Special Issue "Exercise, Health and Disease Management"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hugo Olmedillas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Functional Biology, Universidad de Oviedo, 33003 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: exercise physiology; physical activity for health; exercise prescription; healthy and active aging
Prof. Miguel Enrique del Valle Soto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
Interests: Sports and Physical Exercise Medicine; Sports biomechanics; Traumatology; physical activity for Health; Healthy and Active Aging
Dr. Nicolas Terrados
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unidad Regional de Medicina Deportiva, Avilés and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), 33401 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: Sports and Physical Exercise Medicine; Exercise Physiology; Physical activity for health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are important determinants of health, quality of life and well-being. Despite the scientific evidence showing not only the physical but also the social and emotional benefits associated with regular PA and reduced SB, physical inactivity (e.g. not engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week) and sedentariness are widespread across many populations.
Physical inactivity and prolonged SB are costly to individuals, employers, and society. An inactive lifestyle can lead to higher health care expenditures, lost wages and productivity, and even declines in mental health. While we find numerous interventions aimed at increasing levels of PA and reducing SB in the scientific literature, the majority have achieved limited success particularly over the long term and when implemented in real-life conditions. In health promotion literature, there has been considerable concern about the need to maintain and retain health benefits achieved from health promotion interventions. It is widely recognized that there is a huge gap between the development of evidence-based interventions for public health and health promotion and their successful and sustainable implementation.
It is believed that interventions to reduce physical inactivity and SB will be ineffective over the long term, or at a population level, unless people are given opportunities (e.g. such as a supportive environment), resources, capability, and motivation to avoid or minimize SB and engage in regular PA. For this special issue, we invite submissions that thoroughly describe interventions to promote PA and/or reduce SB in all stages of life with a clear focus on strategies to enhance adherence, sustainability and implementation in practice. We are particularly interested in high-quality research related to evaluating the effect and/or process of health promotion interventions to reduce physical inactivity and SB. Researchers are invited to contribute novel work to be considered for publication in this special issue, including original articles, short communications, systematic reviews or meta-analyses.

Dr. Hugo Olmedillas
Prof. Miguel Enrique del Valle Soto
Dr. Nicolas Terrados
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise prescription
  • exercise physiology
  • exercise therapy
  • leisure time physical activity
  • cardiorespiratory fitness

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
ECG Ventricular Repolarization Dynamics during Exercise: Temporal Profile, Relation to Heart Rate Variability and Effects of Age and Physical Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189497 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD) is a novel electrocardiographic marker of cardiac repolarization instability with powerful risk stratification capacity for total mortality and sudden cardiac death. Here, we use a time-frequency analysis approach to continuously quantify PRD at rest and during exercise, assess its [...] Read more.
Periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD) is a novel electrocardiographic marker of cardiac repolarization instability with powerful risk stratification capacity for total mortality and sudden cardiac death. Here, we use a time-frequency analysis approach to continuously quantify PRD at rest and during exercise, assess its dependence on heart rate variability (HRV) and characterize the effects of age (young adults/middle-aged adults/older adults), body mass index (non-overweight/overweight) and cardiorespiratory fitness level (fit/unfit). Sixty-six male volunteers performed an exercise test. RR and dT variabilities (RRV, dTV), as well as the fraction of dT variability unrelated to RR variability, were computed based on time-frequency representations. The instantaneous LF power of dT (PdTV), representing the same concept as PRD, and of its RRV-unrelated component (PdTVuRRV) were quantified. dT angle was found to mostly oscillate in the LF band. Overall, 50–70% of PdTV was linearly unrelated to RRV. The onset of exercise caused a sudden increase in PdTV and PdTVuRRV, which returned to pre-exercise levels during recovery. Clustering analysis identified a group of overweight and unfit individuals with significantly higher PdTV and PdTVuRRV values at rest than the rest of the population. Our findings shed new light on the temporal profile of PRD during exercise, its relationship to HRV and the differences in PRD between subjects according to phenotypic characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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Article
Evaluation of a Post-Operative Rehabilitation Program in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5632; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115632 - 25 May 2021
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Abstract
This pilot study explores the effects of a post-operative physical exercise program on the quality of life (QoL) and functional and nutritional parameters of patients that underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, compared to usual care alone. The intervention group (IG) attended a 2-month-long [...] Read more.
This pilot study explores the effects of a post-operative physical exercise program on the quality of life (QoL) and functional and nutritional parameters of patients that underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, compared to usual care alone. The intervention group (IG) attended a 2-month-long supervised and combined exercise–training program during the post-operative period. Both IG and control group (CG) participated in the QoL, functional, and nutritional assessments before exercise training (T0), 2 months after the beginning of the exercise (end of treatment) (T1), and 2 (T2) and 4 (T3) months from the end of treatment. Eleven patients with colorectal cancer that underwent laparoscopic surgery were enrolled (six intervention; five control). The IG showed significant improvements compared to the CG in “Physical functioning” (PF2) (p = 0.030), “Cognitive functioning” (CF) (p = 0.018), and “Fatigue” (FA) (p = 0.017) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) at T1; in SMWT (p = 0.022) at T1; in PF2 (p = 0.018) and FA (p = 0.045) of EORTC QLQ-C30 at T2, in phase angle (PhA) of bioelectrical impedance analysis (p = 0.022) at T3. This pilot study shows that a post-operative, combined, and supervised physical exercise program may have positive effects in improving the QoL, functional capacity, and nutritional status in patients that undergo laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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Article
Associations between Daily Movement Distribution, Bone Structure, Falls, and Fractures in Older Adults: A Compositional Data Analysis Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073757 - 03 Apr 2021
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Abstract
With aging, bone density is reduced, increasing the risk of suffering osteoporosis and fractures. Increasing physical activity (PA) may have preventive effects. However, until now, no studies have considered movement behaviors with compositional data or its association to bone mass and structure measured [...] Read more.
With aging, bone density is reduced, increasing the risk of suffering osteoporosis and fractures. Increasing physical activity (PA) may have preventive effects. However, until now, no studies have considered movement behaviors with compositional data or its association to bone mass and structure measured by peripheral computed tomography (pQCT). Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate these associations and to describe movement behavior distribution in older adults with previous falls and fractures and other related risk parameters, taking into account many nutritional and metabolic confounders. In the current study, 70 participants above 65 years old (51 females) from the city of Zaragoza were evaluated for the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project. Bone mass and structure were assessed with pQCT, and PA patterns were objectively measured by accelerometry. Prevalence of fear of falling, risk of falling, and history of falls and fractures were asked through the questionnaire. Analyses were performed using a compositional data approach. Whole-movement distribution patterns were associated with cortical thickness. In regard to other movement behaviors, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) showed positive association with cortical thickness and total true bone mineral density (BMD) at 38% (all p < 0.05). In addition, less light PA (LPA) and MVPA were observed in those participants with previous fractures and fear of falling, whereas those at risk of falling and those with previous falls showed higher levels of PA. Our results showed positive associations between higher levels of MVPA and volumetric bone. The different movement patterns observed in the groups with a history of having suffered falls or fractures and other risk outcomes suggest that different exercise interventions should be designed in these populations in order to improve bone and prevent the risk of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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Article
Effects of Motor Imagery Training on Balance and Gait in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 650; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020650 - 14 Jan 2021
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of motor imagery training on balance and gait abilities in older adults and to investigate the possible application of the training as an effective intervention against fall prevention. Subjects (n = 34) aged [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of motor imagery training on balance and gait abilities in older adults and to investigate the possible application of the training as an effective intervention against fall prevention. Subjects (n = 34) aged 65 years and over who had experienced falls were randomly allocated to three groups: (1) motor imagery training group (MITG, n = 11), (2) task-oriented training group (TOTG, n = 11), and (3) control group (CG, n = 12). Each group performed an exercise three times a week for 6 weeks. The dependent variables included Path Length of center of pressure (COP)-based static balance, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) score, which assesses a person’s mobility based on changes in both static and dynamic balance, Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) score, which evaluates changes in fear of falls, and gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, stride length, and H-H base support) to evaluate gait. After the intervention, Path Length, BBS, TUG, velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length showed significant increases in MITG and TOTG compared to CG (p < 0.05). Post hoc test results showed a significantly greater increase in BBS, TUG, and FES in MITG compared with TOTG and CG (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that motor imagery training combined with functional training has positive effects on balance, gait, and fall efficacy for fall prevention in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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Article
Regular Leisure-Time Physical Activity is Effective in Boosting Neurotrophic Factors and Alleviating Menopause Symptoms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8624; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228624 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Background: The study investigated the effects of regular leisure-time physical activity on the parameters of cognitive function (plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and cathepsin B) and menopausal symptoms (the climacterium, depression, and cognitive impairment) in obese middle-aged women. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The study investigated the effects of regular leisure-time physical activity on the parameters of cognitive function (plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and cathepsin B) and menopausal symptoms (the climacterium, depression, and cognitive impairment) in obese middle-aged women. Methods: All subjects were middle-aged and obese women (n = 52, % body fat > 30%). The participants were divided into premenopausal (PRM) (n = 18, age = 47.56 ± 6.11 years) and postmenopausal (POM) (n = 34, age = 57.79 ± 5.68 years) groups. The participants completed a survey questionnaire related to depression and the climacterium, as well as cognitive tests. Physical activity was performed for 12 weeks. Blood samples from the forearm vein were analyzed after 12 h of fasting. Blood levels of BDNF, NGF, and cathepsin B were analyzed using an R&D kit. Results: Regular leisure-time physical activity had a positive effect on reducing the percentage of body fat in premenopausal and postmenopausal obese women. In addition, the results of the questionnaire showed that regular exercise had a positive effect on body composition caused by lifestyle change and enhanced psychological stability. The BDNF concentration was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal obese women. In addition, regular physical activity significantly increased the cathepsin B and NGF levels in postmenopausal obese women. Conclusions: Continuous leisure-time physical activity improved body composition and neurotrophic factors and alleviated menopausal symptoms in obese Korean women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
Article
Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Exercise for Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7873; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217873 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Background: Growing evidences have advocated the potential benefits of traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) on symptomatic improvement of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, most of them have been derived from cross-sectional studies or case reports; the effectiveness of TCE therapies has not been fully assessed [...] Read more.
Background: Growing evidences have advocated the potential benefits of traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) on symptomatic improvement of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, most of them have been derived from cross-sectional studies or case reports; the effectiveness of TCE therapies has not been fully assessed with a randomized control trial (RCT). In order to evaluate the combined clinical effectiveness of TCE for KOA, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the existing RCTs on KOA. Methods: A systematic search was performed in four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from the time of their inception to February 2020. All eligible RCTs were included in which TCE was utilized for treating KOA as compared to a control group. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias following the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for RCT. The symptoms of KOA evaluated by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were regarded as the primary outcomes in this study. Each outcome measure was pooled by a standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A meta-analysis was applied with a random or fixed effect model for the collected data to calculate the summary SMD with 95% CI based on different statistical heterogeneity. In addition, subgroup analyses were used to investigate heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis was carried out for the results of the meta-analysis. Egger’s test and the funnel plots were used to examine the potential bias in the RCTs. Results: A total of 14 RCTs involving 815 patients with KOA were included. Compared with a control group; the synthesized data of TCE showed a significant improvement in WOMAC/KOOS pain score (SMD = −0.61; 95% CI: −0.86 to −0.37; p < 0.001), stiffness score (SMD = −0.75; 95% CI: −1.09 to −0.41; p < 0.001), and physical function score (SMD = −0.67; 95% CI: −0.82 to −0.53; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggested that TCE may be effective in alleviating pain; relieving stiffness and improving the physical function for patients with KOA. Yet; given the methodological limitations of included RCTs in this meta-analysis; more high-quality RCTs with large sample size and long-term intervention are required to further confirm the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of TCE for treating KOA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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Review

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Review
Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Sleep: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10973; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010973 - 19 Oct 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Objectives: To use a quantitative approach to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions on sleep for adults. Methods: PubMed, Ebsco, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data were searched from [...] Read more.
Objectives: To use a quantitative approach to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions on sleep for adults. Methods: PubMed, Ebsco, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data were searched from their inception to December 2020. Intervention studies with a control group that examined the effects of HIIT interventions on sleep were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed using the tool provided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Effect sizes (ESs), calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD), were used to examine the effects of objective outcomes and subjective outcomes separately. Results: A large increase in sleep quality (SQ) reflected by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global scores [WMD = −0.90, 95%CI (−1.72, −0.07), p = 0.03, n = 8] and a small-to-medium favorable effect on sleep efficiency (SE) [SMD = 0.43, 95%CI (0.20, 0.65), p = 0.0002, n = 10] were found after HIIT intervention. In addition, sub-analyses results suggest that ESs were moderated by the type, duration and frequency, as well as the length of the HIIT intervention. Conclusions: HIIT may be a promising way to improve overall subjective SQ and objective SE. PROSPERO, protocol registration number: CRD42021241734. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise, Health and Disease Management)
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