems are inadequately prepared to deliver comprehensive first-line care for NCDs. Primary health care (PHC) settings in countries like Malawi and Zambia could be a doorway to effectively manage NCDs [...] Read more.
Despite positive NCD policies in recent years, majority of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) health systems are inadequately prepared to deliver comprehensive first-line care for NCDs. Primary health care (PHC) settings in countries like Malawi and Zambia could be a doorway to effectively manage NCDs by moving away from delivering only episodic care to providing an integrated approach over time. As part of a collaborative health system strengthening project, we assessed and compared the preparedness and operational capacity of two target networks of public PHC settings in Lilongwe (Malawi) and Lusaka (Zambia) to integrate NCD services within routine service delivery. Data was collected and analyzed using validated health facility survey tools. These baseline assessments conducted between August 2018 and March 2019, also included interviews with 20 on-site health personnel and focal persons, who described existing barriers in delivering NCD services. In both countries, policy directives to decentralize disease-specific NCD services to the primary care level were initiated to meet increased demand but lacked operational guidance. In general, the assessed PHC sites were inadequately prepared to integrate NCDs into various service delivery domains, thus requiring further support. In spite of existing multi-faceted limitations, there was motivation among healthcare staff to provide NCD services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universal Health Coverage for Multimorbidity)
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Article
Contamination of Foods from Cameroon with Residues of 20 Halogenated Pesticides, and Health Risk of Adult Human Dietary Exposure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5043; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095043 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
(1) Background: Halogenated pesticides are abundantly used in Cameroon, but there is no information on the health risk of consumers from exposure to their residues in foods. (2) Methods: Residues of 20 halogenated pesticides were determined in 11 agricultural products collected in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Halogenated pesticides are abundantly used in Cameroon, but there is no information on the health risk of consumers from exposure to their residues in foods. (2) Methods: Residues of 20 halogenated pesticides were determined in 11 agricultural products collected in the 3 largest cities of Cameroon using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and health risk from dietary exposure was assessed. (3) Results: Organochlorines pesticides aldrin, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) found in 85.0%, 81.9% and 72.5% of samples, respectively, were the most frequently detected. The highest average concentrations of residues were 1.12, 0.74 and 0.39 mg/kg for methoxychlor, alachlor and β-HCH, respectively, found in chilli pepper. Chili pepper (58.9%), cowpea (56.8%), black beans (56.5%) and kidney beans (54.0%) exhibited the highest residue occurrences. Levels above the European Union maximum residue limits (MRLs) were found for all the 20 pesticides, in 40.1% of the positive analyses, and the food samples contained 14 pesticides banned in Cameroon. Chronic, acute, cumulative and carcinogenic risk assessments revealed that lifetime consumption of maize, black beans, kidney beans, groundnuts and chili pepper contaminated with aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE and β-HCH, could pose health risks. (4) Conclusion: These results show that there is an urgent need of pesticide usage regulation, effective application of pesticide bans and management of obsolete pesticide stocks in Cameroon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticide Risk Assessment: Human and Environmental)
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Article
Foot Pain and Morphofunctional Foot Disorders in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5042; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095042 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Foot problems are highly prevalent in people with rheumatoid arthritis. This study aims to explore the foot morphology, pain and function in rheumatoid arthritis patients and the relation with the time of disease debut. A cross-sectional study was designed. Footprint, the Foot Posture [...] Read more.
Foot problems are highly prevalent in people with rheumatoid arthritis. This study aims to explore the foot morphology, pain and function in rheumatoid arthritis patients and the relation with the time of disease debut. A cross-sectional study was designed. Footprint, the Foot Posture Index, the hallux valgus prevalence, foot pain and function in 66 rheumatoid arthritis patients and the association with time since diagnosis, were recorded. The Foot Function Index, the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, the Visual Analogic Scale, and the Manchester Scale for hallux valgus were administered and analyzed in two groups, with less and more than 10 years of diagnosis of the disease. A high prevalence of pronated (right 36.8% and left 38.6%) and highly pronated (right 15.8% and left 15.8%) feet was observed, as well as an elevated percentage of low arched footprints (right 68.4 and left 66.7%) and hallux valgus (right 59.6% and left 54.4%). Hallux valgus prevalence, toe deformities and Foot Function Index (Functional limitation) factors were significantly associated with the time since RA diagnosed adjusted for the other factors. The adjusted odds ratio of Hallux valgus prevalence was 4.9 (1.2–19.7). In addition, the foot function was diminished, and foot pain was present in most participants. In conclusion, rheumatoid arthritis patients’ feet showed altered morphology and function, and with longer rheumatoid arthritis history, metatarsophalangical stability and foot function, but not pain and global foot posture, were likely to deteriorate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Foot Posture Assessment and Health Implications)
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Article
The First Polish Isolate of a Novel Species Pectobacterium aquaticum Originates from a Pomeranian Lake
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095041 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Pectinolytic bacteria from the genus Pectobacterium cause high economic losses in various crops, vegetables, and ornamentals including potato. Thus far, these strains have been isolated from distinct environments such as rotten or asymptomatic plants, soil, and waterways. The prevalence of soft rot Pectobacteriaceae [...] Read more.
Pectinolytic bacteria from the genus Pectobacterium cause high economic losses in various crops, vegetables, and ornamentals including potato. Thus far, these strains have been isolated from distinct environments such as rotten or asymptomatic plants, soil, and waterways. The prevalence of soft rot Pectobacteriaceae in different depths of Pomeranian lakes was performed by a qualified scuba diver over 2 years of monitoring. It allowed for the isolation and broad characterization of a strain from the newly established species Pectobacterium aquaticum. Phylogenetic analysis on the sequences of dnaX and recA genes revealed the highest similarity of this strain to P. aquaticum CFBP 8637T. In addition to the determination of analytical profile index (API 20E), we discovered that this strain possesses a smooth form of a lipopolysaccharide with O-polysaccharide consisting of mannose, glucose, and abequose. Moreover, the characterized strain, described as P. aquaticum IFB5637, produced plant-cell–wall-degrading enzymes, such as pectinases, cellulases, proteases, and was capable of macerating potato and chicory tissues under laboratory conditions. In view of more frequent irrigation of seed potato fields resulting from the ongoing climate warming, it is important to monitor the occurrence of potential disease-causing agents in natural waterways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Environmental Microbiology)
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Article
Effect of Craniofacial Morphology on Pharyngeal Airway Volume Measured Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)—A Retrospective Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5040; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095040 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Background: The present study aimed to determine the correlation between pharyngeal airway volume and craniofacial morphology through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Additionally, the study analyzed the influence of gender on pharyngeal airway volume. (2) Methods: 80 CBCT scans of 40 male and 40 [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aimed to determine the correlation between pharyngeal airway volume and craniofacial morphology through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Additionally, the study analyzed the influence of gender on pharyngeal airway volume. (2) Methods: 80 CBCT scans of 40 male and 40 female patients (mean age: 15.38 + 1.10 years) fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. CBCT scans were evaluated for pharyngeal airway volume using the In Vivo Dental 5.1 software. Additionally, CBCT-derived lateral cephalograms were used to assess various craniofacial morphology parameters. To examine the influences of gender on airway volume, T-test was carried out. Correlation between airway volume and craniofacial parameters were measured using Pearson correlation followed by regression analysis. The value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean airway volume was significantly greater in males than in females. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between maxillary plane inclination and pharyngeal airway volume. In contrast, a positive correlation was observed between mandibular length and lower molar inclination with oropharyngeal and total pharyngeal airway volume. Females showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the pharyngeal airway volume and sagittal position of maxilla and mandible; they also showed a negative correlation between oropharyngeal airway volume and the mandibular plane angle. Conclusions: Overall, the pharyngeal airway space differs significantly between males and females. Craniofacial morphology does have a significant effect on the pharyngeal airway, especially on the oropharyngeal airway volume. Full article
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Article
Sagittal Integral Morphotype of Female Classical Ballet Dancers and Predictors of Sciatica and Low Back Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5039; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095039 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
The aims of this study were to describe the sagittal integral morphotype (SIM) of classical ballet (CB) dancers, and to establish predictor factors and their cut off values for high risk of experiencing sciatica or low back pain (LBP). This retrospective cohort study [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to describe the sagittal integral morphotype (SIM) of classical ballet (CB) dancers, and to establish predictor factors and their cut off values for high risk of experiencing sciatica or low back pain (LBP). This retrospective cohort study was performed in 33 female professional CB dancers. Data related to anthropometric parameters, CB dance experience, sciatica or LBP history, and sagittal spine curvatures were collected. A binary logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic analysis were performed. The main spine misalignments observed in the SIM of CB dancers were thoracic functional hyperkyphosis, hypomobile kyphosis, and hypokyphosis, and those for the lumbar curvature were hyperlordotic attitude and functional hyperkyphosis. The lumbar curvature in slump sitting and trunk forward bending positions, together with the stature, were significant predictor factors of sciatica history, while the years of dance experience was a significant predictor factor of LBP history. The cut off values analysis revealed that dancers with a stature of 161 cm or less, and those with 14 years of experience or more, have a greater probability of experiencing sciatica or LBP history, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Rehabilitation and Performance of Athletes)
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Review
The Effect of Alcohol on Telomere Length: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Evidence and a Pilot Study during Pregnancy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095038 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Several studies—albeit with still inconclusive and limited findings—began to focus on the effect of drinking alcohol on telomere length (TL). Here, we present results from a systematic review of these epidemiological studies to investigate the potential association between alcohol consumption, alcohol-related disorders, and [...] Read more.
Several studies—albeit with still inconclusive and limited findings—began to focus on the effect of drinking alcohol on telomere length (TL). Here, we present results from a systematic review of these epidemiological studies to investigate the potential association between alcohol consumption, alcohol-related disorders, and TL. The analysis of fourteen studies—selected from PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science databases—showed that people with alcohol-related disorders exhibited shorter TL, but also that alcohol consumption per se did not appear to affect TL in the absence of alcohol abuse or dependence. Our work also revealed a lack of studies in the periconceptional period, raising the need for evaluating this potential relationship during pregnancy. To fill this gap, we conducted a pilot study using data and samples form the Mamma & Bambino cohort. We compared five non-smoking but drinking women with ten non-smoking and non-drinking women, matched for maternal age, gestational age at recruitment, pregestational body mass index, and fetal sex. Interestingly, we detected a significant difference when analyzing relative TL of leukocyte DNA of cord blood samples from newborns. In particular, newborns from drinking women exhibited shorter relative TL than those born from non-drinking women (p = 0.024). Although these findings appeared promising, further research should be encouraged to test any dose–response relationship, to adjust for the effect of other exposures, and to understand the molecular mechanisms involved. Full article
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Article
Different Time Scale Distribution of Negative Air Ions Concentrations in Mount Wuyi National Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095037 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
The concentration of negative air ions (NAIs) is an important indicator of air quality. Here, we analyzed the distribution patterns of negative air ion (NAI) concentrations at different time scales using statistical methods; then described the contribution of meteorological factors of the different [...] Read more.
The concentration of negative air ions (NAIs) is an important indicator of air quality. Here, we analyzed the distribution patterns of negative air ion (NAI) concentrations at different time scales using statistical methods; then described the contribution of meteorological factors of the different season to the concentration of NAIs using correlation analysis and regression analysis; and finally made the outlook for the trends of NAI concentrations in the prospective using the auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. The dataset of NAI concentrations and meteorological factors measured at the fixed stations in the Mountain Wuyi National Park were obtained from the Fujian Provincial Meteorological Bureau. The study showed that NAI concentrations were correlated with relative humidity spanning all seasons. Water was an important factor affecting the distribution of NAI concentrations in different time series. Compared with other ARIMA models, the outlook value of the ARIMA (0,1, 1) model was closer to the original data and the errors were smaller. This article provided a unique perspective on the study of the distribution of negative air oxygen ions over time series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Article
Explanatory Factors of Burnout in a Sample of Workers with Disabilities from the Special Employment Centres (SEC) of the Amica Association, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5036; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095036 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Background: we have based our study on the fact that the labour market is progressively becoming more accessible for people with disabilities. This investigation aims to identify the factors that contribute to high levels of work-related stress in a group of disabled individuals [...] Read more.
Background: we have based our study on the fact that the labour market is progressively becoming more accessible for people with disabilities. This investigation aims to identify the factors that contribute to high levels of work-related stress in a group of disabled individuals in order to develop policies to prevent it and promote the health of the workforce. Methods: 131 workers from two Special Employment Centres (SECs) of the Amica Association in Cantabria (Spain) participated in the study. Sociodemographic and job-related variables were collected using a questionnaire. Work-related stress was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), which analyzes emotional exhaustion, cynicism and personal efficacy. Results: the main explanatory factors for higher levels of emotional exhaustion were more than 5 years of service in the company (OR 3.235–IC 95% 1.392–7.519; p = 0.006) and bad job satisfaction (OR 7.615–IC 95% 2.467–23.503; p = 0.0001); higher levels of cynicism were also explained by bad job satisfaction (OR 8.599–IC 95% 2.481–29.799; p = 0.001). Conclusions: future research is needed to facilitate the design of company policies and promote the well-being of the disabled population in the workplace, to avoid pathological conditions such as burnout syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disability, Ageing, and Social Capital)
Commentary
Challenges to Mitigating the Urban Health Burden of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in the Face of Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5035; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095035 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050, and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. [...] Read more.
Cities worldwide are facing ever-increasing pressure to develop mitigation strategies for all sectors to deal with the impacts of climate change. Cities are expected to house 70% of the world’s population by 2050, and developing related resilient health systems is a significant challenge. Because of their physical nature, cities’ surface temperatures are often substantially higher than that of the surrounding rural areas, generating the so-called Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Whilst considerable emphasis has been placed on strategies to mitigate against the UHI-associated negative health effects of heat and pollution in cities, mosquito-borne diseases have largely been ignored. However, the World Health Organization estimates that one of the main consequences of global warming will be an increased burden of mosquito-borne diseases, many of which have an urban facet to their epidemiology and thus the global population exposed to these pathogens will steadily increase. Current health mitigation strategies for heat and pollution, for example, may, however, be detrimental for mosquito-borne diseases. Implementation of multi-sectoral strategies that can benefit many sectors (such as water, labor, and health) do exist or can be envisaged and would enable optimal use of the meagre resources available. Discussion among multi-sectoral stakeholders should be actively encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthier Cities in Changing Urban Landscapes)
Article
A Methodological Model for the Promotion of Sexual Corporeal Health and Self-Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5034; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095034 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 499
Abstract
The objective of this article is to contribute to sex education with a methodology that facilitates subjective expression through the body in its different experiences. For that, we propose an intertextual model of sexual self-care that focuses on gender and rights. This work [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to contribute to sex education with a methodology that facilitates subjective expression through the body in its different experiences. For that, we propose an intertextual model of sexual self-care that focuses on gender and rights. This work strategy stimulates the emergence of meanings and discourses embodied in a protagonist’s body. These procedures are applied in interactive workshops, where the experience narrated, written and graphed on one’s own body and sexuality is articulated. Based on this amalgam, a body map is drawn that illustrates a geography of interpersonal relationships. In the process, the importance of gender mandates, coming from meaningful figures, is understood. From these findings it is possible to self-analyze experiences that emerge from the intrapsychic levels weaved with sociocultural and emotional experiences, which opens opportunities for the deconstruction of hegemonic positions. The relationship that develops between the person who produces the intertextual map of the body and the person who orients the process is dialogical in that the notions of authorship, agency and subjective autonomy are recognized, which increases the possibilities of redefining gender’s position in social relationships and provides a strategy for educational programs considered from the protagonist’s perspective. It is concluded that this model facilitates the process of corporeal self-care in that it strengthens autonomy through the recognition of authorship and agency, strengthening the redefinition of a gendered position in social relationships, providing a strategy for educational prevention programs and the promotion of sexuality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sexual Health and Sexual Rights)
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Article
Sedentary Time, Physical Activity Levels and Physical Fitness in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5033; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095033 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Purpose: This cross-sectional study assessed the associations of gender, age, level of intellectual disabilities (IDs) and of daily sedentary and physical activity (PA) time with physical fitness in adults with ID. Materials and methods: Sixty adults (mean age = 39.19 ± [...] Read more.
Purpose: This cross-sectional study assessed the associations of gender, age, level of intellectual disabilities (IDs) and of daily sedentary and physical activity (PA) time with physical fitness in adults with ID. Materials and methods: Sixty adults (mean age = 39.19 ± 11.70 years) with ID participated in this cross-sectional study. PA was monitored for 7 days using an ActiGraph GT3X monitor. Physical fitness was measured with a 6-min walking test, isometric push-up test, modified curl-up test, handgrip strength test, and back-saver sit-and-reach test. Results: (a) An age of ≥39 years and female gender were associated with lower performance in multiple aspects of physical fitness. (b) More moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with greater muscular strength and endurance (modified curl-ups: β = 0.36, p < 0.01; handgrip strength: right, β = 0.52, p < 0.01; left, β = 0.52, p < 0.01). (c) More light-intensity PA (LPA) was associated with greater upper-body muscular endurance (β = 0.42, p < 0.01) and greater flexibility (right leg: β = 0.36, p < 0.01; left leg: β = 0.38, p < 0.01). Conclusion: LPA may be as beneficial as MVPA to the physical fitness of adults with ID. Future studies should focus on developing effective PA interventions for adults with ID, especially for women and individuals aged ≥39 years, by incorporating both LPA and MVPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Lifestyle, Nutrition, Consumer Behavior and Family Health)
Article
Tooth Loss and Blood Pressure in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: An Exploratory Study on NHANES Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095032 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate tooth loss severity in PD patients and the impact of missing teeth on blood pressure (BP) and glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) levels. Methods: All adults reporting specific PD medication regimens with complete dental examinations were included from the NHANES 2001 to [...] Read more.
Objectives: To evaluate tooth loss severity in PD patients and the impact of missing teeth on blood pressure (BP) and glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) levels. Methods: All adults reporting specific PD medication regimens with complete dental examinations were included from the NHANES 2001 to 2018 databases. Sociodemographic, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and Hba1c data were compared according to tooth loss severity, and linear regression analyses on the impact of tooth loss on SBP, DBP and Hba1c levels were conducted. Results: The 214 included participants presented 9.7 missing teeth, 23.8% severe tooth loss and 18.2% total edentulousness. Severe tooth loss cases were significantly older (p < 0.001), had higher smoking prevalence (p = 0.008), chronic medical conditions (p = 0.012) and higher Hba1c (p = 0.001), SBP (p = 0.015) and DBP (p < 0.001) levels. Crude and adjusted linear models revealed a relationship between SBP, DBP and missing teeth; however, age confounded these links (SBP: B = 0.10, SE = 0.16, p < 0.05; DBP: B = 0.16, SE = 0.10, p < 0.05). Tooth loss presented no significant relationship with Hba1c levels. Conclusions: Severe tooth loss is prevalent among PD patients. Blood pressure levels showed a positive linear relationship with the number of missing teeth, although age was a confounding factor. Furthermore, tooth loss and Hba1c levels revealed no significant linear relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationships between Oral Health Management and Systemic Health)
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Article
Physicians’ and Nurses’ Knowledge in Palliative Care: Multidimensional Regression Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5031; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095031 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The increase in life expectancy has led to a growth in the number of people in need of palliative care. Health professionals must possess appropriate knowledge and skills. This study aimed to assess knowledge in palliative care through the Palliative Care Knowledge Test [...] Read more.
The increase in life expectancy has led to a growth in the number of people in need of palliative care. Health professionals must possess appropriate knowledge and skills. This study aimed to assess knowledge in palliative care through the Palliative Care Knowledge Test Spanish Version (PCKT-SV)®. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 40 primary care health services. A total of 600 PCKT-SV questionnaires were distributed among health professionals; 561 of them (226 nurses and 335 physicians) were properly filled up. Sociodemographic information, education, and work experience were also recorded. A total of 34.41% of the nurses and 67.40% of the physicians showed good or excellent knowledge of palliative care. Physicians’ scores for pain, dyspnea, and psychiatric disorders were higher than those of the nurses. Nurses scored significantly better in philosophy. Professionals with continuous training in palliative care showed a higher level of knowledge. Age and work experience of physicians and undergraduate training in nurses had significant weight in knowledge. Developing continuous training and enhancing undergraduate training in palliative care will lead to improved patient care at the end of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palliative Care and Cancer at the End of Life)
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Article
The Availability of Culturally Preferred Fruits, Vegetables and Whole Grains in Corner Stores and Non-Traditional Food Stores
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5030; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095030 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Chronic health inequities for communities of color is partially attributed to a lack of healthy preferred food access. This manuscript explores whether corner stores and non-traditional food stores stock fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods that the area cultural communities may prefer as [...] Read more.
Chronic health inequities for communities of color is partially attributed to a lack of healthy preferred food access. This manuscript explores whether corner stores and non-traditional food stores stock fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods that the area cultural communities may prefer as part of complying with a local ordinance. This exploratory analysis identified corner and non-traditional food stores located in immigrant populations of color and African American neighborhoods as part of a larger study. Culturally preferred foods were identified from a list of food items in the parent (STORE) study and used to assess changes in availability. Stores did not have a great variety of culturally relevant foods pre- or post-ordinance, and overall findings show no significant changes over time and/or between ordinance and control community. Further interventions are needed to address cultural food availability in stores near communities of color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Systematic Review
Prophylactic Dose of Oxytocin for Uterine Atony during Caesarean Delivery: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095029 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Objective—to overview, compare and generalize results of randomized clinical trials analyzing different oxytocin doses to prevent postpartum hemorrhage, initiate and maintain uterine contraction after Caesarean delivery. Methods—‘PubMed’, ‘EMBASE’, ‘CENTRAL’, and ‘CINAHL’ electronic databases were searched for clinical trials analyzing the effectiveness of different [...] Read more.
Objective—to overview, compare and generalize results of randomized clinical trials analyzing different oxytocin doses to prevent postpartum hemorrhage, initiate and maintain uterine contraction after Caesarean delivery. Methods—‘PubMed’, ‘EMBASE’, ‘CENTRAL’, and ‘CINAHL’ electronic databases were searched for clinical trials analyzing the effectiveness of different dose of oxytocin given intravenously during surgery for uterine contraction and to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. A systematic review of relevant literature sources was performed. Results—our search revealed 813 literature sources. A total of 15 randomized clinical trials, comparing different doses of oxytocin bolus and infusion used after caesarean delivery have met the selection criteria. Conclusion—oxytocin bolus 0.5–3 UI is considered an effective prophylactic dose. Recommended effective prophylactic oxytocin infusion dose is 7.72 IU/h, but it is unanswered whether we really need a prophylactic infusion of oxytocin if we choose effective bolus dose size and rate. Adverse hemodynamic effects were observed when a 5 UI oxytocin bolus was used. However, topics such as bolus dose size, infusion dose size and requirement as well as bolus injection rate, still remain unanswered. The doses that are recommended in the guidelines of peripartum hemorrhage prophylaxis are not confirmed by randomized controlled double-blind trials and more research should cover this topic. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Home-Based and Mobility-Based Exposure to Black Carbon in an Urban Environment: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5028; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095028 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
The combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of particulate-bound black carbon (BC) in urban environments. The personal exposure (PE) of urban dwellers to BC and subsequent health impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of observational data. In this study, [...] Read more.
The combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of particulate-bound black carbon (BC) in urban environments. The personal exposure (PE) of urban dwellers to BC and subsequent health impacts remain poorly understood due to a lack of observational data. In this study, we assessed and quantified the levels of PE to BC under two exposure scenarios (home-based and mobility-based exposure) in the city of Trivandrum in India. In the home-based scenario, the PE to BC was assessed in a naturally ventilated building over 24 h each day during the study period while in the mobility-based scenario, the PE to BC was monitored across diverse microenvironments (MEs) during the day using the same study protocol for consistency. Elevated BC concentrations were observed during the transport by motorcycle (26.23 ± 2.33 µg/m3) and car (17.49 ± 2.37 µg/m3). The BC concentrations observed in the MEs decreased in the following order: 16.58 ± 1.38 µg/m3 (temple), 13.78 ± 2.07 µg/m3 (restaurant), 11.44 ± 1.37 µg/m3 (bus stop), and 8.27 ± 1.88 µg/m3 (home); the standard deviations represent the temporal and spatial variations of BC concentrations. Overall, a relatively larger inhaled dose of BC in the range of 148.98–163.87 µg/day was observed for the mobility-based scenario compared to the home-based one (118.10–137.03 µg/day). This work highlights the importance of reducing PE to fossil fuel-related particulate emissions in cities for which BC is a good indicator. The study outcome could be used to formulate effective strategies to improve the urban air quality as well as public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outdoor and Indoor Air Quality)
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Article
Resilience Coping in Preschool Children: The Role of Emotional Ability, Age, and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5027; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095027 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Background: In the process of children’s physical and mental development, emotional ability is an important part of their cognitive and social ability. Resilience in the face of difficulties or setbacks and other adversity will also produce differences in adaptability, thus affecting physical and [...] Read more.
Background: In the process of children’s physical and mental development, emotional ability is an important part of their cognitive and social ability. Resilience in the face of difficulties or setbacks and other adversity will also produce differences in adaptability, thus affecting physical and mental development. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the effect of children’s emotional ability on resilience and to provide an in-depth analysis based on age and gender differences. Methodology: A total of 300 preschool children aged 3–6 years old in kindergartens of China were randomly selected as the research subjects. Through a combination of experiments and questionnaires, the emotional ability and resilience of children were measured, and differences were analyzed according to the actual situation, using age and gender. Results: Children of different ages have significant differences in the dimensions and total scores of emotional ability and resilience, but only some of the resilience dimensions have significant gender differences. Moreover, the emotional ability has a significant positive effect on resilience. Discussions: The results confirm the influence of children’s emotional ability on resilience, but the research hypothesis has not been fully verified. Limitations: This study has the limitations of a single measurement method and a more effective research tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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Article
Acute Local Cooling to the Lower Body during Recovery Does Not Improve Repeated Vertical Jump Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5026; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095026 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Local cooling, or cryotherapy, has received attention due to its effects on athlete recovery before or after strenuous exercise. This study seeks to verify the effectiveness of 3 min applications of acute local cooling to the lower extremities between sets of a [...] Read more.
BACKGROUND: Local cooling, or cryotherapy, has received attention due to its effects on athlete recovery before or after strenuous exercise. This study seeks to verify the effectiveness of 3 min applications of acute local cooling to the lower extremities between sets of a repeated vertical jump exercise. METHODS: Using a randomized crossover design, twelve subjects performed a total of 3 sets of 30 consecutive maximal vertical jumps and were allowed a recovery period of 5 min after each set. In the recovery period, subjects rested with or without a cooling suit worn on their lower legs. Changes in heart rate, blood lactate, and rate of perceived exertion were assessed. RESULTS: Vertical jump performance steadily decreased during 30 consecutive vertical jumps in all 3 sets; however, no differences in jump performance were observed among the groups. Heart rate, blood lactate, and rate of perceived exertion tended to be lower in the cooling recovery group relative to the control group. CONCLUSION: The current study provides evidence that acute local cooling recovery after a vertical jump exercise may not add any performance benefits but may provide a psychological benefit. The effectiveness of acute local cooling in other functional performances should be addressed in further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Performance Physiology)
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Article
Improving Health Literacy Responsiveness: A Randomized Study on the Uptake of Brochures on Doctor-Patient Communication in Primary Health Care Waiting Rooms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5025; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095025 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Presenting attractive and useful health education materials in waiting rooms can help improve an organization’s health literacy responsiveness. However, it is unclear to what extent patients may be interested in health education materials, such as brochures. We conducted a three-week field study in [...] Read more.
Presenting attractive and useful health education materials in waiting rooms can help improve an organization’s health literacy responsiveness. However, it is unclear to what extent patients may be interested in health education materials, such as brochures. We conducted a three-week field study in waiting rooms of three primary care centers in Groningen. Three versions of a brochure on doctor-patient communication were randomly distributed, 2250 in total. One version contained six short photo stories, another version was non-narrative but contained comparable photos, and the third version was a traditional brochure. Each day we counted how many brochures were taken. We also asked patients (N = 471) to participate in a brief interview. Patients who consented (N = 390) were asked if they had noticed the brochure. If yes (N = 135), they were asked why they had or had not browsed the brochure, and why they had or had not taken it. Interview responses were categorized by two authors. Only 2.9% of the brochures were taken; no significant association with brochure version was found. Analysis of the interview data showed that the version with the photo narrative was noticed significantly more often than the non-narrative version or the traditional version. These results suggest that designing attractive and comprehensible health materials is not enough. Healthcare organizations should also create effective strategies to reach their target population. Full article
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Communication
Can N Fertilizer Addition Affect N2O Isotopocule Signatures for Soil N2O Source Partitioning?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5024; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095024 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Isotopocule signatures of N2O (δ15Nbulk, δ18O and site preference) are useful for discerning soil N2O source, but sometimes, N fertilizer is needed to ensure that there is enough N2O flux for [...] Read more.
Isotopocule signatures of N2O (δ15Nbulk, δ18O and site preference) are useful for discerning soil N2O source, but sometimes, N fertilizer is needed to ensure that there is enough N2O flux for accurate isotopocule measurements. However, whether fertilizer affects these measurements is unknown. This study evaluated a gradient of NH4NO3 addition on N2O productions and isotopocule values in two acidic subtropical soils. The results showed that N2O production rates obviously amplified with increasing NH4NO3 (p < 0.01), although a lower N2O production rate and an increasing extent appeared in forest soil. The δ15Nbulk of N2O produced in forest soil was progressively enriched when more NH4NO3 was added, while becoming more depleted of agricultural soil. Moreover, the N2O site preference (SP) values collectively elevated with increasing NH4NO3 in both soils, indicating that N2O contributions changed. The increased N2O production in agricultural soil was predominantly due to the added NH4NO3 via autotrophic nitrification and fungal denitrification (beyond 50%), which significantly increased with added NH4NO3, whereas soil organic nitrogen contributed most to N2O production in forest soil, probably via heterotrophic nitrification. Lacking the characteristic SP of heterotrophic nitrification, its N2O contribution change cannot be accurately identified yet. Overall, N fertilizer should be applied strictly according to the field application rate or N deposition amount when using isotopocule signatures to estimate soil N2O processes. Full article
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Article
Modelling Farmers’ Watershed Ecological Protection Behaviour with the Value-Belief-Norm Theory: A Case Study of the Wei River Basin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5023; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095023 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Encouraging farmers to protect their environment is of great significance in improving watershed ecological environments and promoting the sustainable development of the watershed economy. To explore the factors influencing farmers’ ecological protection behaviours in the river basin, we constructed a structural equation model [...] Read more.
Encouraging farmers to protect their environment is of great significance in improving watershed ecological environments and promoting the sustainable development of the watershed economy. To explore the factors influencing farmers’ ecological protection behaviours in the river basin, we constructed a structural equation model to analyse the survey questionnaire responses of 719 farmers in the Wei River Basin, Shaanxi Province, China. The theoretical framework incorporated farmers’ watershed belonging and social capital into an extended value-belief-norm model. Robustness tests revealed that incorporating these variables was valid. Personality norms, watershed belonging, and social capital all had direct positive effects on farmers’ watershed ecological protection behaviour. Value orientation, environmental concern, consequences awareness, and responsibility attribution influenced the next variable in a causal chain and finally acted on watershed ecological protection behaviour indirectly through personality norms. Farmers’ watershed belonging and social capital positively impacted individual norm; through this, there was an indirect positive impact on their watershed ecological protection behaviour. Moreover, watershed belonging and social capital reinforced each other. Full article
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Article
Shaping Sustainable Urban Environments by Addressing the Hydro-Meteorological Factors in Landslide Occurrence: Ciuperca Hill (Oradea, Romania)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5022; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095022 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Romania is one of the countries severely affected by numerous natural hazards, where landslides constitute a very common geomorphic hazard with strong economic and social impacts. The analyzed area, known as the “Ciuperca Hill”, is located in Oradea (NW part of Romania) and [...] Read more.
Romania is one of the countries severely affected by numerous natural hazards, where landslides constitute a very common geomorphic hazard with strong economic and social impacts. The analyzed area, known as the “Ciuperca Hill”, is located in Oradea (NW part of Romania) and it has experienced a number of landsliding events in previous years, which have endangered anthropogenic systems. Our investigation, focused on the main causal factors, determined that landslide events have rather complex components, reflected in the joint climatological characteristics, properties of the geological substrate, and human activity that further contributed to the intensive change of landscape and acceleration of slope instability. Analysis of daily precipitation displays the occurrence and intensive distribution between May and September. Higher values of rainfall erosivity (observed for the 2014–2017 period), are occurring between April and August. Erosivity density follows this pattern and indicates high intensity events from April until October. SPI index reveals the greater presence of various wet classes during the investigated period. Geological substrate has been found to be highly susceptible to erosion and landsliding when climatological conditions are suitable. Accelerated urbanization and reduced vegetation cover intensified slope instability. The authors implemented adequate remote-sensing techniques in order to monitor and assess the temporal changes in landslide events at local level. Potential solutions for preventative actions are given in order to introduce and conduct qualitative mitigation strategies for shaping sustainable urban environments. Results from this study could have implications for mitigation strategies at national, regional, county, and municipality levels, providing knowledge for the enhancement of geohazard prevention and appropriate response plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Article
The Influence of Rurality on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and BMI: Findings in Mississippi Are Not Consistent with Those at the National Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095021 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Sixty percent of Americans have at least one chronic disease that is both diet-related and preventable. Those living in rural areas often experience a greater burden of disease than those who live near a city center. The purpose of this study is to [...] Read more.
Sixty percent of Americans have at least one chronic disease that is both diet-related and preventable. Those living in rural areas often experience a greater burden of disease than those who live near a city center. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of rurality on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and BMI. Additionally, the study compares national results to those in Mississippi, a state with an aging population, and high rates of poverty, rurality, poor diet, and obesity. Data utilized were from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. One-way analyses of covariance were performed to determine impact of rurality on nutritional intake and BMI, while controlling for age, income, education, race, and the presence of children in the home. At the national level, rurality had a significant impact on BMI, and the daily intake of fruit juice, fruits, dark green vegetables, French fries, potatoes, other vegetables, and total daily vegetable intake. BMI and nutritional intake of those living in Mississippi was significantly poorer than those living in other states. More research is needed to determine how to best facilitate access to healthy FVs for those living in rural communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Health Promotion in Rural Areas)
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Article
Correlation in Causality: A Progressive Study of Hierarchical Relations within Human and Organizational Factors in Coal Mine Accidents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5020; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095020 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 402
Abstract
It has been revealed in numerous investigation reports that human and organizational factors (HOFs) are the fundamental causes of coal mine accidents. However, with various kinds of accident-causing factors in coal mines, the lack of systematic analysis of causality within specific HOFs could [...] Read more.
It has been revealed in numerous investigation reports that human and organizational factors (HOFs) are the fundamental causes of coal mine accidents. However, with various kinds of accident-causing factors in coal mines, the lack of systematic analysis of causality within specific HOFs could lead to defective accident precautions. Therefore, this study centered on the data-driven concept and selected 883 coal mine accident reports from 2011 to 2020 as the original data to discover the influencing paths of specific HOFs. First, 55 manifestations with the characteristics of the coal mine accidents were extracted by text segmentation. Second, according to their own attributes, all manifestations were mapped into the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), forming a modified HFACS-CM framework in China’s coal-mining industry with 5 categories, 19 subcategories and 42 unsafe factors. Finally, the Apriori association algorithm was applied to discover the causal association rules among external influences, organizational influences, unsafe supervision, preconditions for unsafe acts and direct unsafe acts layer by layer, exposing four clear accident-causing “trajectories” in HAFCS-CM. This study contributes to the establishment of a systematic causation model for analyzing the causes of coal mine accidents and helps form corresponding risk prevention measures directly and objectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk-Reduction Research in Occupational Safety and Ergonomics)
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Article
A Real-World Study of the Association between a Brief Group Psychoeducation and the Course of Bipolar Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5019; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095019 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Although pharmacotherapy is considered the first-line treatment for bipolar disorders (BD), adjunctive psychoeducation has proven its effectiveness in improving self-management of the disease and reducing relapse rates. Few studies have evaluated the effect of brief group psychoeducation on pragmatic variables, such as the [...] Read more.
Although pharmacotherapy is considered the first-line treatment for bipolar disorders (BD), adjunctive psychoeducation has proven its effectiveness in improving self-management of the disease and reducing relapse rates. Few studies have evaluated the effect of brief group psychoeducation on pragmatic variables, such as the number of hospitalizations. The aim of the present study was to assess the mid-term effect of a four-session group psychoeducation on course-related variables in BD. Thirty-two individuals with BD were included in the study. Sixteen were exposed to psychoeducation and were matched to sixteen nonexposed individuals who received their usual treatment. Both groups were compared on insight, treatment adherence, change in the number of hospitalizations and visits to the emergency services, occurrence rate after intervention, and time to the first psychiatric hospitalization and the first urgent attendance. There was a significant reduction in the mean number of hospitalizations and urgent attendances in the exposed group in comparison to the nonexposed group. The first urgent attendance was significantly sooner in the nonexposed cohort. There were no differences between groups in any of the other variables. This intervention has shown benefits for pragmatic variables of the disease course and may be a feasible and cost-effective intervention to routinely implement in the management of BD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Treatments in Routine Mental Health Care)
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Article
Integrating Social Determinants of Health to Precision Medicine through Digital Transformation: An Exploratory Roadmap
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5018; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095018 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has altered healthcare delivery platforms from traditional face-to-face formats to online care through digital tools. The healthcare industry saw a rapid adoption of digital collaborative tools to provide care to patients, regardless of where patients or clinicians were located, while [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has altered healthcare delivery platforms from traditional face-to-face formats to online care through digital tools. The healthcare industry saw a rapid adoption of digital collaborative tools to provide care to patients, regardless of where patients or clinicians were located, while mitigating the risk of exposure to the coronavirus. Information technologies now allow healthcare providers to continue a high level of care for their patients through virtual visits, and to collaborate with other providers in the networks. Population health can be improved by social determinants of health and precision medicine working together. However, these two health-enhancing constructs work independently, resulting in suboptimal health results. This paper argues that artificial intelligence can provide clinical–community linkage that enhances overall population health. An exploratory roadmap is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Healthcare Innovation)
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Article
Biomechanical Aspects of the Foot Arch, Body Balance and Body Weight Composition of Boys Training Football
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 5017; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18095017 - 10 May 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Background: The aim of the study is to assess the body balance and podological parameters and body composition of young footballers in the context of the control of football training. Methods: The study examined the distribution of the pressure of the part of [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the study is to assess the body balance and podological parameters and body composition of young footballers in the context of the control of football training. Methods: The study examined the distribution of the pressure of the part of the foot on the ground, the arch of the foot, and the analysis of the body composition of the boys. The pressure center for both feet and the whole body was also examined. The study involved 90 youth footballers from Olsztyn and Barczewo in three age groups: 8–10 years, 11–13 years old, and 14–16 years. The study used the Inbody 270 body composition analyzer and the EPSR1, a mat that measures the pressure distribution of the feet on the ground. Results: The results showed statistically significant differences in almost every case for each area of the foot between the groups of the examined boys. The most significant differences were observed for the metatarsal area and the left heel. In the case of stabilization of the whole body, statistically significant differences were noted between all study groups. In the case of the body composition parameters, in the examined boys, a coherent direction of changes was noticed for most of them. The relationships and correlations between the examined parameters were also investigated. The significance level in the study was set at p < 0.05. Conclusions: Under the training rigor, a statistically significant increase in stability was observed with age. The total length of the longitudinal arch of both feet of the examined boys showed a tendency to flatten in direct proportion to the age of the examined boys. Mean values of the body composition parameters reflect changes with the ontogenetic development, basic somatic parameters (body height and weight) and training experience, and thus with the intensity and volume of training. This indicates a correct training process that does not interfere with the proper development of the body in terms of tissue and biochemical composition. Full article
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