Special Issue "Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marvasi Massimiliano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University of Florence, 50019 Florence, Italy
Interests: antibiotics; food safety; environmental microbiology; cultural heritage conservation
Prof. Dr. Diane Purchase
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Natural Science, Middlesex University London, London NW4 4BT, UK
Interests: environmental biotechnology; microbial resources; antibiotic resistance; emerging pollutants; e-waste

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The overuse of antibiotics is one of the biggest drivers of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR is a threat to public health and a priority across the globe. The environment (both aquatic and terrestrial) is recognized to be a source of pathogenic AMR microorganisms that could affect human health and accelerate the development and spread of resistances. AMR microbes can be found in surface waters, soils, animal and human waste streams, and crops. Discharge of waste from human, animal, and pharmaceutical origins into receiving waters, reuse of wastewater for crop irrigations, use of antibiotics in agriculture, and livestock farming and fisheries are some of the anthropogenic activities that have contributed to AMR in the environment.

Inappropriate use of antibiotics to treat infections or prevent disease promotes growth in animals and plants that also leads to changes in the gut and soil microbiota. Such environments create ideal conditions for the development of AMR and the transfer of this resistance among organisms. Recognizing the risk associated with AMR in the environment can help to develop an effective integrated strategy to protect human and animal health.

Assessing and monitoring the environmental compartments can determine the type of resistance, the concentration of resistant microbes and their fitness, and the source of contamination. Determining the microbiomes in animals and their habitats can help to assess risk of development and spread of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). Understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by horizontal gene transfer and mutations can predict the persistence and spread of AMR. Evaluating the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance during reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture can establish the uptake by animals and crops.

This Special Issue welcomes contributions in AMR in the following environment research areas: assessment and monitoring including biosensors, microbiomes, metagenomics, ARGs transfer and risk assessment. We accept original research, reviews, mini-reviews, and meta-data analyses.

Dr. Marvasi Massimiliano
Prof. Dr. Diane Purchase
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antibiotic resistant genes
  • environment
  • microbiome
  • monitoring
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Conjugation Dynamics of Self-Transmissible and Mobilisable Plasmids into E. coli O157:H7 on Arabidopsis thaliana Rosettes
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 928; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080928 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 118
Abstract
Many antibiotic resistance genes present in human pathogenic bacteria are believed to originate from environmental bacteria. Conjugation of antibiotic resistance conferring plasmids is considered to be one of the major reasons for the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistances. A hotspot for plasmid-based horizontal [...] Read more.
Many antibiotic resistance genes present in human pathogenic bacteria are believed to originate from environmental bacteria. Conjugation of antibiotic resistance conferring plasmids is considered to be one of the major reasons for the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistances. A hotspot for plasmid-based horizontal gene transfer is the phyllosphere, i.e., the surfaces of aboveground plant parts. Bacteria in the phyllosphere might serve as intermediate hosts with transfer capability to human pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the exchange of mobilisable and self-transmissible plasmids via conjugation was evaluated. The conjugation from the laboratory strain Escherichia coli S17-1, the model phyllosphere coloniser Pantoea eucalypti 299R, and the model pathogen E. coli O157:H7 to the recipient strain E. coli O157:H7::MRE103 (EcO157:H7red) in the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana was determined. The results suggest that short-term occurrence of a competent donor is sufficient to fix plasmids in a recipient population of E. coli O157:H7red. The spread of self-transmissible plasmids was limited after initial steep increases of transconjugants that contributed up to 10% of the total recipient population. The here-presented data of plasmid transfer will be important for future modelling approaches to estimate environmental spread of antibiotic resistance in agricultural production environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus sciuri Group Isolates from Wild Ungulates in Spain
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 920; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080920 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) strains in non-managed wild ungulates present in a typical Mediterranean forest in Spain. For this purpose, nasal swabs were obtained from 139 animals: 90 wild boar (Sus scrofa [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) strains in non-managed wild ungulates present in a typical Mediterranean forest in Spain. For this purpose, nasal swabs were obtained from 139 animals: 90 wild boar (Sus scrofa), 42 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 7 fallow deer (Dama dama), which were subsequently pre-enriched in BHI+ NaCl (6.5%) (24 h/37 °C), and then seeded in Columbia blood agar (24 h/37 °C)). The presence of the mecA gene was investigated by PCR, first from the confluent and then from individual colonies. A total of 10 mecA+ colonies were obtained of which only seven showed phenotypic resistance to oxacillin/cefoxitin (methicillin resistance). All MRS strains belonged to the Staphylococcus sciuri group. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was not detected. In addition, a significant number of MRS strains showed resistance to other antimicrobials, mainly β-lactam (7/7), gentamicin (7/7), fusidic acid (6/7) and quinupristin-dalfopristin (6/7), showing an irregular correlation with their coding genes. The genetic profiles grouped the seven strains obtained according to the bacterial species but not in relation to the animal source or the geographical place of origin. The presence of SCCmec type III, common to animals and humans, has been detected in three of the strains obtained. In conclusion, the study reveals that the wild ungulates investigated play a role as potential reservoirs of multi-resistant strains of MRS. Such strains, due to their characteristics, can be easily transferred to other wild or domestic animal species and ultimately to humans through their products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Nationwide Assessment of Water Quality in Rivers across Lebanon by Quantifying Fecal Indicators Densities and Profiling Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 883; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070883 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 951
Abstract
The use of contaminated water has been associated with severe disease outbreaks. Due to widespread pollution with untreated sewage, concerns have been raised over water quality in Lebanon, a country with well-documented challenges in infrastructure. Here, we evaluated the water quality of major [...] Read more.
The use of contaminated water has been associated with severe disease outbreaks. Due to widespread pollution with untreated sewage, concerns have been raised over water quality in Lebanon, a country with well-documented challenges in infrastructure. Here, we evaluated the water quality of major rivers in Lebanon by quantifying the densities of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli). Additionally, we assessed the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in river water. Composite water samples (n = 132) were collected from fourteen rivers, and 378 E. coli were isolated and analyzed. Fecal coliforms and E. coli were detected in 96.29% and 95.5% of the samples, respectively. Additionally, 73.48–61.3% and 31.81% of the samples exceeded the microbiological acceptability standards for irrigation and the fecal coliform limit for recreational activities, respectively. The E. coli exhibited resistance to ampicillin (40% of isolates), amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (42%), cefepime (4%), cefotaxime (14%), cefalexin (46%), cefixime (17%), doripenem (0.3%), imipenem (0.5%), gentamicin (6%), kanamycin (9%), streptomycin (35%), tetracycline (35%), ciprofloxacin (10%), norfloxacin (7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (32%), and chloramphenicol (13%). Notably, 45.8% of the isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR). Our results highlight the need to urgently address fecal pollution and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in Lebanese rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Dynamics of Diversity and Abundance of Sulfonamide Resistant Bacteria in a Silt Loam Soil Fertilized by Compost
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060699 - 11 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Although composting is effective in deactivating antibiotic substances in manure, the influence of compost fertilization on the occurrence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in arable soils remains to be controversial. Herein, the abundance and diversity of two sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1 and [...] Read more.
Although composting is effective in deactivating antibiotic substances in manure, the influence of compost fertilization on the occurrence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in arable soils remains to be controversial. Herein, the abundance and diversity of two sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2) in soil fertilized by compost spiked with two concentrations of sulfadiazine (1 and 10 mg kg−1) were studied intensively by qPCR and high throughput sequencing based on a two-month microcosm experiment. The concentration of sulfadiazine decreased rapidly after spiking from 25% at Day 1 to less than 2.7% at Day 60. Relative abundance of both sul1 and sul2 were significantly higher in soil amended with compost than the non-amended control at Day 1 and slightly decreased with incubation time except for sul2 in the S10 treatment. Soil bacterial communities were transiently shifted by compost fertilization regardless of the presence of sulfadiazine. Relative abundance of genera in three hubs positively interlinked with sul1 and sul2 were significantly higher in compost treated soil than the control at Day 1, 7 and 21, but not at Day 60. High throughput sequencing analyses revealed that most detected (>67% in relative abundance) sul1 and sul2 genotypes sharing >99% similarity with those found in gammaproteobacterial pathogens frequently were commonly present in compost and soil. These results indicated that compost fertilization might increase the abundance rather than diversity of sulfadiazine-resistant populations in soil, which may be facilitated by the presence of sulfadiazine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Escherichia coli between Pristine and Human-Impacted Sites in a River
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050575 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Information on the actual existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rivers where sewage, urban wastewater, and livestock wastewater do not load is essential to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in water environments. This study compared the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli upstream [...] Read more.
Information on the actual existence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rivers where sewage, urban wastewater, and livestock wastewater do not load is essential to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in water environments. This study compared the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli upstream and downstream of human habitation. The survey was conducted in the summer, winter, and spring seasons. Resistance to one or more antibiotics at upstream and downstream sites was on average 18% and 20%, respectively, and no significant difference was observed between the survey sites. The resistance rates at the upstream site (total of 98 isolated strains) to each antibiotic were cefazolin 17%, tetracycline 12%, and ampicillin 8%, in descending order. Conversely, for the downstream site (total of 89 isolated strains), the rates were ampicillin 16%, cefazolin 16%, and tetracycline 1% in descending order. The resistance rate of tetracycline in the downstream site was significantly lower than that of the upstream site. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that many strains showed different resistance profiles even in the same cluster of the Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Moreover, the resistance profiles differed in the same cluster of the upstream and the downstream sites. In flowing from the upstream to the downstream site, it is plausible that E. coli transmitted or lacked the antibiotic resistance gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Association between the blaCTX-M-14-harboring Escherichia coli Isolated from Weasels and Domestic Animals Reared on a University Campus
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040432 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria affect human and animal health worldwide. Here, CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) that were captured on a veterinary campus. To clarify the source of bacteria in the weasels, we examined the domestic [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria affect human and animal health worldwide. Here, CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) that were captured on a veterinary campus. To clarify the source of bacteria in the weasels, we examined the domestic animals reared in seven facilities on the campus. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli were isolated on deoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar, containing cephalexin (50 μg/mL) or cefotaxime (2 μg/mL), and were characterized with antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), replicon typing, and β-lactamase typing analyses. Next-generation sequencing of the ESBL-encoding plasmids was also performed. CTX-M-14 producers isolated from both domestic animals and weasels were classified into six clusters with seven PFGE profiles. The PFGE and antimicrobial resistance profiles were characterized by the animal facility. All CTX-M-14 plasmids belonged to the IncI1 type with a similar size (98.9–99.3 kb), except for one plasmid that was 105.5 kb in length. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed that the CTX-M-14 plasmid in the weasel isolates might have the same origin as the CTX-M-14 plasmid in the domestic animals. Our findings shed further light on the association of antimicrobial resistance between wild and domestic animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Presence of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Cattle Manure Intended for Fertilization of Agricultural Fields: A One Health Perspective
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040410 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
Antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues can enter the environment when using animal manure as fertilizer. Twenty-five mixed beef cattle farmyard manure samples and 9 mixed fattening calf slurry samples from different farms across Belgium were investigated for the presence of 69 antibiotic [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic residues can enter the environment when using animal manure as fertilizer. Twenty-five mixed beef cattle farmyard manure samples and 9 mixed fattening calf slurry samples from different farms across Belgium were investigated for the presence of 69 antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Doxycycline, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine and lincomycin were detected in all fattening calf slurry samples with mean concentrations of 2776, 4078, 48, 31, 536 and 36 µg/kg manure, respectively. Sulfadiazine was detected at a mean concentration of 10,895 µg/kg. Further, antibiotic residues were found in only 4 of the 25 beef cattle farmyard manure samples. Oxytetracycline was detected twice below 500 µg/kg. Paromomycin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin were detected in a concentration below 100 µg/kg. Of E. coli isolates, 88% and 23% from fattening calf slurry and beef cattle farmyard manure, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Multi-drug resistance was observed at a maximum of 10 and 7 antibiotics, respectively. The occurrence of antibiotic resistant E. coli and antibiotic residues is shown to be higher in fattening calf slurry than in beef cattle farmyard manure used for agricultural field fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
Article
Poultry Litter Contamination by Escherichia coli Resistant to Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human and Animal Use and Risk for Public Health in Cameroon
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040402 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Residues of antimicrobials used in farm can exert selective pressure and accelerate the occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria in litter. This study aimed to investigate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter. A total of 101 E. coli strains was [...] Read more.
Residues of antimicrobials used in farm can exert selective pressure and accelerate the occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria in litter. This study aimed to investigate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter. A total of 101 E. coli strains was isolated from 229 litter samples collected and stored for two months in the laboratory at room temperature. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. An overall resistance prevalence of 58.4% (95% CI: 48.8–68.0) was obtained with 59 E. coli strains resistant to various antimicrobial agents. High levels of resistance were observed with ciprofloxacin (21/59: 36%), imipenem (27/59: 45%), norfloxacin (44/59: 74%), ceftriaxone (44/59: 74%), and levofloxacin (44/59: 75%). These antimicrobials classified under the Watch group by WHO are indicators of the high AMR risk to public health in Cameroon. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a greater probability of high level of E. coli multidrug resistance was associated with lack of training in poultry farming (OR = 0.13, p = 0.01), less experience in poultry farming (OR = 11.66 p = 0.04), and the high frequency of digestive tract disease (OR = 0.10; p = 0.001). This study revealed that poultry litter constitutes a potential source of dissemination of resistant germs from farm animals to the environment and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Assessment and Antibiotic Resistance Profiling in Vibrio Species Isolated from Wild Birds Captured in Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Romania
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030333 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Antimicrobial and multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide and, consequently, the surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and assessment of the dissemination routes are essential. We hypothesized that migratory birds, coming from various environments, would carry more numerous Vibrio strains than sedentary species, with [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial and multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide and, consequently, the surveillance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and assessment of the dissemination routes are essential. We hypothesized that migratory birds, coming from various environments, would carry more numerous Vibrio strains than sedentary species, with increased risk to be passed to their contacts or environment in habitats they transit or nest in. Similarly, we presumed that strains from migratory birds will show multidrug resistance. A total of 170 oral and rectal swabs were collected from wild birds captured in different locations of the Danube Delta (Malic, Sfantu-Gheorghe, Letea Forest) and processed using standardized selective media. V. cholerae strains were confirmed by serology and molecular methods and, subsequently, their susceptibility was evaluated. The prevalence of Vibrio species by host species, habitat type, and location was interpreted. The isolated Vibrio species were identified as Vibrio cholerae 14.33%, V. fluvialis 13.33%, V. alginolyticus 12%, V. mimicus 17.33%, V. vulnificus 10.88%, with V. parahaemolyticus and V. metschnikovii (16%) also being prevalent. Of the 76 Vibrio spp. isolates, 18.42% were resistant towards at least three antimicrobials, and 81.57% demonstrated a multidrug resistance phenotype, including mainly penicillins, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results of the present study indicate higher numbers of Vibrio strains in migratory (74.66%) than in sedentary birds (25.33%), confirming our hypothesis. Furthermore, the increased pathogenicity of Vibrio spp. strains, isolated from wild migratory and sedentary birds, was confirmed by their increased multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index (0.09–0.81). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Identification of Escherichia coli and Related Enterobacteriaceae and Examination of Their Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns: A Pilot Study at A Wildlife–Livestock Interface in Lusaka, Zambia
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 238; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030238 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was used to identify and assess prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria isolated from healthy wildlife and livestock cohabiting at a 10,000 acres game ranch near Lusaka, Zambia. Purposive sampling was used to [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study was used to identify and assess prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria isolated from healthy wildlife and livestock cohabiting at a 10,000 acres game ranch near Lusaka, Zambia. Purposive sampling was used to select wildlife and livestock based on similarities in behavior, grazing habits and close interactions with humans. Isolates (n = 66) from fecal samples collected between April and August 2018 (n = 84) were examined following modified protocols for bacteria isolation, biochemical identification, molecular detection, phylogenetic analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method. Data were analyzed using R software, Genetyx ver.12 and Mega 6. Using Applied Profile Index 20E kit for biochemical identification, polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, sixty-six isolates were identified to species level, of which Escherichia coli (72.7%, 48/66), E. fergusonii (1.5%, 1/66), Shigella sonnei (22.7%, 14/66), Sh. flexinerri (1.5%, 1/66) and Enterobacteriaceae bacterium (1.5%, 1/66), and their relationships were illustrated in a phylogenetic tree. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance or intermediate sensitivity expression to at least one antimicrobial agent was detected in 89.6% of the E. coli, and 73.3% of the Shigella isolates. The E. coli isolates exhibited the highest resistance rates to ampicillin (27%), ceftazidime (14.3%), cefotaxime (9.5%), and kanamycin (9.5%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was detected in 18.8% of E. coli isolates while only 13.3% Shigella isolates showed MDR. The MDR was detected among isolates from impala and ostrich (wild animals in which no antimicrobial treatment was used), and in isolates from cattle, pigs, and goats (domesticated animals). This study indicates the possible transmission of drug-resistant microorganisms between animals cohabiting at the wildlife–livestock interface. It emphasizes the need for further investigation of the role of wildlife in the development and transmission of AMR, which is an issue of global concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Article
Microbial Contamination of Chicken Litter Manure and Antimicrobial Resistance Threat in an Urban Area Setting in Cameroon
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010020 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
We conducted a pilot study to assess microbiological safety of chicken litter, an affordable organic and main fertilizer used in Cameroon and worldwide. A convenience sampling of 26 farms was done and a questionnaire was administered. Samples of litter were aseptically collected. E. [...] Read more.
We conducted a pilot study to assess microbiological safety of chicken litter, an affordable organic and main fertilizer used in Cameroon and worldwide. A convenience sampling of 26 farms was done and a questionnaire was administered. Samples of litter were aseptically collected. E. coli and Salmonella spp. were isolated using CLSI standards. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion method and a micro broth dilution method for colistin. In broiler farms, 90% of participating farmers gave antibiotic prophylaxis. The prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. was 59.1% and 15.5%, respectively. All E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant as well as 36.4% for Salmonella spp. No resistance was found against cefepime and imipenem. All Salmonella spp. tested were found sensitive to colistin while 26.7% of E. coli spp. were colistin resistant. Contamination of chicken litter may be an underestimated source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) transmission towards animals, humans and the environment with multidrug resistant E. coli and Salmonella spp. This shows the need and opportunity for a One Health approach in AMR surveillance and control in Cameroon. Continued surveillance in chicken litter would enable monitoring of AMR risks and trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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Review

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Review
Insects, Rodents, and Pets as Reservoirs, Vectors, and Sentinels of Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010068 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
This paper reviews the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in insects, rodents, and pets. Insects (e.g., houseflies, cockroaches), rodents (rats, mice), and pets (dogs, cats) act as reservoirs of AMR for first-line and last-resort antimicrobial agents. AMR proliferates in insects, rodents, and pets, [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in insects, rodents, and pets. Insects (e.g., houseflies, cockroaches), rodents (rats, mice), and pets (dogs, cats) act as reservoirs of AMR for first-line and last-resort antimicrobial agents. AMR proliferates in insects, rodents, and pets, and their skin and gut systems. Subsequently, insects, rodents, and pets act as vectors that disseminate AMR to humans via direct contact, human food contamination, and horizontal gene transfer. Thus, insects, rodents, and pets might act as sentinels or bioindicators of AMR. Human health risks are discussed, including those unique to low-income countries. Current evidence on human health risks is largely inferential and based on qualitative data, but comprehensive statistics based on quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) are still lacking. Hence, tracing human health risks of AMR to insects, rodents, and pets, remains a challenge. To safeguard human health, mitigation measures are proposed, based on the one-health approach. Future research should include human health risk analysis using QMRA, and the application of in-silico techniques, genomics, network analysis, and ’big data’ analytical tools to understand the role of household insects, rodents, and pets in the persistence, circulation, and health risks of AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
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