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Insects, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 71 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study established a novel real-time diagnostic tool for quick crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS) host evaluation. Canonical host range confirmation of invasive hemipterans relies on the evaluation of plant susceptibility through greenhouse or field trials, which are inefficient and time-consuming. The researchers developed an alternative technology to complement conventional host confirmation methods. Using electrical penetration graph (EPG)-based technology, the research team monitored the CMBS invisible stylet-tip position when the insect was feeding on different plant tissues. The occurrences of stylet-tip in the phloem phase and xylem phase offered conclusive evidence for host plant evaluation. Moreover, CMBS typical feeding behaviors measured by EPG-based data analysis revealed how CMBS susceptible plants differed from non-susceptible plants. View this paper
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Article
Revision of the World Species of Megaphragma Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
Insects 2022, 13(6), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060561 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Megaphragma species are important models for basic organismal research, and many are potential biological control agents. We present the first extensive revision of species of the genus Megaphragma based on morphological and molecular data. Our revision includes all previously described species, 6 of [...] Read more.
Megaphragma species are important models for basic organismal research, and many are potential biological control agents. We present the first extensive revision of species of the genus Megaphragma based on morphological and molecular data. Our revision includes all previously described species, 6 of which are synonymized, and 22 of which are described here as new. We also provide the first key to all species of the genus and reconstruct their phylogeny based on 28S and CO1 molecular markers. The following species are synonymized with M. longiciliatum Subba Rao: M. aligarhensis Yousuf and Shafee syn. nov.; M. amalphitanum Viggiani syn. nov.; M. decochaetum Lin syn. nov.; M. magniclava Yousuf and Shafee syn. nov.; M. shimalianum Hayat syn. nov.M. anomalifuniculi Yuan and Lou syn. nov. is synonymized with M. polychaetum Lin. The following species are described as new: M. antecessor Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. breviclavum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. chienleei Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. cockerilli Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. digitatum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. fanenitrakely Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. funiculatum Fusu, Polaszek, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. giraulti Viggiani, Fusu, and Polaszek sp. nov.; M. hansoni Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. kinuthiae Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. liui Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. momookherjeeae Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. nowickii Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. noyesi Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. pintoi Viggiani sp. nov.; M. polilovi Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. rivelloi Viggiani sp. nov.; M. tamoi Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. tridens Fusu, and Polaszek sp. nov.; M. uniclavum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. vanlentereni Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. viggianii Fusu, Polaszek, and Polilov sp. nov. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hymenoptera: Biology, Taxonomy and Integrated Management)
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Article
Determination of Moisture and Protein Content in Living Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.) Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)
Insects 2022, 13(6), 560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060560 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.) are a sustainable source of protein for food and feed. This study represents a new approach in analyzing changes in the nutritional composition of mealworm larvae using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis. The [...] Read more.
Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor L.) are a sustainable source of protein for food and feed. This study represents a new approach in analyzing changes in the nutritional composition of mealworm larvae using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis. The moisture and protein content of living larvae were scanned with a near-infrared spectrometer using wavelengths from 1100 to 2100 nm. Different feeding groups with varying moisture sources and amount and the difference between low (50%) and high (75%) humidity were tested, and the influence on larval moisture and protein content was measured. A calibration was developed, with modified partial least squares as the regression method. The NIR spectra were influenced by the moisture and protein content of the larvae, because the absorbance values of the larval groups differed greatly. The coefficient of the determination of calibration (R2c) and prediction (R2p) were over 0.98 for moisture and over 0.94 for protein content. The moisture source and content also had a significant influence on the weight gain of the larvae. Consequently, significant differences in protein content could be determined, depending on the water supply available. With respect to wet weight, the larvae moisture content varied from 60 to 74% and protein content from 16 to 24%. This investigation revealed that with non-invasive NIRS online monitoring, the composition of insects can be continuously recorded and evaluated so that specific feeding can be carried out in the course of larval development and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the Biological Characteristics and Wolbachia Titer in Parthenogenesis Trichogramma pretiosum
Insects 2022, 13(6), 559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060559 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy and biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont that induces parthenogenesis in the parasitoid T. pretiosum. In this paper, the sublethal effects of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride on the development [...] Read more.
Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy and biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont that induces parthenogenesis in the parasitoid T. pretiosum. In this paper, the sublethal effects of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride on the development and reproduction of T. pretiosum were studied. Emerged females were fed with sublethal concentrations (LC5, LC15, and LC35) of tetracycline for ten generations. The biological parameters (longevity, parasitized eggs, and fecundity) of treated females significantly reduced compared with the control Moreover, the percentage of female offspring in the treatments significantly reduced, but the percentage of male offspring significantly increased. In addition, the Wolbachia titer sharply reduced after two generations of antibiotic treatments, but it could still be detected even after ten successive generations of antibiotic treatments, which indicated that Wolbachia was not completely removed by sublethal concentrations of tetracycline. The control lines with higher Wolbachia titers produced more female offspring than the tetracycline treatments with lower Wolbachia titers, indicating that the Wolbachia titer affected the sex determination of T. pretiosum. Our results show that sublethal concentrations of tetracycline had adverse effects on the development of T. pretiosum, and Wolbachia titers affected the sexual development of T. pretiosum eggs. Full article
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Article
The King’s Lace Bug Recaredus rex Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae): Systematic Position, First Palaearctic and Afrotropical Records, and Ecological Niche Modelling
Insects 2022, 13(6), 558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060558 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The systematic position and actual distribution of Recaredus rex, for a long time one of the most enigmatic lace bug genus and species, is very obscure because only the type specimen and three other individuals from India are known to date. In [...] Read more.
The systematic position and actual distribution of Recaredus rex, for a long time one of the most enigmatic lace bug genus and species, is very obscure because only the type specimen and three other individuals from India are known to date. In the present paper, we report the first records of R. rex from the Palaearctic region (Iran) and tropical Africa (Ghana). Based on the occurrence localities and climatic variables, we predict potentially useful ecological niches for this species using Maxent software. The areas with the best environmental conditions for R. rex indicated in our studies suggest its possible Palaeotropical distribution. Moreover, we regard these results as a good starting point for further searches for specimens of this species. This might help verify the hypothesis of the broad Palaeotropical distribution of R. rex and its oligo- or polyphagy. In addition, the lace bug genus Recaredus, based on the diagnostic characteristics provided for the tribe Acalyptaini, and the structure of aedeagus, is transferred from the tribe Ypsotingini to the Acalyptaini. A key to all genera currently included in the latter tribe is also provided. Full article
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Review
Deciphering the Biological Enigma—Genomic Evolution Underlying Anhydrobiosis in the Phylum Tardigrada and the Chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki
Insects 2022, 13(6), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060557 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Anhydrobiosis, an ametabolic dehydrated state triggered by water loss, is observed in several invertebrate lineages. Anhydrobiotes revive when rehydrated, and seem not to suffer the ultimately lethal cell damage that results from severe loss of water in other organisms. Here, we review the [...] Read more.
Anhydrobiosis, an ametabolic dehydrated state triggered by water loss, is observed in several invertebrate lineages. Anhydrobiotes revive when rehydrated, and seem not to suffer the ultimately lethal cell damage that results from severe loss of water in other organisms. Here, we review the biochemical and genomic evidence that has revealed the protectant molecules, repair systems, and maintenance pathways associated with anhydrobiosis. We then introduce two lineages in which anhydrobiosis has evolved independently: Tardigrada, where anhydrobiosis characterizes many species within the phylum, and the genus Polypedilum, where anhydrobiosis occurs in only two species. Finally, we discuss the complexity of the evolution of anhydrobiosis within invertebrates based on current knowledge, and propose perspectives to enhance the understanding of anhydrobiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Adaptations of Arthropods to Extreme Environments)
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Article
Exploring Honeybee Abdominal Anatomy through Micro-CT and Novel Multi-Staining Approaches
Insects 2022, 13(6), 556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060556 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Continuous improvements in morphological and histochemical analyses of Apis mellifera could improve our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of these insects at both the cellular and tissue level. In this work, two different approaches have been performed to add new data on [...] Read more.
Continuous improvements in morphological and histochemical analyses of Apis mellifera could improve our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of these insects at both the cellular and tissue level. In this work, two different approaches have been performed to add new data on the abdomen of worker bees: (i) Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT), which allows the identification of small-scale structures (micrometers) with adequate/optimal resolution and avoids sample damage and, (ii) histochemical multi-staining with Periodic Acid-Schiff-Alcian blue, Lactophenol-Saphranin O and pentachrome staining to precisely characterize the histological structures of the midgut and hindgut. Micro-CT allowed high-resolution imaging of anatomical structures of the honeybee abdomen with particular emphasis on the proventriculus and pyloric valves, as well as the connection of the sting apparatus with the terminal abdominal ganglia. Furthermore, the histochemical analyses have allowed for the first-time description of ventricular telocytes in honeybees, a cell type located underneath the midgut epithelium characterized by thin and long cytoplasmic projections called telopodes. Overall, the analysis of these images could help the detailed anatomical description of the cryptic structures of honeybees and also the characterization of changes due to abiotic or biotic stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Does Insect Aversion Lead to Increased Household Pesticide Use?
Insects 2022, 13(6), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060555 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 388
Abstract
In many human societies, domestic insect pests often evoke feelings of disgust, fear and aversion. These common feelings may translate to increased use of household pesticides. No study has ever explored this possibility and consequently, efforts to mitigate public exposure to domestic pesticides [...] Read more.
In many human societies, domestic insect pests often evoke feelings of disgust, fear and aversion. These common feelings may translate to increased use of household pesticides. No study has ever explored this possibility and consequently, efforts to mitigate public exposure to domestic pesticides typically focus on addressing knowledge gaps. We tested the hypothesis that negative emotions toward insects may motivate people to use pesticides, by interviewing 70 participants and assessing their insect aversion levels using a computerized test. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no effect of insect aversion on pesticide use. However, we did find that personal attributes and preferences such as wishing to avoid exposure to toxic chemicals, being vegetarian and taking frequent nature walks reduced pesticide use, in addition to low infestation levels and physical attributes of the housing unit. We emphasize the importance of conducting future studies in various societies, where insect aversion and other factors may have different effects on household pesticide use. Such studies may provide culture-specific insights that could foster the development of next-generation urban IPM (Integrated Pest Management) public education programs, which will address not only knowledge gaps, but also emotional aspects and personal attributes that lead to unnecessary or excessive use of household pesticides. Full article
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Article
Automatic Crop Pest Detection Oriented Multiscale Feature Fusion Approach
Insects 2022, 13(6), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060554 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have [...] Read more.
Specialized pest control for agriculture is a high-priority agricultural issue. There are multiple categories of tiny pests, which pose significant challenges to monitoring. Previous work mainly relied on manual monitoring of pests, which was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, deep-learning-based pest detection methods have achieved remarkable improvements and can be used for automatic pest monitoring. However, there are two main obstacles in the task of pest detection. (1) Small pests often go undetected because much information is lost during the network training process. (2) The highly similar physical appearances of some categories of pests make it difficult to distinguish the specific categories for networks. To alleviate the above problems, we proposed the multi-category pest detection network (MCPD-net), which includes a multiscale feature pyramid network (MFPN) and a novel adaptive feature region proposal network (AFRPN). MFPN can fuse the pest information in multiscale features, which significantly improves detection accuracy. AFRPN solves the problem of anchor and feature misalignment during RPN iterating, especially for small pest objects. In extensive experiments on the multi-category pests dataset 2021 (MPD2021), the proposed method achieved 67.3% mean average precision (mAP) and 89.3% average recall (AR), outperforming other deep learning-based models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integrated Pest Management of Crops)
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Article
Antennal Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Olfactory Genes in Glenea cantor Fabricius (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)
Insects 2022, 13(6), 553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060553 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Glenea cantor Fabricius (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is a pest that devastates urban landscapes and causes ecological loss in southern China and Southeast Asian countries where its main host kapok trees are planted. The olfactory system plays a vital role in mating, foraging, and spawning [...] Read more.
Glenea cantor Fabricius (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is a pest that devastates urban landscapes and causes ecological loss in southern China and Southeast Asian countries where its main host kapok trees are planted. The olfactory system plays a vital role in mating, foraging, and spawning in G. cantor as an ideal target for pest control. However, the olfactory mechanism of G. cantor is poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we first established the antennal transcriptome of G. cantor and identified 76 olfactory-related genes, including 29 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 14 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 13 odorant receptors (ORs), 18 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees of olfactory genes were constructed to study the homology with other species of insects. We also verified the reliability of transcriptome differential genes by qRT-PCR, which indicated the reliability of the transcriptome. Based on the relative expression of 30 d adults, GcanOBP22 and GcanOBP25 were highly expressed not only in the antennae, but also in the wings and legs. In addition, GcanCSP4 was the highest expression on the female antennae at 12 d. These findings laid the foundation for further research on the mechanism of G. cantor olfactory mechanism at the molecular level. Full article
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Article
Optimizing the Use of Basil as a Functional Plant for the Biological Control of Aphids by Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in Greenhouses
Insects 2022, 13(6), 552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060552 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Effective biological control agents that can provide sustainable pest control need to be researched in further detail; functional plants (or non-crop insectary plants), in particular, are garnering increased research interest. Much remains to be learned as to how non-crop plants can augment biological [...] Read more.
Effective biological control agents that can provide sustainable pest control need to be researched in further detail; functional plants (or non-crop insectary plants), in particular, are garnering increased research interest. Much remains to be learned as to how non-crop plants can augment biological control in greenhouse systems. In this study, we combined laboratory and greenhouse assays to assess the extent to which basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) affected the biological control of aphids by the predatory lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). In the presence of the target prey (peach aphid; Myzus persicae (Sulzer)), both the vegetative and flowering stages of basil enhanced C. pallens longevity and (early-age) fecundity as compared to a control treatment. When basil plants were established near aphid infested eggplants (Solanum melongena L.), the C. pallens colonization rate improved by 72–92% in the short-term. Lacewing colonization patterns were modulated by the basil planting density and spatial arrangement (i.e., perimeter planting vs. intercropping). Under high density intercrop arrangements, C. pallens colonization rates were highest, its populations persisted longer in the crop, and the aphid numbers declined more rapidly. Our work shows how basil enhanced the key fitness attributes of a generalist predatory lacewing and benefitted aphid biological control in a greenhouse setting. Full article
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Article
Life-History Traits from Embryonic Development to Reproduction in the American Cockroach
Insects 2022, 13(6), 551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060551 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 405
Abstract
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Blattodea: Solumblattodea: Blattidae), is an urban hygiene pest but also a model organism for physiology and neuroscience study. However, the current description of the developmental process of the American cockroach is insufficient. In this study, we provide [...] Read more.
The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Blattodea: Solumblattodea: Blattidae), is an urban hygiene pest but also a model organism for physiology and neuroscience study. However, the current description of the developmental process of the American cockroach is insufficient. In this study, we provide a life table of the American cockroach in a stable environment, including embryonic development, nymphal instars and adult reproduction. Our results show that there are 14 nymphal instars of the American cockroach in groups with sufficient living materials and space. The secondary sexual characteristics are evident in last-instar nymphs and adults, namely, the complete absence of the anal stylus in females. The entire embryonic development process was divided into 20 stages on the basis of lateral-view observations of the embryos. The formation of the embryo involves the fusion of paired blastoderm regions with higher cellular density, similar to that in other insects of Polyneoptera. With respect to reproduction, the gamogenetic females produced their first ootheca earlier than the parthenogenic females, and the frequency of oviposition was higher for the former throughout adulthood. Interestingly, group living seems to improve the parthenogenesis success rate in the American cockroach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development)
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Article
Seasonal and Year-Round Distributions of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Its Risk to Temperate Fruits under Climate Change
Insects 2022, 13(6), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060550 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important pest to fruits and vegetables. It can damage more than 300 plant species. The distribution of B. dorsalis has been expanding owing to international trade and other human activities. B. dorsalis occurrence is strongly related to suitable [...] Read more.
Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important pest to fruits and vegetables. It can damage more than 300 plant species. The distribution of B. dorsalis has been expanding owing to international trade and other human activities. B. dorsalis occurrence is strongly related to suitable overwintering conditions and distribution areas, but it is unclear where these seasonal and year-round suitable areas are. We used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) to predict the potential seasonal and year-round distribution areas of B. dorsalis. We also projected suitable habitat areas in 2040 and 2060 under global warming scenarios, such as SSP126 and SSP585. These models achieved AUC values of 0.860 and 0.956 for the seasonal and year-round scenarios, respectively, indicating their good prediction capabilities. The precipitation of the wettest month (Bio13) and the mean diurnal temperature range (Bio2) contributed 83.9% to the seasonal distribution prediction model. Bio2 and the minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio6) provided important information related to the year-round distribution prediction. In future scenarios, the suitable area of B. dorsalis will increase and the range will expand northward. Four important temperate fruits, namely, apples, peaches, pears, and oranges, will be seriously threatened. The information from this study provides a useful reference for implementing improved population management strategies for B. dorsalis. Full article
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Article
Mitochondrial Genomes of Two Asexual Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Strains and Comparison with Their Sexual Relatives
Insects 2022, 13(6), 549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060549 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Despite its substantial costs, sexual reproduction dominates in animals. One popular explanation for the paradox of sex is that asexual reproduction is more likely to accumulate deleterious mutations than sexual reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we compared the mitogenomes of two asexual wasp [...] Read more.
Despite its substantial costs, sexual reproduction dominates in animals. One popular explanation for the paradox of sex is that asexual reproduction is more likely to accumulate deleterious mutations than sexual reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we compared the mitogenomes of two asexual wasp strains, Trichogramma cacoeciae and T. pretiosum, to their sexual relatives. These two asexual strains represent two different transition mechanisms in Trichogramma from sexual to asexual reproduction. Asexual T. pretiosum is induced by Wolbachia, while T. cacoeciae presumably originated from interspecific hybridization. We sequenced and assembled complete mitochondrial genomes of asexual T. cacoeciae and T. pretiosum. Compared to four sexual relatives, we found no evidence of higher mutation accumulation in asexual Trichogramma mitogenomes than in their sexual relatives. We also did not detect any relaxed selection in asexual Trichogramma mitogenomes. In contrast, the intensified selection was detected in Nad1 and Nad4 of the asexual T. pretiosum mitogenome, suggesting more purifying selection. In summary, no higher mitochondrial mutation accumulation was detected in these two asexual Trichogramma strains. This study provides a basis for further investigating mitochondrial evolution and asexual reproduction in Trichogramma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution)
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Article
A Follow-Up to the Geographical Distribution of Anopheles Species in Malaria-Endemic and Non-Endemic Areas of Honduras
Insects 2022, 13(6), 548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060548 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Anopheles species are the vectors of malaria, one of the diseases with the greatest impact on the health of the inhabitants of the tropics. Due to their epidemiological relevance and biological complexity, monitoring of anopheline populations in current and former malaria-endemic areas is [...] Read more.
Anopheles species are the vectors of malaria, one of the diseases with the greatest impact on the health of the inhabitants of the tropics. Due to their epidemiological relevance and biological complexity, monitoring of anopheline populations in current and former malaria-endemic areas is critical for malaria risk assessment. Recent efforts have described the anopheline species present in the main malaria foci in Honduras. This study updates and expands knowledge about Anopheles species composition, geographical distribution, and genetic diversity in the continental territory of Honduras as in the Bay Islands. Outdoor insect collections were carried out at 25 sites in eight municipalities in five departments of Honduras between 2018 and 2021. Specimens were identified using taxonomic keys. Partial COI gene sequences were used for molecular species identification and phylogenetic analyses. In addition, detection of Plasmodium DNA was carried out in 255 female mosquitoes. Overall, 288 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from 8 municipalities. Eight species were morphologically identified. Anopheles albimanus was the most abundant and widely distributed species (79.5%). A subset of 175 partial COI gene sequences from 8 species was obtained. Taxonomic identifications were confirmed via sequence analysis. Anopheles albimanus and An. apicimacula showed the highest haplotype diversity and nucleotide variation, respectively. Phylogenetic clustering was found for An. argyritarsis and An. neomaculipalpus when compared with mosquitoes from other Neotropical countries. Plasmodium DNA was not detected in any of the mosquitoes tested. This report builds upon recent records of the distribution and diversity of Anopheles species in malaria-endemic and non-endemic areas of Honduras. New COI sequences are reported for three anopheline species. This is also the first report of COI sequences of An. albimanus collected on the island of Roatán with apparent gene flow relative to mainland populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Molecular Biology and Genomics)
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Article
Sf-FGFR and Sf-SR-C Are Not the Receptors for Vip3Aa to Exert Insecticidal Toxicity in Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(6), 547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060547 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Vip3Aa is a novel insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during its vegetative growth stages. It has high insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda, and has no cross-resistance with Cry insecticidal proteins. As a new type [...] Read more.
Vip3Aa is a novel insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during its vegetative growth stages. It has high insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda, and has no cross-resistance with Cry insecticidal proteins. As a new type of insecticide, it plays an important role in controlling agricultural pests. However, the insecticidal mechanism of the Vip3Aa toxin, especially its definite receptors, have not been fully revealed. In this study, the previously reported Vip3Aa receptor genes Sf-FGFR and Sf-SR-C were knocked out separately using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Bioassay results showed that the sensitivity of these two knockout strains to Vip3Aa were not significantly changed compared to that of the normal strain. The current results are not consistent with the previously reports that Sf-SR-C and Sf-FGFR were the receptors of Vip3Aa in vitro. This suggests that the Sf-SR-C and Sf-FGFR genes we tested may not be critical in the mode of action of Vip3Aa in vivo in Spodoptera frugiperda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Technological Performance of Cricket Powder (Acheta domesticus L.) in Wheat-Based Formulations
Insects 2022, 13(6), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060546 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The recent socio-economic situation requires producers to change the composition of basic foods. The aim of this study was to assess the technological properties of wheat flour enriched with cricket powder (CP) (at 5%, 10%, and 20% levels) for the development of bread [...] Read more.
The recent socio-economic situation requires producers to change the composition of basic foods. The aim of this study was to assess the technological properties of wheat flour enriched with cricket powder (CP) (at 5%, 10%, and 20% levels) for the development of bread and pasta. The hydration (i.e., water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, water absorption index, water solubility index, and swelling power), foaming (i.e., foaming capacity and stability),emulsifying (emulsifying activity and emulsion stability), and rheological (during gluten aggregation, mixing, extension, and leavening) properties were investigated. Finally, bread and fresh pasta were prepared and characterized. Emulsifying activity, stability, and foaming capacity decreased in the presence of CP, whereas foaming stability and water solubility increased. The results on dough rheology highlighted the need to increase the amount of water, and to decrease the mixing and leavening time, to keep an acceptable bread volume. Indeed, 10% CP enrichment led to a product characterized by a similar volume and crumb hardness to the control (wheat flour). Despite the decrease in extensibility caused by CP, it was possible to produce fresh pasta enriched with CP, with the best cooking behavior obtained at a 5% replacement level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Edible Insects and Circular Economy)
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Article
Characterization of Potential Molecular Markers in Lac Insect Kerria lacca (Kerr) Responsible for Lac Production
Insects 2022, 13(6), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060545 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Kerria lacca (Kerr) is an important lac insect extensively used in industrial products in the form of resin, wax and dye. The scarce knowledge on molecular markers for K. lacca is a barrier in elucidating genetic information. Our study identified a total of [...] Read more.
Kerria lacca (Kerr) is an important lac insect extensively used in industrial products in the form of resin, wax and dye. The scarce knowledge on molecular markers for K. lacca is a barrier in elucidating genetic information. Our study identified a total of 16,921 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and 6231 insertions and deletions (InDels)—of which, intergenic variation accounted for 41.22% and 56.30%, and exonic variation accounted for 39.10% and 17.46%, of SNPs and InDels, respectively. Observation of SNPs suggested that nucleotide substitution frequency and transition to transversion (Ts/Tv) ratio were highest at the late adult stage, 3.97, compared to at the other stages, with a genome-wide Ts/Tv ratio of 2.95. The maximum number of SNPs, 2853 (16.86%), was identified in chromosome 8, while the lowest, 1126 (6.65%), was identified in chromosome 7. The maximum and minimum numbers of InDels were located on chromosome 1 and 7, with 834 (13.38%) and 519 (8.33%), respectively. Annotation showed that highest numbers of exonic and intergenic SNPs were present at the late adult stage, whereas the maximum number of InDels was found at the larval stage. On the basis of gene function, 47 gene variations were screened and 23 candidate genes were identified in associations with lac production. Concluding work will enhance knowledge on molecular markers to facilitate an increase in lac production in K. lacca as well as other lac insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects and Art)
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Article
Reviewing the WHO Tube Bioassay Methodology: Accurate Method Reporting and Numbers of Mosquitoes Are Key to Producing Robust Results
Insects 2022, 13(6), 544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060544 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Accurately monitoring insecticide resistance in target mosquito populations is important for combating malaria and other vector-borne diseases, and robust methods are key. The “WHO susceptibility bioassay” has been available from the World Health Organization for 60+ years: mosquitoes of known physiological status are [...] Read more.
Accurately monitoring insecticide resistance in target mosquito populations is important for combating malaria and other vector-borne diseases, and robust methods are key. The “WHO susceptibility bioassay” has been available from the World Health Organization for 60+ years: mosquitoes of known physiological status are exposed to a discriminating concentration of insecticide. Several changes to the test procedures have been made historically, which may seem minor but could impact bioassay results. The published test procedures and literature for this method were reviewed for methodological details. Areas where there was room for interpretation in the test procedures or where the test procedures were not being followed were assessed experimentally for their impact on bioassay results: covering or uncovering of the tube end during exposure; the number of mosquitoes per test unit; and mosquito age. Many publications do not cite the most recent test procedures; methodological details are reported which contradict the test procedures referenced, or methodological details are not fully reported. As a result, the precise methodology is unclear. Experimental testing showed that using fewer than the recommended 15–30 mosquitoes per test unit significantly reduced mortality, covering the exposure tube had no significant effect, and using mosquitoes older than 2–5 days old increased mortality, particularly in the resistant strain. Recommendations are made for improved reporting of experimental parameters Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticides for Mosquito Control: Strengthening the Evidence Base)
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Article
Population Genetic Structure of the Bean Leaf Beetle Ootheca mutabilis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Uganda
Insects 2022, 13(6), 543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060543 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Bean leaf beetle (BLB) (Ootheca mutabilis) has emerged as an important bean pest in Uganda, leading to devastating crop losses. There is limited information on the population genetic structure of BLB despite its importance. In this study, novel microsatellite DNA markers [...] Read more.
Bean leaf beetle (BLB) (Ootheca mutabilis) has emerged as an important bean pest in Uganda, leading to devastating crop losses. There is limited information on the population genetic structure of BLB despite its importance. In this study, novel microsatellite DNA markers and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene sequences were used to analyze the spatial population genetic structure, genetic differentiation and haplotype diversity of 86 O. mutabilis samples from 16 (districts) populations. We identified 19,356 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (mono, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotides) of which 81 di, tri and tetra-nucleotides were selected for primer synthesis. Five highly polymorphic SSR markers (4–21 alleles, heterozygosity 0.59–0.84, polymorphic information content (PIC) 50.13–83.14%) were used for this study. Analyses of the 16 O. mutabilis populations with these five novel SSRs found nearly all the genetic variation occurring within populations and there was no evidence of genetic differentiation detected for both types of markers. Also, there was no evidence of isolation by distance between geographical and genetic distances for SSR data and mtCOI data except in one agro-ecological zone for mtCOI data. Bayesian clustering identified a signature of admixture that suggests genetic contributions from two hypothetical ancestral genetic lineages for both types of markers, and the minimum-spanning haplotype network showed low differentiation in minor haplotypes from the most common haplotype with the most common haplotype occurring in all the 16 districts. A lack of genetic differentiation indicates unrestricted migrations between populations. This information will contribute to the design of BLB control strategies. Full article
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Case Report
Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as Agent of Myiasis in a Goose in Italy and a Review of Myiasis by This Species in Birds
Insects 2022, 13(6), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060542 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Myiasis is a type of parasitosis by larvae of Diptera that may affect vertebrates, including wild and domestic birds. Traumatic myiasis was discovered in a domestic goose, Anser anser domesticus L. (Anseriformes: Anatidae), in June 2020 in a rural area of the region [...] Read more.
Myiasis is a type of parasitosis by larvae of Diptera that may affect vertebrates, including wild and domestic birds. Traumatic myiasis was discovered in a domestic goose, Anser anser domesticus L. (Anseriformes: Anatidae), in June 2020 in a rural area of the region Calabria (Southern Italy). The myiasis was caused by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). In Italy, this was the first case of myiasis by L. sericata ever described in a bird. It was also the first case of myiasis detected in a goose in Italy. The description of the case is integrated by a discussion on nonhematophagous dipteran larvae causing myiasis in birds and by an updated and detailed review of literature cases of myiasis by L. sericata in birds reported worldwide, useful for monitoring and management of dipteran species of medical and veterinary interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Management of Flies)
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Article
New Species, New Records, and Updated Key to the Paravelia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Brazil
Insects 2022, 13(6), 541; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060541 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
The broad-shouldered water-strider genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae: Veliinae) is currently represented in Brazil by 38 species. Although the diversity of the genus in the country is relatively well known, eight states remain with no records of any species: Acre, Alagoas, [...] Read more.
The broad-shouldered water-strider genus Paravelia Breddin, 1898 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae: Veliinae) is currently represented in Brazil by 38 species. Although the diversity of the genus in the country is relatively well known, eight states remain with no records of any species: Acre, Alagoas, Ceará (CE), Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Tocantins. Aiming to fill these gaps, several expeditions were carried out at conservation areas of the Caatinga biome between 2018 and 2021: Aiuaba Ecological Station (CE), Catimbau National Park (PE), and Serra das Confusões National Park (PI). Paravelia luisi sp. nov., a new species from PE, is described and illustrated. In addition, new records of P. bilobata Rodrigues, Moreira, Nieser, Chen & Melo, 2014, P. digitata Rodrigues & Moreira, 2016, and P. nieseri Moreira & Barbosa, 2012, and an updated key to the Brazilian species of Paravelia are provided. This study increases the number of species of Paravelia known in Brazil to 39 and provides the first records of the genus from three states: PE, with two species, and CE and PI, with one species each. Full article
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Article
A LAMP Assay for the Detection of Thecodiplosis japonensis, an Alien Gall Midge Species Pest of Pine Trees
Insects 2022, 13(6), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060540 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Pine needle gall midge (T. japonensis), native to Japan, has become a serious invasive pest in South Korea and, more recently in 2006, in China. It was first discovered in Qingdao, Shandong Province, and has caused serious damage to local Pinus [...] Read more.
Pine needle gall midge (T. japonensis), native to Japan, has become a serious invasive pest in South Korea and, more recently in 2006, in China. It was first discovered in Qingdao, Shandong Province, and has caused serious damage to local Pinus thunbergii. The insect’s small size makes morphological-based identification difficult; therefore, molecular detection techniques are urgently needed for monitoring and preventing its further spread. At present, there is no simple and accurate field molecular identification tool. To solve this problem, a LAMP-based molecular diagnosis technology of T. japonensis was developed. Four LAMP primers were designed to specifically amplify T. japonensis DNA. Positive LAMP reactions usually produce amplification in one hour. The optimal incubation conditions for LAMP detection were determined with 4 LAMP primers for 60 min at 61 °C. The LAMP detection range of gDNA concentrations is wide, with a minimum detectable gDNA concentration of 300 fg. A non-destructive DNA-releasing procedure, HotSHOT “HS6”, which could extract “crude DNA” for LAMP assay in 10 min, was used for larval and adult samples. Therefore, we established a LAMP-based rapid molecular identification method that can be applied in the monitoring and management of T. japonensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
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Article
What Are the Best Pollinator Candidates for Camelia oleifera: Do Not Forget Hoverflies and Flies
Insects 2022, 13(6), 539; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060539 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important woody oil plant, and its pollination success is essential for oil production. We conducted this study to select the best pollinator candidates for C. oleifera using principal component analysis and multi-attribute decision-making. Field observations of the flower-visiting [...] Read more.
Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important woody oil plant, and its pollination success is essential for oil production. We conducted this study to select the best pollinator candidates for C. oleifera using principal component analysis and multi-attribute decision-making. Field observations of the flower-visiting characteristics of candidate pollinators were conducted at three sites. The insect species that visited flowers did not considerably differ between regions or time periods. However, the proportion of each species recorded did vary. We recorded eleven main candidates from two orders and six families at the three sites. The pollen amount carried by Apis mellifera was significantly higher than that of other insects. However, the visit frequency and body length of Apis mellifera were smaller than those of Vespa velutina. Statistical analysis showed that A. mellifera is the best candidate pollinator; Eristaliscerealis is a good candidate pollinator; Phytomia zonata, A. cerana, and V. velutina were ordinary candidate pollinators; and four fly species, Episyrphus balteatus, and Eristalinus arvorum were classified as inefficient candidate pollinators. Our study shows that flies and hoverflies play an important role in the pollination system. Given the global decline in bee populations, the role of flies should also be considered in C. oleifera seed production. Full article
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Article
Colour Response in Western Flower Thrips Varies Intraspecifically
Insects 2022, 13(6), 538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060538 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Discrepancies in the published research as to the attraction of the economically important pest western flower thrips (WFT) to different colours confounds the optimisation of field traps for pest management purposes. We considered whether the different experimental conditions of independent studies could have [...] Read more.
Discrepancies in the published research as to the attraction of the economically important pest western flower thrips (WFT) to different colours confounds the optimisation of field traps for pest management purposes. We considered whether the different experimental conditions of independent studies could have contributed to this. Therefore, the behavioural response (i.e., landings) to different colour cues of two WFT laboratory populations from Germany (DE) and The Netherlands (NL), which had previously been independently shown to have different colour preferences, were tested in the same place, and under the same experimental conditions. Single-choice wind tunnel bioassays supported previous independent findings, with more of a NL population landing on the yellow LED lamp (588 nm) than the blue (470 nm) (p = 0.022), and a not-statistically significant trend observed in a DE population landing more on blue compared to yellow (p = 0.104). To account for potential original host rearing influences, both populations were subsequently established on bean for ~20 weeks, then yellow chrysanthemum for 4–8 and 12–14 weeks and tested in wind tunnel choice bioassays. Laboratory of origin, irrespective of the host plant rearing regime, remained a significant effect (p < 0.001), with 65% of the NL WFT landing on yellow compared to blue (35%), while 66% of the DE WFT landed on blue compared to yellow (34%). There was also a significant host plant effect (p < 0.001), with increased response to yellow independent of laboratory of origin after rearing on chrysanthemum for 12–14 weeks. Results suggest that differing responses of WFT populations to colour is, in this case, independent of the experimental situation. Long-term separate isolation from the wild cannot be excluded as a cause, and the implications of this for optimising the trap colour is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Pest Thrips: Biology, Ecology, and Population Genetics)
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Article
Microscopic Identification of Anatomical Elements and Chemical Analysis of Secondary Nests of Vespa velutina nigrithorax du Buyson
Insects 2022, 13(6), 537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060537 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Vespa velutina accidentally arrived in Europe (France) in 2004, and rapidly expanded throughout the entire country. Its presence in mainland Portugal was first noticed in 2011. Being an invasive species with no natural predators in the region to control it, it has caused [...] Read more.
Vespa velutina accidentally arrived in Europe (France) in 2004, and rapidly expanded throughout the entire country. Its presence in mainland Portugal was first noticed in 2011. Being an invasive species with no natural predators in the region to control it, it has caused enormous environmental and economic damage, particularly on Apis mellifera (honeybee) colonies. Although there is already some research on this species’ biology, little is known about its adaption to European ecological conditions, specifically in terms of nest building. This type of hornet builds a primary nest in the spring to start a colony. During the summer, they build a secondary nest to develop the main colony. These secondary nests are ovoid-shaped and range in size from 18.7 cm to 45.0 cm in diameter and from 19.2 cm to 65.0 cm in length, attaining their highest development in late summer. The external appearance of these nests is characterized by alternating stripes that are beige and brown in color. The main objective of this study is to identify the composition and the origin of the materials that are used by Vespa velutina nigrithorax to build the outer envelope of these secondary nests. This information could be very interesting and will not only increase our knowledge on the biology of the species in regions far from its original area, but will also be relevant for the future implementation of new policies to control this invasive species by means biological control. Several samples were taken from each nest and were observed under different optical magnifying devices. In the second stage, their chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS). It was noticed that almost all of the materials used in the nests’ construction were lignocellulose from woody materials from both softwood (gymnosperm) and hardwood (angiosperm) forest species as well from leaves and small particles of agricultural origin (grasses). The beige strips were formed almost exclusively from woody softwood cells, while the brown strips were composed of hardwood cells, leaf tissues, and grasses. Chemically, it was noticed that this material mainly consisted of cellulose, with more than 99% being composed of C and O and very little mineral material from elements such as Na, Al, Si, K, and Ca. The achieved results allow us to state that in the construction of these secondary nests, these hornets only used organic materials that are then probably agglomerated through their mouths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Arthropod Biodiversity: Ecological and Functional Aspects)
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Article
Differential Hatching, Development, Oviposition, and Longevity Patterns among Colombian Aedes aegypti Populations
Insects 2022, 13(6), 536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060536 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are arboviral diseases for which there are no effective therapies or vaccines. The only way to avoid their transmission is by controlling the vector Aedes aegypti, but insecticide resistance limits this strategy. To generate relevant information for surveillance [...] Read more.
Dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are arboviral diseases for which there are no effective therapies or vaccines. The only way to avoid their transmission is by controlling the vector Aedes aegypti, but insecticide resistance limits this strategy. To generate relevant information for surveillance and control mechanisms, we determined life cycle parameters, including longevity, fecundity, and mortality, of Colombian Ae. aegypti populations from four different geographical regions: Neiva, Bello, Itagüí, and Riohacha. When reared at 28 °C, Bello had the shortest development time, and Riohacha had the longest. Each mosquito population had its own characteristic fecundity pattern during four gonotrophic cycles. The survival curves of each population were significantly different, with Riohacha having the longest survival in both males and females and Bello the shortest. High mortality was observed in mosquitoes from Neiva in the egg stage and for Bello in the pupae stage. Finally, when mosquitoes from Neiva and Bello were reared at 35 °C, development times and mortality were severely affected. In conclusion, each population has a unique development pattern with an innate trace in their biological characteristics that confers vulnerability in specific stages of development. Full article
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Article
Abnormal Antennal Olfactory Sensilla Phenotypes Involved in Olfactory Deficit in Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Insects 2022, 13(6), 535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060535 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, is one of the most destructive pests in the genus Bactrocera and detects environmental odorants mainly through antennal olfactory sensilla phenotypes with nanopores. However, it is unclear whether there are naturally occurring abnormal antennal olfactory sensilla [...] Read more.
The guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta, is one of the most destructive pests in the genus Bactrocera and detects environmental odorants mainly through antennal olfactory sensilla phenotypes with nanopores. However, it is unclear whether there are naturally occurring abnormal antennal olfactory sensilla phenotypes that affect olfaction. Here, we found that there were abnormal bulges besides nanopores on the surface of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla in the antennal flagellum of long-term laboratory rearing colony (LTC), and that nanopore number in these olfactory sensilla was also remarkably reduced. Notably, the electroantennogram (EAG) responses of LTC insects to methyl eugenol or β-caryophyllene were inhibited, and their behavioral responses elicited by the same odorants were also impaired. These results revealed naturally occurring abnormal antennal olfactory sensilla phenotypes which were involved in olfactory deficit in B. correcta, providing a platform to further study nanopore-targeted pest control technologies in the future. Full article
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Article
Diverse Host Plants of the First Instars of the Invasive Lycorma delicatula: Insights from eDNA Metabarcoding
Insects 2022, 13(6), 534; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060534 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Identification of host plants of the invasive spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), has been the focus of many studies. While the adults and late nymphs are relatively easy to observe on plants and to use for molecular gut-content analysis, studying the early [...] Read more.
Identification of host plants of the invasive spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), has been the focus of many studies. While the adults and late nymphs are relatively easy to observe on plants and to use for molecular gut-content analysis, studying the early instars is more challenging. This study is the continuation of our ongoing efforts to determine the host range for each developmental stage of L. delicatula. In the present study, we focused exclusively on the first nymphal instars, and we used a novel approach, utilizing “bulk” DNA extracts for DNA metabarcoding of nymphal gut contents, to identify all the detectable plants that the nymphs had ingested prior to being collected. We were able to obtain high-quality amplicons (up to 406 bp) of a portion of the rbcL gene and detect 27 unique ingested plant species belonging to 17 families. Both native and introduced plants with the prevalence of trees and grasses were present among the ingested plants. We also identified 13 novel host plants that have not been previously reported for L. delicatula on the U.S. territory. The results from our study have important applications for developing effective programs on early monitoring of invasive L. delicatula. Full article
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Article
First Evidence of CpGV Resistance of Codling Moth in the USA
Insects 2022, 13(6), 533; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060533 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 386
Abstract
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is a very important pest in apple, pear, and walnut orchards worldwide, including the USA. Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is used to control codling moth in organic and conventional production. Due to increasing codling moth infestations from [...] Read more.
Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is a very important pest in apple, pear, and walnut orchards worldwide, including the USA. Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is used to control codling moth in organic and conventional production. Due to increasing codling moth infestations from organic apple orchards in Washington State, USA, five codling moth colonies (WA1-WA5) were screened for their susceptibility relative to the isolate GV-0001, the main active ingredient of Cyd-X®, using a discriminating concentration of 6 × 104 OB/mL. Compared to a susceptible laboratory colony, the observed results indicated that GV-0001 lacked efficacy against codling moth colony WA3. It was confirmed that WA3 was the first case of codling moth resistance to CpGV in the USA. Further testing of WA3 was performed on a range of CpGV isolates and a lack of efficacy was observed against additional isolates. However, three newly developed CpGV preparations can efficiently infect larvae from the resistant colony WA3. Our results suggest that there is an urgent need to monitor the situation in the USA, aiming to prevent the emergence or spread of additional codling moth populations with CpGV resistance. Strategies to sustain the efficacy of codling moth control using novel CpGV formulations need to be developed. Full article
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Review
Current Status of Mosquito Handling, Transporting and Releasing in Frame of the Sterile Insect Technique
Insects 2022, 13(6), 532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/insects13060532 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The sterile insect technique (SIT) and its related technologies are considered to be a powerful weapon for fighting against mosquitoes. As an important part of the area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs, SIT can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides for mosquito [...] Read more.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) and its related technologies are considered to be a powerful weapon for fighting against mosquitoes. As an important part of the area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs, SIT can help reduce the use of chemical pesticides for mosquito control, and consequently, the occurrence of insecticide resistance. The mosquito SIT involves several important steps, including mass rearing, sex separation, irradiation, packing, transportation, release and monitoring. To enable the application of SIT against mosquitoes to reduce vector populations, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Centre (previously called Division) of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (hereinafter called Joint FAO/IAEA Centre) and its Insects Pest Control sub-program promoted a coordinated research project (CRP) entitled “Mosquito handling, transport, release and male trapping methods” to enhance the success of SIT. This article summarizes the existing explorations that are critical to the handling and transporting of male mosquitoes, offers an overview of detailed steps in SIT and discusses new emerging methods for mosquito releases, covering most processes of SIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Handling, Transport, Release and Male Trapping Methods)
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