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Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The paper presents an experimental program on large-scale square and rectangular RC columns externally strengthened with carbon FRP sheets and subjected to axial load. The main variables were the side-aspect ratio of the cross-section, the radius of curvature of the corners, and the amount of FRP reinforcement. The specimens were designed with minimum internal steel reinforcement and low compression strength concrete to reproduce the situation of RC columns in old buildings. The results show that, for low strength concrete, the FRP confinement can significantly improve the strength and strain capacity of rectangular section RC columns. The FRP hoop ultimate strain was much lower than the material ultimate tensile strain obtained from flat coupon tests and the strain efficiency factor was less than the value usually recommended by design guides. View this paper.
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Article
Roof Isolation and Girder-to-Column Dissipative Connections in Seismic Design of Precast R/C Structures
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110104 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
A new section of a study on innovative anti-seismic design strategies of precast reinforced concrete structures is presented herein. The solution conceived in this new step of the study consists in seismically isolating the building roof and incorporating girder-to-column dissipative connections. Two different [...] Read more.
A new section of a study on innovative anti-seismic design strategies of precast reinforced concrete structures is presented herein. The solution conceived in this new step of the study consists in seismically isolating the building roof and incorporating girder-to-column dissipative connections. Two different types of dissipaters are considered for installation in the latter, i.e., fluid viscous spring-dampers and triangle-shaped added-damping-and-stiffness steel yielding devices. A benchmark building, designed according to a traditional ductility-based approach at a previous step of the study, is redesigned by assuming the two alternative dissipative connection technologies. Sizing criteria and details of both solutions are discussed, along with the results of the time–history analyses carried out to assess their performance up to the maximum considered normative earthquake level, and a comparative cost evaluation with the traditional design is offered. Full article
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Article
Seismic Risk of Infrastructure Systems with Treatment of and Sensitivity to Epistemic Uncertainty
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110103 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Modern society’s very existence is tied to the proper and reliable functioning of its Critical Infrastructure (CI) systems. In the seismic risk assessment of an infrastructure, taking into account all the relevant uncertainties affecting the problem is crucial. While both aleatory and epistemic [...] Read more.
Modern society’s very existence is tied to the proper and reliable functioning of its Critical Infrastructure (CI) systems. In the seismic risk assessment of an infrastructure, taking into account all the relevant uncertainties affecting the problem is crucial. While both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties affect the estimate of seismic risk to an infrastructure and should be considered, the focus herein is on the latter. After providing an up-to-date literature review about the treatment of and sensitivity to epistemic uncertainty, this paper presents a comprehensive framework for seismic risk assessment of interdependent spatially distributed infrastructure systems that accounts for both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and provides confidence in the estimate, as well as sensitivity of uncertainty in the output to the components of epistemic uncertainty in the input. The logic tree approach is used for the treatment of epistemic uncertainty and for the sensitivity analysis, whose results are presented through tornado diagrams. Sensitivity is also evaluated by elaborating the logic tree results through weighted ANOVA. The formulation is general and can be applied to risk assessment problems involving not only infrastructural but also structural systems. The presented methodology was implemented into an open-source software, OOFIMS, and applied to a synthetic city composed of buildings and a gas network and subjected to seismic hazard. The gas system’s performance is assessed through a flow-based analysis. The seismic hazard, the vulnerability assessment and the evaluation of the gas system’s operational state are addressed with a simulation-based approach. The presence of two systems (buildings and gas network) proves the capability to handle system interdependencies and highlights that uncertainty in models/parameters related to one system can affect uncertainty in the output related to dependent systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling)
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Article
Durability-Based Design of Structures Made with Ultra-High-Performance/Ultra-High-Durability Concrete in Extremely Aggressive Scenarios: Application to a Geothermal Water Basin Case Study
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110102 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
This paper provides the formulation and description of the framework and methodology for a Durability Assessment-based Design approach for structures made of the Ultra-High-Durability Concrete materials conceived, produced and investigated in the project ReSHEALience (Rethinking coastal defence and Green-energy Service infrastructures through enHancEd-durAbiLity [...] Read more.
This paper provides the formulation and description of the framework and methodology for a Durability Assessment-based Design approach for structures made of the Ultra-High-Durability Concrete materials conceived, produced and investigated in the project ReSHEALience (Rethinking coastal defence and Green-energy Service infrastructures through enHancEd-durAbiLity high-performance cement-based materials) funded by the European Commission within the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme (Call NMBP 2016–2017 topic 06-2017 GA 780624). The project consortium, coordinated by Politecnico di Milano, gathers 13 partners from 7 countries, including 6 academic institutions and 7 industrial partners, covering the whole value chain of the concrete construction industry. The innovative design concept informing the whole approach herein presented has been formulated shifting from a set of prescriptions, mainly referring to material composition and also including, in case, an allowable level of damage defined and quantified in order not to compromise the intended level of “passive” protection of sensitive material and structural parts (deemed-to-satisfy approach; avoidance-of-deterioration approach), to the prediction of the evolution of the serviceability and ultimate limit state performance indicators, as relevant to the application, as a function of scenario-based aging and degradation mechanisms. The new material and design concepts developed in the project are being validated through design, construction and long-term monitoring in six full-scale proofs-of concept, selected as representative of cutting edge economy sectors, such as green energy, Blue Growth and conservation of R/C heritage. As a case study example, in this paper, the approach is applied to a basin for collecting water from a geothermal power plant which has been built using tailored Ultra-High-Durability Concrete (UHDC) mixtures and implementing an innovative precast slab-and-buttress structural concept in order to significantly reduce the thickness of the basin walls. The geothermal water contains a high amount of sulphates and chlorides, hence acting both as static load and chemical aggressive. The main focus of the analysis, and the main novelty of the proposed approach is the prediction of the long-term performance of UHDC structures, combining classical structural design methodologies, including, e.g., cross-section and yield line design approaches, with material degradation laws calibrated through tailored tests. This will allow us to anticipate the evolution of the structural performance, as a function of exposure time to the aggressive environment, which will be validated against continuous monitoring, and pave the way towards a holistic design approach. This moves from the material to the structural durability level, anticipating the evolution of the structural performance and quantifying the remarkable resulting increase in the service life of structures made of UHDC, as compared to companion analogous ones made with ordinary reinforced concrete solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability of Concrete Infrastructure)
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Article
Confinement of Masonry Columns with the FRCM-System: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110101 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems are promising solutions for the confinement of masonry columns because they demonstrate strengthening effectiveness and, at the same time, compatibility with historical substrates. Nevertheless, the matrix is responsible for the stress-transfer from the structural element to the [...] Read more.
Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems are promising solutions for the confinement of masonry columns because they demonstrate strengthening effectiveness and, at the same time, compatibility with historical substrates. Nevertheless, the matrix is responsible for the stress-transfer from the structural element to the fabric-reinforcement. Therefore, in the case of poor-quality mortar, the effectiveness of the strengthening can be limited or even compromised. On the other hand, the low content of fibers utilized for FRCM systems generally involves the need to apply more layers in order to accomplish design requirements and a continuous configuration of the reinforcement is more often addressed. Few experimental and theoretical investigations have been targeted to the before mentioned aspects in the recent past, namely the influence of the kind of mortar, the number of layers, and the strengthening configuration (continuous, discontinuous) on the effectiveness of confinement. The present paper refers to the results of an experimental investigation on FRCM confined clay brick masonry. A series of small-scale masonry columns were tested under monotonic centered load until collapse. The varied parameters were the number of confining layers (i.e., 1, 2, and 3) and the confinement configuration (i.e., continuous and discontinuous). The performed research aims to contribute in strengthening to the knowledge in the field of FRCM-confinement, mainly focusing on some of the mentioned unexplored aspects (number of layers, strengthening configuration) that could be considered for validation/improvement of analytical design-oriented formulas. In particular, some analytical models, available in the technical literature, were adopted for predicting the herein reported experimental results. Even if based on few experimental results, the outcomes showed that the number of FRCM-layers and the confinement configuration were crucial parameters affecting the confining effectiveness. The compressive strength was satisfactorily predicted in all cases by the two available utilized models. On the other hand, an improvement in the utilized AOM model is suggested in order to include the stress–strain curves of the hardening type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Article
System Criticality of Road Network Areas for Emergency Management Services—Spatial Assessment Using a Tessellation Approach
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110099 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Emergency management services, such as firefighting, rescue teams and ambulances, are all heavily reliant on road networks. However, even for highly industrialised countries such as Germany, and even for large cities, spatial planning tools are lacking for road network interruptions of emergency services. [...] Read more.
Emergency management services, such as firefighting, rescue teams and ambulances, are all heavily reliant on road networks. However, even for highly industrialised countries such as Germany, and even for large cities, spatial planning tools are lacking for road network interruptions of emergency services. Moreover, dependencies of emergency management expand not only on roads but on many other systemic interrelations, such as blockages of bridges. The first challenge this paper addresses is the development of a novel assessment that captures systemic interrelations of critical services and their dependencies explicitly designed to the needs of the emergency services. This aligns with a second challenge: capturing system nodes and areas around road networks and their geographical interrelation. System nodes, road links and city areas are integrated into a spatial grid of tessellated hexagons (also referred to as tiles) with geographical information systems. The hexagonal grid is designed to provide a simple map visualisation for emergency planners and fire brigades. Travel time planning is then optimised for accessing city areas in need by weighing impaired areas of past events based on operational incidents. The model is developed and tested with official incident data for the city of Cologne, Germany, and will help emergency managers to better device planning of resources based on this novel identification method of critical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Inland Transport Networks to Extreme Events)
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Article
The Structural Diagnosis of Existing RC Buildings: The Role of Nondestructive Tests in the Case of Low Concrete Strength
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110100 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 674
Abstract
In the structural safety assessment process of existing structures, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the materials is key. Different experimental activities carried out on materials extracted from existing reinforced concrete buildings show a high strength variability, especially concrete. In the past, the [...] Read more.
In the structural safety assessment process of existing structures, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the materials is key. Different experimental activities carried out on materials extracted from existing reinforced concrete buildings show a high strength variability, especially concrete. In the past, the lack of standardized quality control for materials and workmanship caused nonuniform and homogeneous properties within the same structure. The most accurate and reliable experimental technique consists of performing direct tests on the materials, but these are considerably expensive and invasive. In this paper, alternative indirect methods that estimate material properties by correlating different physical measures were proved to reduce invasive inspections on existing buildings and infrastructures, especially in built heritage. A complete experimental activity concerning destructive and nondestructive tests was conducted on elements (four portions of a column and a beam portion) removed from an Italian school building built in 1940. Destructive and nondestructive methods were compared and appropriate correlation laws developed to predict the main mechanical properties of the studied material. Reliable correlations were identified considering the pull-out test, Sonic–Rebound (SonReb) combined method and ultrasonic pulse velocities (UPVs). The latter were mapped by tomography, which highlighted the compression properties of concrete in the different structural sections. Full article
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Article
Automated Construction Progress and Quality Monitoring for Commercial Buildings with Unmanned Aerial Systems: An Application Study from Switzerland
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110098 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), which have become a key tool in remote sensing in recent years, have also rapidly entered the practice of Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operations (AECO). This paper presents an application study of a methodology for monitoring construction progress and [...] Read more.
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), which have become a key tool in remote sensing in recent years, have also rapidly entered the practice of Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operations (AECO). This paper presents an application study of a methodology for monitoring construction progress and quality using real-time data from a commercial building during the execution phase and the results of an analysis of the costs and benefits of monitoring construction progress and quality with and without a UAS. The methodology used consists of three parts: (1) automated data collection at the construction site, (2) data processing, in which the collected data are processed to generate the outputs necessary for the data analysis, and (3) data analysis to monitor construction progress and quality. The method is based on the detection of structural elements, combined with four principles: the sectional approach, the calculation of the concrete volume, the height-distance measurement, and the detection of defects by visual comparisons. The cost-benefit analysis considers three cases: monitoring of progress (1) by the construction company using the UAS, (2) by external contractors using the UAS, and (3) by the construction company without using the UAS. We show that the in-house operation of the UAS is associated with medium costs. However, a return on investment can be achieved quickly if the strategy for the operation of the UAS is clearly defined. In summary, the use of a UAS for the automated monitoring of the construction progress and quality of commercial buildings is practicable, which can quickly lead to a return on investment. We also show that there is great potential for further improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructures)
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Article
Climate Emergency Adaptation and Sustainable Management Strategies in Rural and Agricultural Landscapes
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110097 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 982
Abstract
This paper discusses the way in which climate emergency-related strategies and the concepts of climate adaptation, sustainability and governance are being introduced into rural and agricultural landscapes. To investigate environmental impacts on climate change, it uses examples from the ‘Landscape Observatory’ (Catalonia) and [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the way in which climate emergency-related strategies and the concepts of climate adaptation, sustainability and governance are being introduced into rural and agricultural landscapes. To investigate environmental impacts on climate change, it uses examples from the ‘Landscape Observatory’ (Catalonia) and the ‘Room for the River’ (the Netherlands) landscape programmes. Noordwaard is the largest rural project of the Room for the River programme, dealing with agricultural land, farming and nature reserves at a strategic scale. It demonstrates the potential and significance of addressing the sea rising water levels by creating landscape climate adaptation projects by introducing the ideas of landscape, low carbon, ecosystem services and governance as vital aspects of rural infrastructure, which underpin the ways in which agricultural land and water are managed. The Landscape Observatory has had a significant impact on the development of landscape policies in Catalonia and has been influential in a global level. Focusing on Lluçanès and the establishment of a Landscape Charter protecting the agricultural land and examining the natural area of La Cerdanya in Pyrenees, the research extracts best practices in policy and legislation as well as participatory methods on climate and landscape awareness. This research concludes that a communication strategy strongly supported by policies, legislation and governance structures, in conjunction with a wider understanding of the role of landscape, results in significantly improved responses to deal with the challenges of the climate crisis in rural and agricultural areas. Full article
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Article
Alkali-Silica Reaction Resistance and Pore Solution Composition of Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110096 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is generally reported to be less vulnerable to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) than conventional ordinary Portland cement concrete. However, the lack of understanding of pore solution composition of the low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer limits the investigation of the underlying [...] Read more.
Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is generally reported to be less vulnerable to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) than conventional ordinary Portland cement concrete. However, the lack of understanding of pore solution composition of the low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer limits the investigation of the underlying mechanisms for the low ASR-induced expansion in the geopolymer concrete. This study presents a systematic investigation of the pore solution composition of a low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer over a period of one year. The results show that the pore solution of the fly ash geopolymer is mainly composed of alkali ions, silicates, and aluminosilicates species. The lower expansion of the geopolymer concrete in the current study is most probably due to the insufficient alkalinity in the geopolymer pore solution as the hydroxide ions are largely consumed for the fly ash dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability of Concrete Infrastructure)
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Article
Use of Deep Learning to Study Modeling Deterioration of Pavements a Case Study in Iowa
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110095 - 05 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
This paper describes the process and outcome of deterioration modeling for three different pavement types (asphalt, concrete, and composite) in the state of Iowa. Pavement condition data is collected by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and stored in a Pavement-Management Information System [...] Read more.
This paper describes the process and outcome of deterioration modeling for three different pavement types (asphalt, concrete, and composite) in the state of Iowa. Pavement condition data is collected by the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) and stored in a Pavement-Management Information System (PMIS). In the state of Iowa, the overall pavement condition is quantified using the Pavement Condition Index (PCI), which is a weighted average of indices representing different types of distress, roughness, and deflection. Deterioration models of PCI as a function of time were developed for the different pavement types using two modeling approaches. The first approach is the long/short-term memory (LSTM), a subset of a recurrent neural network. The second approach, used by the Iowa DOT, is developing individual regression models for each section of the different pavement types. A comparison is made between the two approaches to assess the accuracy of each model. The results show that the LSTM model achieved a higher prediction accuracy over time for all different pavement types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pavement Management: Inspection and Life-Cycle Assessment)
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Review
Ballast Contamination Mechanisms: A Criterial Review of Characterisation and Performance Indicators
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110094 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Across the world, ballasted railway tracks are utilised extensively due to their cost efficiency, ease of drainage, and capacity to withstand cyclic imposed loadings from heavy trains. In spite of these benefits, the ballast is often considered as a flexible medium; as such, [...] Read more.
Across the world, ballasted railway tracks are utilised extensively due to their cost efficiency, ease of drainage, and capacity to withstand cyclic imposed loadings from heavy trains. In spite of these benefits, the ballast is often considered as a flexible medium; as such, its continuous deterioration is largely disregarded. Geotechnical challenges such as ballast contamination in the form of particle fragmentation, deposition of weathered materials, upward pumping of clay and fines from underlayers, and coal intrusion have led to differential settlements and reduced drainability of tracks, thereby exacerbating track maintenance costs. This study reviews existing works of literature to expound on the mechanisms for ballast contamination and to highlight the fundamental parameters that guide the characterisation and performance evaluation of railway ballasts. The study shows that ballast fragmentation accounts for about 76% of commonly recorded contaminations, while it is also observed as the most critical to track stability. As such, a variety of indices and specifications for ballast gradation have been established worldwide to guide practice in ballast characterisation and performance evaluation. However, the mechanisms of ballast fragmentation and deterioration require further research to guide the improvement of contemporary guidelines, and mitigate the risk of abrupt track failures, especially in developing countries. Full article
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Article
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of a Monumental Masonry Building
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110093 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Recent seismic events that hit the central part of Italy have highlighted again the high vulnerability of the historical and architectonical heritage of Italy and the importance of preserving it. However, the seismic assessment of monumental buildings is particularly complex because each historical [...] Read more.
Recent seismic events that hit the central part of Italy have highlighted again the high vulnerability of the historical and architectonical heritage of Italy and the importance of preserving it. However, the seismic assessment of monumental buildings is particularly complex because each historical construction is a singular case realized by specific techniques. Therefore, the first step should be the knowledge of the building even if it is a difficult task. In the present paper, the seismic behavior of an important nineteenth century astronomical observatory, constructed between 1816 and 1819, was investigated. The building, located in Naples, in the southern part of Italy, and classified by the Italian code as an area of medium seismic hazard, was analyzed in the elastic and inelastic range under seismic actions. In this study, the results of two different models were proposed and critically compared. The first one was implemented by shell elements for walls and vaults developing a linear dynamic analysis, while the second one simulates the building through “equivalent frames” applying a nonlinear static analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Article
Preparing for Sea-Level Rise through Adaptive Managed Retreat of a New Zealand Stormwater and Wastewater Network
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110092 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Sea-level rise increasingly affects low-lying and exposed coastal communities due to climate change. These communities rely upon the delivery of stormwater and wastewater services which are often co-located underground in coastal areas. Due to sea-level rise and associated compounding climate-related hazards, managing these [...] Read more.
Sea-level rise increasingly affects low-lying and exposed coastal communities due to climate change. These communities rely upon the delivery of stormwater and wastewater services which are often co-located underground in coastal areas. Due to sea-level rise and associated compounding climate-related hazards, managing these networks will progressively challenge local governments as climate change advances. Thus, responsible agencies must reconcile maintaining Levels of Service as the impacts of climate change worsen over the coming decades and beyond. A critical question is whether such networks can continue to be adapted/protected over time to retain Levels of Service, or whether eventual retreat may be the only viable adaptation option? If so, at what performance threshold? In this paper, we explore these questions for stormwater and wastewater, using a dynamic adaptive pathway planning (DAPP) approach designed to address thresholds and increasing risk over time. Involving key local stakeholders, we here use DAPP to identify thresholds for stormwater and wastewater services and retreat options, and for developing a comprehensive and area-specific retreat strategy comprising pathway portfolios, retreat phases, potential land use changes, and for exploring pathway conflicts and synergies. The result is a prototype for an area near Wellington, New Zealand, where a managed retreat of water infrastructure is being considered at some future juncture. Dynamic adaptive strategies for managed retreats can help to reduce future disruption from coastal flooding, signal land use changes early, inform maintenance, and allow for gradual budget adjustments by the agencies that can manage expenditure over time. We present this stepwise process in a pathway form that can be communicated spatially and visually, thereby making a retreat a more manageable, sequenced, adaptation option for water agencies, and the communities they serve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Infrastructures)
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Article
Strengthening of Low-Strength Concrete Columns with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. Full-Scale Tests
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110091 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
Confinement of columns with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) sheets is an easy and effective way of enhancing the load carrying and strain capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Many experimental studies have been conducted on cylindrical small-scale un-reinforced concrete specimens externally [...] Read more.
Confinement of columns with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) sheets is an easy and effective way of enhancing the load carrying and strain capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Many experimental studies have been conducted on cylindrical small-scale un-reinforced concrete specimens externally confined with FRP. It is widely accepted that confinement of square or rectangular columns is less efficient than the confinement of circular columns. The theoretical models for rectangular sections are mostly based on approaches for circular columns modified by a shape factor, but the different models do not give similar results. This paper presents an experimental program on large-scale square and rectangular RC columns externally strengthened with carbon FRP sheets and subjected to axial load. The main variables were the side-aspect ratio of the cross-section, the radius of curvature of the corners and the amount of FRP reinforcement. The results show that the FRP confinement can increase the strength and strain capacity of rectangular concrete columns with low strength concrete. The FRP hoop ultimate strain was much lower than the material ultimate tensile strain obtained from flat coupon tests and the strain efficiency factor achieved in the tests was less than the value usually recommended by design guides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Article
A Resilience-Based Methodology to Assess Soil Structure Interaction on a Benchmark Bridge
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110090 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
The assessment of bridge functionality during earthquakes is fundamental in the evaluation of emergency response and socio-economic recovery procedures. In this regard, resilience may be considered a key parameter for decision-making procedures such as post-hazard event mitigations and recovery investments on bridges. The [...] Read more.
The assessment of bridge functionality during earthquakes is fundamental in the evaluation of emergency response and socio-economic recovery procedures. In this regard, resilience may be considered a key parameter for decision-making procedures such as post-hazard event mitigations and recovery investments on bridges. The paper proposes a case study of a bridge configuration subjected to seismic hazard and aims to consider the effects of the soil–structure interaction on the recovery to various levels of pre-earthquake functionality. The principal outcome of the paper consists of calculating resilience as a readable finding that may have many applications for a wide range of stakeholders, such as bridge owners, transportation authorities and public administrators who can apply the outcomes in the assessment of the best recovery techniques and solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling)
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Article
Effect of Elapsed Time after Mixing on the Strength Properties of Lime–Iron Ore Tailings Treated Black Cotton Soil as a Road Construction Material
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5110089 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
The study evaluated the effect of elapsed time after mixing on the strength properties of lime and iron ore tailings (IOT) treated black cotton soil (BCS) (an expansive tropical black clay) as road construction material. BCS was treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the effect of elapsed time after mixing on the strength properties of lime and iron ore tailings (IOT) treated black cotton soil (BCS) (an expansive tropical black clay) as road construction material. BCS was treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% lime and 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% IOT content by dry weight of soil. Tests carried out include Atterberg limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), California bearing ratio (CBR) (unsoaked condition), and microstructure of specimens. Statistical analysis was done using MINI-TAB software. Results show that the liquid limit (LL) of BCS–lime–IOT mixtures decreased with increase in lime and IOT content. The LL values of all the treated BCS increased between 0 and 1 h elapsed time after mixing. On the other hand, the plastic limit (PL) of BCS decreased with increase in lime and IOT content while the plasticity index (PI) decreased from 27.7 to 22.9% for 0% lime/0% IOT content and from 30.6 to 26.6% for 0% lime/10% IOT content. Maximum dry density (MDD) of BCS increased while optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased with higher IOT content. The natural BCS recorded OMC value of 25.6% decreased to 15.2% for 8% lime/10% IOT treatment. The strength (i.e., UCS and CBR values) increased with increase in lime/IOT contents between 0 and 2 h elapsed time after mixing. Peak values were recorded for 8% lime/8% IOT treatment for all lime content considered. Regression analysis shows a strong relationship between the strength properties and the soil parameters. An optimal 8% lime/8% IOT treatment of BCS for elapsed time after mixing not exceeding 2 h was established and is recommended as sub-base material for low-trafficked roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomaterials for Transportation Infrastructures)
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