Next Issue
Volume 13, July-1
Previous Issue
Volume 13, June-1
sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainability, Volume 13, Issue 12 (June-2 2021) – 474 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Commercially available bio-based products are labelled as biodegradable, and, given the priorities in the waste management hierarchy, they should be collected with biowaste and biologically treated. For end-of-life scenarios, it is essential to provide as much information as possible to create a database on the biodegradability of these products and the timeframe for their biodegradation. To this end, a one-year mesophilic anaerobic degradation test of bio-based products was conducted. Despite their high content of organic matter, the bio-based materials produced only small amounts of biogas. The structure of the bio-based foils started to show damage, and individual cracks and fissures revealed that, after one year of the process, the foils were only in the initial phase of degradation. This information may be useful for assessing regulations for the management of bio-based materials. [...] Read more.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Gender, Family and Caregiving Leave, and Advancement in Academic Science: Effects across the Life Course
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126820 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Family and caregiving leave are increasingly important dimensions for careers in academic science, and for vital, sustainable institutional structures. These forms of leave are intended to support equity, and particularly gender equity. A key question is how the actual use of leave affects [...] Read more.
Family and caregiving leave are increasingly important dimensions for careers in academic science, and for vital, sustainable institutional structures. These forms of leave are intended to support equity, and particularly gender equity. A key question is how the actual use of leave affects critical milestones of advancement for women—compared to men—in (1) time to tenure and (2) the odds of promotion to full professor. We address this question with descriptive statistics and event history analyses, based on responses to a survey of 3688 US faculty members in 4 scientific fields within a range of Carnegie institutional types. We find that leave that stops the tenure clock extends time to tenure for both men and women—the effect is gender neutral. Promotion to full professor is another matter. Being a woman has a strong negative effect on the likelihood of promotion to full professor, and women are especially disadvantaged in promotion when they used tenure leave years earlier. These findings have implications for a life-course perspective on gender and advancement in academic science, the roles of caretaking and leave, and the intended and unintended consequences of leave policies for equitable and sustainable university systems. Full article
Article
Inventory of Locations of Old Mining Works Using LiDAR Data: A Case Study in Slovakia
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6981; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126981 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The concept of further sustainable development in the area of administration of the register of old mining works and recent mining works in Slovakia requires precise determination of the locations of the objects that constitute it. The objects in this register have their [...] Read more.
The concept of further sustainable development in the area of administration of the register of old mining works and recent mining works in Slovakia requires precise determination of the locations of the objects that constitute it. The objects in this register have their uniqueness linked with the history of mining in Slovakia. The state of positional accuracy in the registration of objects in its current form is unsatisfactory. Different database sources containing the locations of the old mining works are insufficient and show significant locational deviations. For this reason, it is necessary to precisely locate old mining works using modern measuring technologies. The most effective approach to solving this problem is the use of LiDAR data, which at the same time allow determining the position and above-ground shape of old mining works. Two localities with significant mining history were selected for this case study. Positional deviations in the location of old mining works among the selected data were determined from the register of old mining works in Slovakia, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurements, multidirectional hill-shading using LiDAR, and accessible data from the open street map. To compare the positions of identical old mining works from the selected database sources, we established differences in the coordinates (ΔX, ΔY) and calculated the positional deviations of the same objects. The average positional deviation in the total count of nineteen objects comparing documents, LiDAR data, and the register was 33.6 m. Comparing the locations of twelve old mining works between the LiDAR data and the open street map, the average positional deviation was 16.3 m. Between the data sources from GNSS and the registry of old mining works, the average positional deviation of four selected objects was 39.17 m. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Motivational Differences between 5K Runners, Marathoners and Ultramarathoners in Poland
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6980; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126980 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the reasons for practicing different running distances (5K run, marathon, and ultramarathon), and to analyze the differences in each type according to gender, age, and marital status. An empirical study was conducted during the 2020 [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the reasons for practicing different running distances (5K run, marathon, and ultramarathon), and to analyze the differences in each type according to gender, age, and marital status. An empirical study was conducted during the 2020 Karkonosze Winter Ultramarathon, 20th PKO Poznan Marathon, and 5K run—Parkrun Poznan and City Trail, over the course of which we interviewed 925 runners. A total of 267 ultramarathoners, 493 marathon runners, and 165 Parkrun and City Trail participants took part in the cross-sectional study, which used the diagnostic survey method. The questionnaire employed the division of motives used by the Motivation of Marathoners Scale (MOMS) by Masters et al., adapted to the Polish language by Dybała. No significant differences were found in any of the disciplines based on gender or marital status, although the results showed that weight concern increased with increasing age range in all the running distances analyzed. In addition, in 5K run and marathon runners, weight concern decreased in the 36 to 50 age range, but subsequently increased in those over 51 years of age. Therefore, it will be important for coaches and other professionals to consider athletes’ age when trying to understand their motives to participate in different disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Health and Sustainability)
Article
Intergenerational Differences in Family Business Management and Their Influence on Business Profitability
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6979; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126979 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The generational change in the family business opens up expectations of strategies such as sustainability, professionalisation and internationalisation. Yet, there are gaps in current literature which fail to explain whether there are benefits in such strategies according to their management, their generational status, [...] Read more.
The generational change in the family business opens up expectations of strategies such as sustainability, professionalisation and internationalisation. Yet, there are gaps in current literature which fail to explain whether there are benefits in such strategies according to their management, their generational status, and their effects on performance. This paper compared first with second and later generation companies through the relevant characteristics. A regression analysis was applied to a sample that was identified by the Spanish Family Business Institute with information on growth strategy, corporate governance, professionalisation, and ownership, that is supported by financial data for the period of 2016–2020. The results showed that, although the differences in terms of profitability were small between generations, there were significant differences in management that affected performance. Growth tended to be lower in the second and subsequent generations, which also h a greater tendency to internationalise, being motivated by the professionalisation of management. Previous works in the literature have analysed differences in profitability between generations, however the analysis in this present work investigated the origin of these differences. The results showed disparities in management that allowed for the obtaining of different profitability indices, and therefore are of practical importance in the management of the internationalisation, growth, and sustainability of the family business in the face of intergenerational succession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Entrepreneurial Orientation in Family Firms)
Article
Leasing as an Alternative Form of Financing within Family Businesses: The Important Advisory Role of the Accountant
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6978; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126978 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Although leasing can be an interesting financing option from an economic point of view, family businesses are found to be less prone to lease. In this study, we examine the view of the external accountant on leasing as an alternative form of financing [...] Read more.
Although leasing can be an interesting financing option from an economic point of view, family businesses are found to be less prone to lease. In this study, we examine the view of the external accountant on leasing as an alternative form of financing within family businesses. After all, as the most trusted advisor, the accountant likely has a significant influence on the financial decisions that are taken within private family businesses. By means of an exploratory qualitative study, we examine what factors influence the advice for a particular financing option and the accountant’s recommendation to lease or not to lease within family businesses. By combining the extant literature with the results of this exploratory qualitative research, we formulate propositions that form fruitful avenues for future research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Energy-Investment Decision-Making for Industry: Quantitative and Qualitative Risks Integrated Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6977; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126977 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Industrial SMEs may take the decision to invest in energy efficient equipment to reduce energy costs by replacing or upgrading their obsolete equipment or due to external socio-political and legislative pressures. When upgrading their energy equipment, it may be beneficial to consider the [...] Read more.
Industrial SMEs may take the decision to invest in energy efficient equipment to reduce energy costs by replacing or upgrading their obsolete equipment or due to external socio-political and legislative pressures. When upgrading their energy equipment, it may be beneficial to consider the adoption of new energy strategies rising from the ongoing energy transition to support green transformation and decarbonisation. To face this energy-investment decision-making problem, a set of different economic and environmental criteria have to be evaluated together with their associated risks. Although energy-investment problems have been treated in the literature, the incorporation of both quantitative and qualitative risks for decision-making in SMEs has not been studied yet. In this paper, this research gap is addressed, creating a framework that considers non-risk criteria and quantitative and qualitative risks into energy-investment decision-making problems. Both types of risks are evaluated according to their probability and impact on the company’s objectives and, additionally for qualitative risks, a fuzzy inference system is employed to account for judgmental subjectivity. All the criteria are incorporated into a single cost–benefit analysis function, which is optimised along the energy assets’ lifetime to reach the best long-term energy investment decisions. The proposed methodology is applied to a specific industrial SME as a case study, showing the benefits of considering these risks in the decision-making problem. Nonetheless, the methodology is expandable with minor changes to other entities facing the challenge to invest in energy equipment or, as well, other tangible assets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Spatial Distribution and Evaluation of Arsenic and Zinc Content in the Soil of a Karst Landscape
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6976; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126976 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 382
Abstract
Karst features such as polje are highly vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic pollution. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the soil quality in the Ioannina polje (north-west Greece) concerning arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn), and delineate their origin as well [...] Read more.
Karst features such as polje are highly vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic pollution. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the soil quality in the Ioannina polje (north-west Greece) concerning arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn), and delineate their origin as well as compare the As and Zn content in soil with criteria recorded in the literature. For this purpose, the geomorphological settings, the land use, and the soil physicochemical properties were mapped and evaluated, including soil texture and concentrations of aqua-regia extractable As and Zn. The concentration of elements was spatially correlated with the land use and the geology of the study area, while screening values were applied to assess land suitability. The results reveal that 72% of the total study area has a very gentle slope. This relief favors urban and agricultural activity. Thus, the urban and agricultural land used cover 92% of the total area. The spatial distribution for As and Zn in the soil of the study area is located on very gentle slopes and is strongly correlated with the geological parent materials and human-induced contamination sources. Arsenic and Zn can be considered enriched in the soil of the area studied. The median topsoil contents (in mg kg−1) for As (agricultural soil 16.0; urban soil 17.8) and Zn (agricultural soil 92.0; urban soil 95.0) are higher compared to the corresponding median values of European topsoils. Land evaluation suitability concerning criteria given from the literature is discussed. The proposed work may be helpful in the project of land use planning and the protection of the natural environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Active Travel Mode Choice in Bangladesh: A Study from the Perspective of Sustainability and New Normal Situation
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6975; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126975 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused incredible impacts on people’s travel behavior. Recent studies suggest that while the demand for public transport has decreased due to passengers’ inability to maintain physical distance inside this mode, the demand for private automobile and active transport modes [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused incredible impacts on people’s travel behavior. Recent studies suggest that while the demand for public transport has decreased due to passengers’ inability to maintain physical distance inside this mode, the demand for private automobile and active transport modes (walking and cycling) has increased during the pandemic. Policymakers should take this opportunity given by the pandemic and encourage people to use active transport more in the new normal situation to achieve sustainable transportation outcomes. This study explores the expected change in active transport mode usage in the new normal situation in Bangladesh based on the data from a questionnaire survey. The study finds that 56% and 45% of the respondents were expected to increase travel by walking and cycling, respectively, during the new normal situation. On the other hand, 19% of the respondents were expected to do the opposite. The study further identifies the factors influencing the expected change in travel by active transport modes during the new normal situation by developing multinomial logistic regression models. Finally, this study proposes policies to increase active transport use beyond the pandemic and ensure sustainable mobility for city dwellers and their well-being. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Expandable Houses: An Explorative Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6974; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126974 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
In addition to the environmental burden of its construction and demolition activities, the Flemish housing market faces a structural affordability challenge. As one possible answer, this research explores the potential of so-called expandable houses, being built increasingly often. Through specific design choices that [...] Read more.
In addition to the environmental burden of its construction and demolition activities, the Flemish housing market faces a structural affordability challenge. As one possible answer, this research explores the potential of so-called expandable houses, being built increasingly often. Through specific design choices that enable the disassembly and future reuse of individual components and so align with the idea of a circular economy, expandable houses promise to provide ever-changing homes with a smaller impact on the environment and at a lower cost for clients. In this paper, an expandable house suitable for various housing needs is conceived through a scenario-based research-by-design approach and compared to a reference house for Flanders. Subsequently, for both houses the life cycle costs are calculated and compared. The results of this exploration support the proposition that designing expandable houses can be a catalyst for sustainable, circular housing development and that households could benefit from its social, economic and ecological qualities. It requires, however, a dynamic perspective on evaluating their life-cycle impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Circular Housing Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
University Students’ Emotions When Using E-Portfolios in Virtual Education Environments
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6973; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126973 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
This paper is based on a study that aims to understand the emotions students feel when they use the e-portfolio to manage their learning and assessment. The sample was composed of 358 students, and the instrument used was an ad hoc questionnaire. The [...] Read more.
This paper is based on a study that aims to understand the emotions students feel when they use the e-portfolio to manage their learning and assessment. The sample was composed of 358 students, and the instrument used was an ad hoc questionnaire. The students were asked to indicate the degree to which they experienced a set of emotions when using the e-portfolio. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that positive emotions are foremost and above average, ranked as follows from strongest to weakest: freedom, motivation, curiosity, and inquiry. The students evaluated negative emotions (disorientation and waste of time) as experienced less strongly. The results point out that younger students feel more comfortable with the use of technologies and specifically with the e-portfolio. In addition, men experienced the emotion “freedom” more than women. On the other hand, students in the third year of their respective degree programs experienced “freedom”, “curiosity”, and “inquiry” when using the e-portfolio to manage their learning. A clear relationship thus exists between emotions, motivation, and e-portfolio use, which appears to confirm that work in virtual contexts with this strategy stimulates student motivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Teaching and Learning Strategies in the Digital Age)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Employee’s Market Orientation Behavior and Firm’s Internal Marketing Mechanism: A Multilevel Perspective of Job Performance Theory
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6972; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126972 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 459
Abstract
The competition in today’s market is increasingly intensive. Employees’ market orientation behavior (MOB) is crucial for a firm to respond to market changes and attain its business performance goal. Moreover, a firm must exercise the internal marketing mechanism (IMM) to prepare employees for [...] Read more.
The competition in today’s market is increasingly intensive. Employees’ market orientation behavior (MOB) is crucial for a firm to respond to market changes and attain its business performance goal. Moreover, a firm must exercise the internal marketing mechanism (IMM) to prepare employees for providing superior service to satisfy internal and external customers’ needs. This study aims to examine how the IMM works with knowledge integration (KI), relationship quality (RQ), relational bond (RB), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) to influence MOB. A total of 471 valid responses from employees of 47 banks were collected. The Hierarchical Linear Model is used to analyze the IMM’s effects (as the organizational-level variable) on MOB (as the outcome variables) and the relationships between the other variables (as the individual-level variables) and MOB. The results show that all predictor variables have significant and direct effects on MOB. The IMM’s moderating effects are significant when it interacts with OCB and RB, but not RQ. The negative interaction effect of IMM and OCB offers a caveat to corporate management in balancing OCB activities among the employees. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A GIS Software Module for Environmental Impact Assessment of the Open Pit Mining Projects for Small Mining Operators in Kazakhstan
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6971; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126971 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
This research article presents a software module for the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of open pit mines. The EIA software module has been developed based on the comprehensive examination of both country-specific (namely, Kazakhstan) and current international regulatory frameworks, legislation and EIA methodologies. [...] Read more.
This research article presents a software module for the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of open pit mines. The EIA software module has been developed based on the comprehensive examination of both country-specific (namely, Kazakhstan) and current international regulatory frameworks, legislation and EIA methodologies. EIA frameworks and methods have been critically evaluated, and mathematical models have been developed and implemented in the GIS software module ‘3D Quarry’. The proposed methodology and software module allows for optimised EIA calculations of open pit mines, aiming to minimise the negative impacts on the environment. The study presents an original methodology laid out as a basis for a software module for environmental impact assessment on atmosphere, water basins, soil and subsoil, tailored to the context of mining operations in Kazakhstan. The proposed software module offers an alternative to commercial off-the-shelf software packages currently used in the mining industry and is suitable for small mining operators in post-Soviet countries. It is anticipated that applications of the proposed software module will enable the transition to sustainable development in the Kazakh mining industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Critical Review on Mathematical Descriptions to Study Flux Processes and Environmental-Related Interactions of Mangroves
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6970; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126970 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Trees are resources that provide multiple benefits, such as the conservation of fauna, both terrestrial and marine, a source of food and raw material, and offering protection in storms, which makes it practical to understand their behavior against different phenomena. Such understanding may [...] Read more.
Trees are resources that provide multiple benefits, such as the conservation of fauna, both terrestrial and marine, a source of food and raw material, and offering protection in storms, which makes it practical to understand their behavior against different phenomena. Such understanding may be possible through process modeling. Studies confirm that mangrove forests can store more carbon than other forests, influencing the fight against global warming. Thus, a critical and systematic review was carried out regarding studies focusing on mangroves to collect information on the models that have been applied and the most influential variables highlighted by other authors. Applying a systematic search for the most relevant topics related to mangroves (basic as well as recent information), it is possible to group models and methods carried out by other authors to respond to certain behaviors presented by mangroves. Moreover, possible structuring of a mathematical model applied to a species of interest thanks to the analyzed references could provide justified information to the authorities on the importance of these forests and the benefits of their preservation and regeneration-recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Co-optimisation of CO2 Storage and Hydrocarbon Recovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Decisions by Key Office Building Stakeholders to Build or Retrofit Green in Toronto’s Urban Core
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6969; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126969 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings—especially in global cities such as Toronto—is well documented. Green mitigation of new and existing buildings has also been researched. Few studies, however, have focused on the decision to build or retrofit green. Are key [...] Read more.
The environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings—especially in global cities such as Toronto—is well documented. Green mitigation of new and existing buildings has also been researched. Few studies, however, have focused on the decision to build or retrofit green. Are key stakeholders in Toronto’s office building sector aligning their decisions to achieve sustainable environmental goals? Do they support LEED certification regardless of the impact on market valuation? Are tenants willing to pay higher rents in LEED office buildings? The study first obtained data on 16 LEED and 52 conventional buildings to determine if LEED certification has a significant impact on net asking rent. Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis did not find LEED certification to be statistically significant in explaining the variance in net asking rent (market value). The second stage included interviews with senior executives engaged in Toronto’s office building sector. The expert informtabants were asked to assess if financial drivers are the deciding factor in decisions to pursue LEED certification. They concurred that LEED certification is not the primary driver. It is a combination of numerous factors that overall have an impact on a firm’s financial bottom line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business Models and Sustainable Development Goals)
Article
Indicators of the Tourist Attractiveness of Urban–Rural Communes and Sustainability of Peripheral Areas
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6968; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126968 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The elements which determine a peripheral area’s level of tourist attractiveness, such as tourist infrastructure and tourist values, should be developed in urban–rural communes in peripheral areas, where tourism may be one of the forces capable of stimulating sustainable development. This study covered [...] Read more.
The elements which determine a peripheral area’s level of tourist attractiveness, such as tourist infrastructure and tourist values, should be developed in urban–rural communes in peripheral areas, where tourism may be one of the forces capable of stimulating sustainable development. This study covered urban–rural communes of the province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. Urban–rural communes are specific areas where urban–rural linkages are often important. The research was carried out in accordance with Hellwig’s taxonomic development pattern method. The study found no complementary relationship between tourism values and tourism infrastructure with regards to creating tourism attractiveness. Tourism attractiveness was found to be more affected by tourism infrastructure. However, in units with larger urban centers, tourist values were found to significantly contribute to tourist attractiveness. The presented results provide a good basis for further research on the impact of global trends on regional development. At the same time, the analyzed framework provides guidance for ensuring the development of local tourism, and the study’s suggested priorities and measures could lead to the development of tourism in peripheral regions, which should in turn attract new investments, create new jobs, and thus develop the economy and the welfare of the population. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Signaling the Adoption of the Benefit Corporation Model: A Step towards Transparency
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6967; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126967 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Using the signaling theory as a reference, this research conducts an in-depth analysis of the adoption of the benefit corporation model, a legal and governance framework introduced into Italian regulations in 2016 following legislation introduced by many US states between 2010 and 2013. [...] Read more.
Using the signaling theory as a reference, this research conducts an in-depth analysis of the adoption of the benefit corporation model, a legal and governance framework introduced into Italian regulations in 2016 following legislation introduced by many US states between 2010 and 2013. Focusing on the experience of Italian benefit corporations, we explore how these businesses manage their signaling environment (signaler, signal, receiver, and feedback) to obtain greater transparency. The analysis focuses on companies’ bylaws, websites, and non-financial reports and suggests that the adoption of this new hybrid business model will only translate into an opportunity for greater transparency for one in four benefit corporations. The ability to strengthen the effects of adopting this model, adequate resources, and a long-term approach are required. The model, therefore, appears to present an opportunity for larger companies that have already invested adequately in the development of communication (web) and reporting (report) tools. The results seem to suggest that, on the contrary, for small companies with less experience, transformation into a benefit corporation may generate a risk of ambiguity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Business: Change, Growth and Future Impact)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Message Framing on Consumers’ Intentions to Purchase Recycling-Aiding Products in China
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6966; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126966 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Recycling can benefit our community and the environment to a considerable degree through the link between collection and processing. Governments and companies make substantive efforts to develop effective communication strategies that encourage people to conduct recycling behaviors by using recycling-aiding products. Across three [...] Read more.
Recycling can benefit our community and the environment to a considerable degree through the link between collection and processing. Governments and companies make substantive efforts to develop effective communication strategies that encourage people to conduct recycling behaviors by using recycling-aiding products. Across three lab experiments, this research finds that negative frames are more effective in convincing consumers to purchase recycling-aiding products than positive frames. The results can be explained through perceived value and pro-environmental personal norms. Furthermore, negative frames are more effective for consumers with lower environmental involvement. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to examine the framing effect as it applies to communicating messages about recycling-aiding products. Finally, our conclusions provide solid theoretical support and suggestions for policymakers and marketers, such as designing specific advertisements tailored to different demographics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Economic Value of Terminal Aerodrome Forecasts at Incheon Airport, South Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6965; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126965 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Meteorological information at an arrival airport is one of the primary variables used to determine refueling of discretionary fuel. This study evaluated the economic value of terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF), which has not been previously quantitatively analyzed in Korea. The analysis data included [...] Read more.
Meteorological information at an arrival airport is one of the primary variables used to determine refueling of discretionary fuel. This study evaluated the economic value of terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF), which has not been previously quantitatively analyzed in Korea. The analysis data included 374,716 international flights that arrived at Incheon airport during 2017–2019. A cost–loss model was used for the analysis, which is a methodology to evaluate forecast value by considering the cost and loss that users can expect, considering the decision-making result based on forecast utilization. The value was divided in terms of improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual average TAF value for Incheon Airport was approximately 2.2 M–20.1 M USD under two hypothetical rules of refueling of discretionary fuel. This value is up to 26.2% higher than the total budget of 16.3 M USD set for the production of aviation meteorological forecasts by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Further, it is up to 10 times greater than the 2 M USD spent on aviation meteorological information fees collected by the KMA in 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Transport Economics, Behaviour and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Forest Biomass and Bioenergy Supply Chain Resilience: A Systematic Literature Review on the Barriers and Enablers
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6964; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126964 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
This research aimed to systematically review the development studies pertaining to forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience (SCR). In this regard, a mixed procedure was implemented in order to explore and analyze the relevant publications, and to answer the research questions. First, [...] Read more.
This research aimed to systematically review the development studies pertaining to forest biomass and bioenergy supply chain resilience (SCR). In this regard, a mixed procedure was implemented in order to explore and analyze the relevant publications, and to answer the research questions. First, the databases and journals working on forest biomass and bioenergy supply chains (SCs) were identified based on the indices of the review process and the indices of the barriers and enablers. Next, data refinement was employed to filter the publications into four levels and determine the semifinal cases. Moreover, the references of the semifinal publications were tracked in order to achieve the final cases. Consequently, 88 papers were determined as the final cases through which the barriers and enablers were explored and analyzed. Furthermore, in order to meet the research gap in this area and prove the connections of those barriers and enablers with the resilience capability, their relationships with the main resilience factors were investigated. According to the assessment, the findings of this research on the definition, barriers and enablers of forest biomass and bioenergy SCR can be applied as a basis for the comprehension and optimization of the structure of SCs in the forest biomass and bioenergy industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Resources and Sustainable Utilization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Parameter Extraction of Three Diode Solar Photovoltaic Model Using Improved Grey Wolf Optimizer
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6963; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126963 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems relies on an accurate PV model. Researchers have made significant efforts to extract PV parameters due to their nonlinear characteristics of the PV system, and the lake information from the manufactures’ PV system datasheet. PV parameters [...] Read more.
The enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems relies on an accurate PV model. Researchers have made significant efforts to extract PV parameters due to their nonlinear characteristics of the PV system, and the lake information from the manufactures’ PV system datasheet. PV parameters estimation using optimization algorithms is a challenging problem in which a wide range of research has been conducted. The idea behind this challenge is the selection of a proper PV model and algorithm to estimate the accurate parameters of this model. In this paper, a new application of the improved gray wolf optimizer (I-GWO) is proposed to estimate the parameters’ values that achieve an accurate PV three diode model (TDM) in a perfect and robust manner. The PV TDM is developed to represent the effect of grain boundaries and large leakage current in the PV system. I-GWO is developed with the aim of improving population, exploration and exploitation balance and convergence of the original GWO. The performance of I-GWO is compared with other well-known optimization algorithms. I-GWO is evaluated through two different applications. In the first application, the real data from RTC furnace is applied and in the second one, the real data of PTW polycrystalline PV panel is applied. The results are compared with different evaluation factors (root mean square error (RMSE), current absolute error and statistical analysis for multiple independent runs). I-GWO achieved the lowest RMSE values in comparison with other algorithms. The RMSE values for the two applications are 0.00098331 and 0.0024276, respectively. Based on quantitative and qualitative performance evaluation, it can be concluded that the estimated parameters of TDM by I-GWO are more accurate than those obtained by other studied optimization algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Photovoltaics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Recent Advances in Carbon Dioxide Conversion: A Circular Bioeconomy Perspective
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6962; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126962 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Managing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 requires a multifaceted engineering strategy, which remains a highly challenging task. Reducing atmospheric CO2 (CO2R) by converting it to value-added chemicals in a carbon neutral footprint manner must be the ultimate goal. The latest progress [...] Read more.
Managing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 requires a multifaceted engineering strategy, which remains a highly challenging task. Reducing atmospheric CO2 (CO2R) by converting it to value-added chemicals in a carbon neutral footprint manner must be the ultimate goal. The latest progress in CO2R through either abiotic (artificial catalysts) or biotic (natural enzymes) processes is reviewed herein. Abiotic CO2R can be conducted in the aqueous phase that usually leads to the formation of a mixture of CO, formic acid, and hydrogen. By contrast, a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species is often observed by abiotic CO2R in the gaseous phase. On the other hand, biotic CO2R is often conducted in the aqueous phase and a wide spectrum of value-added chemicals are obtained. Key to the success of the abiotic process is understanding the surface chemistry of catalysts, which significantly governs the reactivity and selectivity of CO2R. However, in biotic CO2R, operation conditions and reactor design are crucial to reaching a neutral carbon footprint. Future research needs to look toward neutral or even negative carbon footprint CO2R processes. Having a deep insight into the scientific and technological aspect of both abiotic and biotic CO2R would advance in designing efficient catalysts and microalgae farming systems. Integrating the abiotic and biotic CO2R such as microbial fuel cells further diversifies the spectrum of CO2R. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies toward a Green Deal and Circular Economy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Critical Survey of Environmental Content in United States Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering Curricula
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6961; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126961 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
This survey examines how mechanical engineers are being prepared to be responsible stewards of the environment by offering a multi-channeled look at a diverse collection of twelve US colleges and universities, with connections to the larger global context. This study enumerates the external [...] Read more.
This survey examines how mechanical engineers are being prepared to be responsible stewards of the environment by offering a multi-channeled look at a diverse collection of twelve US colleges and universities, with connections to the larger global context. This study enumerates the external influences of professional organizations, those responsible for program accreditation (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)), professional conduct (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), and licensure (National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying, National Society of Professional Engineers). At the curricular level, this study presents current mechanical engineering curricula via core courses (required at most institutions) and non-core courses (required at a minority of institutions or elective courses). The curriculum study identifies fifteen core courses and uses the Open Syllabus Project and online bookstores to identify a representative textbook and classify the environmental content therein. Immediate results show the environment receiving sparse treatment in core course textbooks, institutions having zero environment-focused degree requirements, and a tendency towards offering electives that are narrowly focused on green technologies. Elective offerings mirror ABET’s recent move away from emphasizing the “broad education necessary to understand the impact” of engineering solutions to instead “consider the impact of” engineering solutions in an environmental context. Overall, the environmental education mechanical engineers are receiving is insufficient in amount and lacking in scientific and ethical foundation. Ideally, every mechanical engineering program should include coordinated environmental content throughout the curriculum and require at least one course that teaches both environmental design principles and the importance of environmental stewardship. A novel approach eschews the typical artes mechanicae course structure to teach environmental stewardship in the artes liberales educational tradition, emphasizing multi-dimensional thinking by employing great books style discussions of seminal scientific, ethical, and technological works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Education and Green Behavior)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Perception of Coach According to the Role of Starter or Substitute in the Final Stage of the Season
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6960; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126960 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
This paper examines the athletes’ perception of their coaches according to the role of starter or substitute in the final phase of the season. The variables analyzed were: leadership style, perceived justice, competence, and support for basic psychological needs. A longitudinal study was [...] Read more.
This paper examines the athletes’ perception of their coaches according to the role of starter or substitute in the final phase of the season. The variables analyzed were: leadership style, perceived justice, competence, and support for basic psychological needs. A longitudinal study was developed, evaluating the participants at two different stages: the end of the season and seven weeks before. A total of 112 football and handball players participated in this study, 78 completing the questionnaire at the two waves. The final sample comprised 51 starters (80.39% males) and 27 substitutes (70.37% males) who evaluated their coaches’ leadership, competence, and support of the players’ psychological needs. The interaction moment of measurement (seven weeks before the end of the season vs. end of the season) * group (starters vs. substitutes) was statistically significant for the variables authentic leadership, perceived justice, and the basic psychological need of competence. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant decline in the perception of authentic leadership from coaches, perceived justice, and support of the psychological need of competence at the end of the season only in those in a starter position, with no change observed in the substitutes group. The findings show that the perceptions of coaches among starting players deteriorates significantly in the final phase of the season, while those among substitutes remain unaffected. Full article
Article
LEED Scores of Residential Buildings in Poor Cities: Kabul City Case
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6959; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126959 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Urbanization and technology have proven to be detrimental to the environment. Buildings contribute a significant portion of this damage. This issue motivated governments, builders, engineers, and architects to seek ways to reduce buildings’ environmental footprints. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), developed [...] Read more.
Urbanization and technology have proven to be detrimental to the environment. Buildings contribute a significant portion of this damage. This issue motivated governments, builders, engineers, and architects to seek ways to reduce buildings’ environmental footprints. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), is one of the most widely used strategies to ensure energy efficiency and a clean environment in buildings. In Afghanistan, where there are no active regulatory frameworks for energy saving and efficiency for the building sector, it is imperative to promote the transformation of the building industry and practices towards sustainability. In this regard, the role of the residential building sector is of utmost importance due to its major share in the country’s energy consumption and GHG emissions profile. Thus, this study assesses the energy efficiency and environmental impact of existing buildings in Kabul city concerning the LEED rating system. This research suggests practical steps to improve the sustainability of the residential building stock in Kabul city. Robust sets of data on existing residential buildings in Kabul are collected, classified, evaluated, and compared to LEED standards. This research reveals and concludes that most of the existing buildings in Kabul city are in poor conditions and do not meet the minimum requirements to be a candidate for LEED certification. A detailed analysis of the results has led to recommendations on how these buildings could improve to meet the LEED criteria. This is the first study of its kind conducted for Kabul city residential building. Considering the cross-sectoral nature of the building industry, the findings of this study will contribute to many other areas such as water, transportation, ICT, health, energy and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart City and Zero Energy House/Building)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Developing a Risk Management Process for Infrastructure Projects Using IDEF0
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126958 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) project is a massive, large-scale construction venture with a complex interface. In order to reduce the risk of disasters and industrial accidents in the project and to save costs, a simple and flexible risk management system is necessary [...] Read more.
The Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) project is a massive, large-scale construction venture with a complex interface. In order to reduce the risk of disasters and industrial accidents in the project and to save costs, a simple and flexible risk management system is necessary for projects such as MRT. A set of risk management processes was identified through a literature review and data collection, and the Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0) process was used for logical analysis. The IDEF0 diagram clearly depicts the items to be delivered at each interface, and risk is reduced by facilitating the flow of data on various risk items. The results of this research will be applied to other practical projects, with special emphasis on the project planning and design stages. Future work will verify whether the implementation of the proposed risk management process does indeed effectively reduce risks in the completed project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Construction Engineering and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Reverse Gender Gap in Volunteer Activities: Does Culture Matter?
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6957; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126957 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Women take on 57% (men: 43%) of all volunteering globally (UN 2018). In this paper, we follow an epidemiological approach to explore the possible role of culture in determining this reverse gender gap in the time devoted to volunteer activities. To that end, [...] Read more.
Women take on 57% (men: 43%) of all volunteering globally (UN 2018). In this paper, we follow an epidemiological approach to explore the possible role of culture in determining this reverse gender gap in the time devoted to volunteer activities. To that end, we merge data from the American Time Use Survey for the years 2006–2019 and the Gender Gap Index (GGI) of the World Economic Forum 2021. We use a sample of early-arrival first- and second-generation immigrants who live in the United States. Our empirical approach rests on the fact that all these individuals have grown up under the same host country’s labor market, regulations, laws, and institutions but differ in their cultural heritage. Thus, in this setting, gender discrepancies in the time devoted to volunteer activities can be interpreted as the effect of culture. We find that more gender-equal norms in the country of origin are associated with women devoting less time to volunteer activities relative to men. We further analyze the channels shaping the culture from the country of ancestry and the existence of horizontal (within-communities) transmission of culture. Our results are robust to the use of different subsamples and to the inclusion of demographic and socio-economic controls. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rethinking Tourism Industry in Pandemic COVID-19 Period
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6956; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126956 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. Beaches and resorts were empty, cities were deserted, people’s movements were [...] Read more.
The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. Beaches and resorts were empty, cities were deserted, people’s movements were stopped, and travel among different territories was strictly controlled. COVID-19-caused quarantine around the world has harmed people’s livelihoods and the world economy. This study aims to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry and overall economic performance. Based on the research results and exploratory research of the literature, we listed in a synthesizing manner several measures to ensure the resilience of the tourism sector during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Tourism Strategies in Pandemic Contexts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optical-Sensor-Based Nitrogen Management in Oat for Yield Enhancement
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6955; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126955 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The deficiency of nitrogen (N) in soil restricts agricultural productivity and its overdosage pollutes the atmosphere. Nitrogen is a vital component of protein, chlorophyll and various physiological processes. When it is applied at a recommended dose, it may be lost through fixation, leaching, [...] Read more.
The deficiency of nitrogen (N) in soil restricts agricultural productivity and its overdosage pollutes the atmosphere. Nitrogen is a vital component of protein, chlorophyll and various physiological processes. When it is applied at a recommended dose, it may be lost through fixation, leaching, volatilization and denitrification, etc. Therefore, there is a dire need to harmonize the supply of nitrogen according to crop and soil requirements. Under this situation, precision nitrogen management is one of the best options. GreenSeekerTM is an integrated optical sensor with a variable application rate and mapping system that measures crops’ nitrogen requirements. To ascertain the abovementioned facts, a research study was conducted at the National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan, to examine the response of fodder oat to nitrogen management (N0 = control, N1 = 80 kg ha−1 basal dose, N2 = 40 + 40 kg ha−1 split doses, N3 = 40 kg ha−1 with one-time management with GreenSeekerTM and N4 = 20 kg ha−1 with two-time management with GreenSeekerTM) and seed rate (S1 = 80, S2 = 100, S3 = 120 and S4 = 140 kg ha−1). Data were recorded on the agronomic and physiological aspects of the crop and economic analysis was performed for GreenSeekerTM-based N application against the conventional recommended dose of nitrogen application. Mean values showed that greater number of tillers plant−1 (6), fresh weight (16572 kg) and photosynthetic rate (11.64 mmol m−2 s−1) were noted in the treatment N4 (20 kg ha−1 and two-time management with GreenSeekerTM). Greater plant height (70.8 cm) and leaf area (64.14 cm2) were recorded in treatment N2 (40 + 40 kg ha−1 split doses) as compared to the control. The effects of nitrogen on fodder oat were forecasted through NDVI. The results suggested that nitrogen treatment N4 (18 kg ha−1) managed by GreenSeeker in the PARC Oat cultivar produced the maximum NDVI value (0.68) at the booting stage among all treatments. The correlation of NDVI at the tillering and booting stages with green fodder yield was positive (R2 = 0.80). Therefore, the tillering and booting stages can be good depictive stages at early and later growth stages of fodder oat under the agro-climatic conditions of Islamabad, Pakistan. Based on the results, it is recommended to apply an initial dose of 20 kg ha−1 nitrogen along with two-time management with GreenSeekerTM for obtaining more green fodder yield in fodder oat. In Crux, with N1, a total of 80 kg ha−1 nitrogen was applied to achieve an estimated net profitability of USD 582.13. With N4, a total 58 kg ha−1 nitrogen was used to achieve a net profitability of USD 836.16; therefore, this treatment was found to be environmentally safe as compared to N1 (80 kg ha−1). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The City as an Experimental Environment: The Identification, Selection, and Activation of Distributed Knowledge in Regional Open Innovation Ecosystems
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6954; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126954 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Over the past decade, open innovation (OI) literature has extended its scope beyond strictly economic contexts to the context of societal value creation. This has given rise to the notion of (local) distributed knowledge as a driver for sustainable innovation and has highlighted [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, open innovation (OI) literature has extended its scope beyond strictly economic contexts to the context of societal value creation. This has given rise to the notion of (local) distributed knowledge as a driver for sustainable innovation and has highlighted the importance of multi-stakeholder collaborations in new product development (NPD) processes to develop new ICT systems for complex urban issues. Several studies have discussed sustainable stakeholder ecosystem architectures for such collaborations. However, little is known about stakeholder identification and selection processes for collaborations in the urban environment. By combining action research with a case study design, this paper studies the nature of contextualized interactions between knowledge actors in the ecosystem and the processes of attraction, identification, selection, and activation of stakeholders in an urban living lab (ULL). These insights converge in the development of a ‘stakeholder acupuncture framework’, which structures mechanisms and practices within dynamic collaboration ecosystems and defines key boundary conditions for such open-ended ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Management in Living Labs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Power System Transient Stability Assessment Based on Snapshot Ensemble LSTM Network
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6953; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/su13126953 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Data-driven methods using synchrophasor measurements have a broad application prospect in Transient Stability Assessment (TSA). Most previous studies only focused on predicting whether the power system is stable or not after disturbance, which lacked a quantitative analysis of the risk of transient stability. [...] Read more.
Data-driven methods using synchrophasor measurements have a broad application prospect in Transient Stability Assessment (TSA). Most previous studies only focused on predicting whether the power system is stable or not after disturbance, which lacked a quantitative analysis of the risk of transient stability. Therefore, this paper proposes a two-stage power system TSA method based on snapshot ensemble long short-term memory (LSTM) network. This method can efficiently build an ensemble model through a single training process, and employ the disturbed trajectory measurements as the inputs, which can realize rapid end-to-end TSA. In the first stage, dynamic hierarchical assessment is carried out through the classifier, so as to screen out credible samples step by step. In the second stage, the regressor is used to predict the transient stability margin of the credible stable samples and the undetermined samples, and combined with the built risk function to realize the risk quantification of transient angle stability. Furthermore, by modifying the loss function of the model, it effectively overcomes sample imbalance and overlapping. The simulation results show that the proposed method can not only accurately predict binary information representing transient stability status of samples, but also reasonably reflect the transient safety risk level of power systems, providing reliable reference for the subsequent control. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop