Special Issue "Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manuela Oliveira
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Animal Health (CIISA), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; bacterial virulence; biofilms; genomics; infections pathogenesis; food safety
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, particularly those resistant to last-resource antibiotics, is now a common problem and has been defined as one of the three priorities for the safeguarding of One Health by the Tripartite Alliance, which includes the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Bacterial resistance profiles, together with the expression of specific virulence markers, have a major influence on infectious disease outcomes. These bacterial traits are interconnected, since not only may the presence of antibiotics influence bacterial virulence gene expression and, consequently, infection pathogenesis, but some virulence factors may also contribute to an increased ability to resist bacteria, as observed in biofilm-producing strains. Surveillance of important resistant and virulent clones and associated mobile genetic elements is essential to decision-making in terms of mitigation measures to be applied for the prevention of such infections in both human and veterinary medicine. However, the role of natural environments as important components of the dissemination cycle of these strains has been disregarded until recently. This Special Issue aims to publish manuscripts that contribute to our understanding of the impact of bacterial antimicrobial resistance and virulence in the three areas of the One Health triad, i.e., animal, human, and environmental health.

Dr. Manuela Oliveira
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • bacterial virulence
  • biofilms
  • epidemiology
  • genomics
  • infections pathogenesis
  • One Health

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Clonal Lineages, Antimicrobial Resistance, and PVL Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus Associated to Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections from Ambulatory Patients in Portugal
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040345 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in the community. In this study, we characterized a collection of 34 S. aureus from SSTIs in ambulatory patients in Portugal and analyzed the presence of Panton–Valentine [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) in the community. In this study, we characterized a collection of 34 S. aureus from SSTIs in ambulatory patients in Portugal and analyzed the presence of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding genes and antibiotic-resistance profile, which was correlated with genetic determinants, plasmid carriage, and clonal lineage. Nearly half of the isolates (15, 44.1%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or multidrug resistant (MDR). We also detected resistance to penicillin (33/34, 97.1%), fluoroquinolones (17/34, 50.0%), macrolides and lincosamides (15/34, 44.1%), aminoglycosides (6/34, 17.6%), and fusidic acid (2/34, 5.9%), associated with several combinations of resistance determinants (blaZ, erm(A), erm(C), msr(A), mph(C), aacA-aphD, aadD, aph(3′)-IIIa, fusC), or mutations in target genes (fusA, grlA/gyrA). The collection presented a high genetic diversity (Simpson’s index of 0.92) with prevalence of clonal lineages CC5, CC22, and CC8, which included the MRSA and also most MDR isolates (CC5 and CC22). PVL-encoding genes were found in seven isolates (20.6%), three methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ST152-agrI and ST30-agrIII), and four MRSA (ST8-agrI). Plasmid profiling revealed seventeen distinct plasmid profiles. This work highlights the high frequency of antimicrobial resistance and PVL carriage in SSTIs-related S. aureus outside of the hospital environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Clonal Clusters, Molecular Resistance Mechanisms and Virulence Factors of Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Chronic Wounds in Ghana
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030339 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Wound infections are common medical problems in sub-Saharan Africa but data on the molecular epidemiology are rare. Within this study we assessed the clonal lineages, resistance genes and virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from Ghanaian patients with chronic wounds. From a previous [...] Read more.
Wound infections are common medical problems in sub-Saharan Africa but data on the molecular epidemiology are rare. Within this study we assessed the clonal lineages, resistance genes and virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from Ghanaian patients with chronic wounds. From a previous study, 49 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21 Klebsiellapneumoniae complex members and 12 Escherichia coli were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Sequence analysis indicated high clonal diversity with only nine P. aeruginosa clusters comprising two strains each and one E. coli cluster comprising three strains with high phylogenetic relationship suggesting nosocomial transmission. Acquired beta-lactamase genes were observed in some isolates next to a broad spectrum of additional genetic resistance determinants. Phenotypical expression of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase activity in the Enterobacterales was associated with blaCTX-M-15 genes, which are frequent in Ghana. Frequently recorded virulence genes comprised genes related to invasion and iron-uptake in E. coli, genes related to adherence, iron-uptake, secretion systems and antiphagocytosis in P. aeruginosa and genes related to adherence, biofilm formation, immune evasion, iron-uptake and secretion systems in K. pneumonia complex. In summary, the study provides a piece in the puzzle of the molecular epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria in chronic wounds in rural Ghana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Salmonella spp. in Pet Reptiles in Portugal: Prevalence and Chlorhexidine Gluconate Antimicrobial Efficacy
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030324 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
A fraction of human Salmonella infections is associated with direct contact with reptiles, yet the number of reptile-associated Salmonellosis cases are believed to be underestimated. Existing data on Salmonella spp. transmission by reptiles in Portugal is extremely scarce. The aim of the present [...] Read more.
A fraction of human Salmonella infections is associated with direct contact with reptiles, yet the number of reptile-associated Salmonellosis cases are believed to be underestimated. Existing data on Salmonella spp. transmission by reptiles in Portugal is extremely scarce. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet reptiles (snakes, turtles, and lizards), as well as evaluate the isolates’ antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles, including their ability to form biofilm in the air-liquid interface. Additionally, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the isolates was tested. Salmonella was isolated in 41% of the animals sampled and isolates revealed low levels of antimicrobial resistance. Hemolytic and lypolytic phenotypes were detected in all isolates. The majority (90.63%) of the Salmonella isolates were positive for the formation of pellicle in the air-liquid interface. Results indicate chlorhexidine gluconate is an effective antimicrobial agent, against the isolates in both their planktonic and biofilm forms, demonstrating a bactericidal effect in 84.37% of the Salmonella isolates. This study highlights the possible role of pet reptiles in the transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella to humans, a serious and increasingly relevant route of exposure in the Salmonella public health framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
Article
Nisin Influence on the Antimicrobial Resistance Ability of Canine Oral Enterococci
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120890 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases in dogs. Although previous studies have shown the potential of the antimicrobial peptide nisin for PD control, there is no information regarding its influence in the development of antimicrobial resistance or horizontal gene [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases in dogs. Although previous studies have shown the potential of the antimicrobial peptide nisin for PD control, there is no information regarding its influence in the development of antimicrobial resistance or horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Nisin’s mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and selection window (MSW) were determined for a collection of canine oral enterococci. Isolates recovered after the determination of the MPC values were characterized for their antimicrobial profile and its nisin minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. The potential of vanA HGT between Enterococcus faecium CCGU36804 and nine clinical canine staphylococci and enterococci was evaluated. Nisin MPC values ranged from 400 to more than 600 μg/mL. In comparison with the original enterococci collection, the isolates recovered after the determination of the nisin MPC showed increased resistance towards amoxicillin/clavulanate (5%), vancomycin (5%), enrofloxacin (10%), gentamicin (10%) and imipenem (15%). The HGT of vanA gene was not observed. This work showed that nisin selective pressure may induce changes in the bacteria’s antimicrobial resistance profile but does not influence horizontal transfer of vanA gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nisin’s MPC and MSW determination regarding canine enterococci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from Healthy and Diseased Turkeys
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 770; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110770 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Diseases caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. can negatively impact turkey farming. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli and Salmonella spp. in healthy and diseased turkeys. A total of 30 [...] Read more.
Diseases caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella spp. can negatively impact turkey farming. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli and Salmonella spp. in healthy and diseased turkeys. A total of 30 fecal samples from healthy turkeys and 25 intestinal samples from diseased turkeys that died of enteritis were collected. Bacterial isolation and identification were based on biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram profiles were determined by disk diffusion. The tetracycline-resistance gene tetA was detected by PCR. All samples were positive for E. coli. Only 11 samples (11/30; 36.67%) were positive for Salmonella spp. from healthy turkeys, whereas 16 (16/25; 64%) samples were positive for Salmonella spp. from diseased turkeys. E. coli isolated from diseased turkeys showed higher resistance to levofloxacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Salmonella spp. isolated from healthy turkeys exhibited higher resistance to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, imipenem, and meropenem. All E. coli and Salmonella spp. from both healthy and diseased turkeys were resistant to erythromycin. Salmonella spp. from both healthy and diseased turkeys were resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance was observed in both E. coli and Salmonella spp. from diseased turkeys. Finally, the tetA gene was detected in 93.1% of the E. coli isolates and in 92.59% of the Salmonella spp. isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to isolate and characterize tetA-gene-containing MDR E. coli and Salmonella spp. from healthy and diseased turkeys in Bangladesh. Both microorganisms are of zoonotic significance and represent a significant public health challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Communication
Emergence of cfr-Mediated Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pig Carcasses
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 769; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110769 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
Altogether, 2547 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle (n = 382), pig (n = 1077), and chicken carcasses (n = 1088) during 2010–2017 were investigated for linezolid resistance and were further characterized using molecular methods. We identified linezolid resistance in only [...] Read more.
Altogether, 2547 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle (n = 382), pig (n = 1077), and chicken carcasses (n = 1088) during 2010–2017 were investigated for linezolid resistance and were further characterized using molecular methods. We identified linezolid resistance in only 2.3% of pig carcass isolates. The linezolid-resistant (LR) isolates presented resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tiamulin. Molecular investigation exhibited no mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA. Nevertheless, we found mutations in ribosomal proteins rplC (G121A) and rplD (C353T) in one and seven LR strains, respectively. All the LR isolates carried the multi-resistance gene cfr, and six of them co-carried the mecA gene. Additionally, all the LR isolates co-carried the phenicol exporter gene, fexA, and presented a high level of chloramphenicol resistance. LR S. aureus isolates represented 10 genotypes, including major genotypes ST433-t318, ST541-t034, ST5-t002, and ST9-t337. Staphylococcal enterotoxin and leukotoxin-encoding genes, alone or in combination, were detected in 68% of LR isolates. Isolates from different farms presented identical or different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Collectively, toxigenic and LR S. aureus strains pose a crisis for public health. This study is the first to describe the mechanism of linezolid resistance in S. aureus isolated from food animal products in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
Article
Spread of Antimicrobial Resistance by Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis between Close Domestic and Wild Environments
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110750 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 791
Abstract
The Salmonellaenterica serovar Choleraesuis affects domestic pig and wild boar (WB), causing clinical salmonellosis. Iberian swine production is based on a free-range production system where WB and Iberian pig (IP) share ecosystems. This study focuses on the negative impact on the pork [...] Read more.
The Salmonellaenterica serovar Choleraesuis affects domestic pig and wild boar (WB), causing clinical salmonellosis. Iberian swine production is based on a free-range production system where WB and Iberian pig (IP) share ecosystems. This study focuses on the negative impact on the pork industry of infections due to this serotype, its role in the spread of antibiotic resistance, and its zoonotic potential. Antibiotic resistance (AR) and genetic relationships were analyzed among 20 strains of S. Choleraesuis isolated from diseased WB and IP sampled in the southwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. AR was studied using the Kirby–Bauer method with the exception of colistin resistance, which was measured using the broth microdilution reference method. Resistance and Class 1 integrase genes were measured using PCR, and the genetic relationship between isolates and plasmid content by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The results show a higher incidence of AR in isolates from IP. Phylogenetic analysis revealed seven profiles with two groups containing isolates from IP and WB, which indicates circulation of the same clone between species. Most pulsotypes presented with one plasmid of the same size, indicating vertical transmission. AR determinants blaTEM and tetA were routinely found in IP and WB, respectively. One isolate from IP expressed colistin resistance and presented the mcr-1 gene carried by a plasmid. This study suggests that S. Choleraesuis circulates between WB and IP living in proximity, and also that the mobilization of AR genes by plasmids is low. Furthermore, the detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in bacteria from IP is alarming and should be monitored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Antibiotic Resistance Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Keratitis in Australia and India
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090600 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
This study investigated genomic differences in Australian and Indian Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis (infection of the cornea). Overall, the Indian isolates were resistant to more antibiotics, with some of those isolates being multi-drug resistant. Acquired genes were related to resistance to fluoroquinolones, [...] Read more.
This study investigated genomic differences in Australian and Indian Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis (infection of the cornea). Overall, the Indian isolates were resistant to more antibiotics, with some of those isolates being multi-drug resistant. Acquired genes were related to resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides, sulphonamides, and tetracycline and were more frequent in Indian (96%) than in Australian (35%) isolates (p = 0.02). Indian isolates had large numbers of gene variations (median 50,006, IQR = 26,967–50,600) compared to Australian isolates (median 26,317, IQR = 25,681–33,780). There were a larger number of mutations in the mutL and uvrD genes associated with the mismatch repair (MMR) system in Indian isolates, which may result in strains losing their efficacy for DNA repair. The number of gene variations were greater in isolates carrying MMR system genes or exoU. In the phylogenetic division, the number of core genes were similar in both groups, but Indian isolates had larger numbers of pan genes (median 6518, IQR = 6040–6935). Clones related to three different sequence types—ST308, ST316, and ST491—were found among Indian isolates. Only one clone, ST233, containing two strains was present in Australian isolates. The most striking differences between Australian and Indian isolates were carriage of exoU (that encodes a cytolytic phospholipase) in Indian isolates and exoS (that encodes for GTPase activator activity) in Australian isolates, large number of acquired resistance genes, greater changes to MMR genes, and a larger pan genome as well as increased overall genetic variation in the Indian isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Characterization of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Resistance Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolated in Clinical Urine Samples
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 534; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090534 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are antibiotics of choice to orally treat non-complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) of community origin because they remain active against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. However, epidemiologic surveillance studies have detected a reduced susceptibility to these drugs. The objective of [...] Read more.
Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are antibiotics of choice to orally treat non-complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) of community origin because they remain active against bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. However, epidemiologic surveillance studies have detected a reduced susceptibility to these drugs. The objective of this study was to determine possible mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics in clinical isolates of fosfomycin- and/or nitrofurantoin-resistant UTI-producing Escherichia coli. We amplified and sequenced murA, glpT, uhpT, uhpA, ptsI, cyaA, nfsA, nfsB, and ribE genes, and screened plasmid-borne fosfomycin-resistance genes fosA3, fosA4, fosA5, fosA6, and fosC2 and nitrofurantoin-resistance genes oqxA and oqxB by polymerase chain reaction. Among 29 isolates studied, 22 were resistant to fosfomycin due to deletion of uhpT and/or uhpA genes, and 2 also possessed the fosA3 gene. Some modifications detected in sequences of NfsA (His11Tyr, Ser33Arg, Gln67Leu, Cys80Arg, Gly126Arg, Gly154Glu, Arg203Cys), NfsB (Gln44His, Phe84Ser, Arg107Cys, Gly192Ser, Arg207His), and RibE (Pro55His), and the production of truncated NfsA (Gln67 and Gln147) and NfsB (Glu54), were associated with nitrofurantoin resistance in 15/29 isolates; however, the presence of oqxAB plasmid genes was not detected in any isolate. Resistance to fosfomycin was associated with the absence of transporter UhpT expression and/or the presence of antibiotic-modifying enzymes encoded by fosA3 plasmid-mediated gene. Resistance to nitrofurantoin was associated with modifications of NfsA, NfsB, and RibE proteins. The emergence and spread of these resistance mechanisms, including transferable resistance, could compromise the future usefulness of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin against UTIs. Furthermore, knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance may lead to rapid DNA-based testing for resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Genetic Subtyping, Biofilm-Forming Ability and Biocide Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Ready-to-Eat Food Industry
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 416; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070416 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of special concern for ready-to-eat food producers. The control of its presence is a critical step in which food-grade sanitizers play an essential role. L. monocytogenes is believed to persist in food processing environments in biofilms, exhibiting [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of special concern for ready-to-eat food producers. The control of its presence is a critical step in which food-grade sanitizers play an essential role. L. monocytogenes is believed to persist in food processing environments in biofilms, exhibiting less susceptibility to sanitizers than planktonic cells. This study aimed to test the susceptibility of L. monocytogenes in planktonic culture and biofilm to three commercial food-grade sanitizers and to benzalkonium chloride; together with the genetic subtyping of the isolates. L. monocytogenes isolates were collected from raw materials, final products and food-contact surfaces during a 6-year period from a ready-to-eat meat-producing food industry and genetically characterized. Serogrouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed genetic variability and differentiated L. monocytogenes isolates in three clusters. The biofilm-forming ability assay revealed that the isolates were weak biofilm producers. L. monocytogenes strains were susceptible both in the planktonic and biofilm form to oxidizing and ethanol-based compounds and to benzalkonium chloride, but not to quaternary ammonium compound. A positive association of biofilm-forming ability and LD90 values for quaternary ammonium compound and benzalkonium chloride was found. This study highlights the need for preventive measures improvement and for a conscious selection and use of sanitizers in food-related environments to control Listeria monocytogenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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Article
Genetic Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Human Bloodstream Infections: Detection of MLSB Resistance
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070375 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
In this study we aimed to characterize antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bloodstream infections as well as the associated genetic lineages of the isolates. Sixteen MRSA isolates were recovered from bacteremia samples from inpatients between 2016 and 2019. The [...] Read more.
In this study we aimed to characterize antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bloodstream infections as well as the associated genetic lineages of the isolates. Sixteen MRSA isolates were recovered from bacteremia samples from inpatients between 2016 and 2019. The antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was tested by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method against 14 antimicrobial agents. To determine the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance phenotype of the isolates, erythromycin-resistant isolates were assessed by double-disk diffusion (D-test). The resistance and virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing. Isolates showed resistance to cefoxitin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, and aminoglycosides, confirmed by the presence of the blaZ, ermA, ermC, mphC, msrA/B, aac(6’)-Ie-aph(2’’)-Ia, and ant(4’)-Ia genes. Three isolates were Panton–Valentine-leukocidin-positive. Most strains (n = 12) presented an inducible MLSB phenotype. The isolates were ascribed to eight spa-types (t747, t002, t020, t1084, t008, t10682, t18526, and t1370) and four MLSTs (ST22, ST5, ST105, and ST8). Overall, most (n = 12) MRSA isolates had a multidrug-resistance profile with inducible MLSB phenotypes and belonged to epidemic MRSA clones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)

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Brief Report
Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Saprophytic Bacteria Isolated from Ambient, Near-Shore Sediments of an Urbanized Estuary: Absence of β-Lactamase Drug-Resistance Genes
Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9070400 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
We assessed the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and screened for clinically relevant β-lactamase resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria from a large urbanized estuary. In contrast to the broad literature documenting potentially hazardous resistance determinants near wastewater treatment discharge points and other local sources [...] Read more.
We assessed the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and screened for clinically relevant β-lactamase resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria from a large urbanized estuary. In contrast to the broad literature documenting potentially hazardous resistance determinants near wastewater treatment discharge points and other local sources of aquatic pollution, we employed a probabilistic survey design to examine ambient, near-shore sediments. We plated environmental samples from 40 intertidal and shallow subtidal areas around San Francisco Bay (California, USA) on drug-supplemented MacConkey agar, and we tested isolates for antimicrobial resistance and presence of clinically relevant β-lactamase resistance determinants. Of the 74 isolates identified, the most frequently recovered taxa were Vibrio spp. (40%), Shewanella spp. (36%), Pseudomonas spp. (11%), and Aeromonas spp. (4%). Of the 55 isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance, the Vibrio spp. showed the most notable resistance profiles. Most (96%) were resistant to ampicillin, and two isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes: V. alginolyticus (cefotaxime, ampicillin, gentamicin, cefoxitin) and V. fluvialis (cefotaxime, ampicillin, cefoxitin). Targeted testing for class 1 integrons and presence of β-lactam-resistance gene variants TEM, SHV, OXA, CTX-M, and Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase (KPC) did not reveal any isolates harboring these resistance determinants. Thus, while drug-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria were recovered from ambient sediments, neither clinically relevant strains nor mobile β-lactam resistance determinants were found. This suggests that Gram-negative bacteria in this well-managed, urbanized estuary are unlikely to constitute a major human exposure hazard at this time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
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