Special Issue "Workplace Health Promotion 2018"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nicola Magnavita
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Gemelli 8, 00168 Roma, Italy
Interests: health promotion; public health; epidemiology health; risk assessment; safety; risk analysis; epidemiology and public Health; Healthcare; Environmental Risk Assessment; Health and Safety sleep disorders and sleep medicine; risk factors; determination health risk assessment; exposure assessment; environmental exposure occupational health; hospital management;chemical risk assessment environmental epidemiology; health impact assessment informed consent; occupational epidemiology; chemical safety occupational medicine; occupational health and disease; inhalation toxicology; environmental medicine; aging and work; hazardous workers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As you are no doubt aware, offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. In recent years, the aging of the workforce has posed a significant challenge worldwide, as it may increase the burden of chronic diseases and have negative implications on workplace productivity. Research and interventions are making a difference in some countries, but far too many older people are working in jobs designed for younger ones. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, “Workplace Health Promotion 2018”, offers an opportunity to publish high-quality multi-disciplinary workplace health promotion research. We are particularly interested in research related to preventing the leading causes of chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, common mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders), increasing work ability or quality of working life, or enhancing positive health (work engagement, job satisfaction, self-esteem). We would welcome papers related to evidence of successful intervention strategies (both policy and in practice, including instructional education/counselling, workplace environmental change, physical activity, use of technology, and incentives), as well as indicators/surveillance initiatives. All manuscripts will be peer reviewed by experts in the field, and would be due in March 2018. The Guest Editor of this Special Issue is Nicola Magnavita of the same university.

Prof. Nicola Magnavita
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health promotion
  • salutogenesis
  • participatory ergonomics
  • workplace wellness programs
  • chronic diseases
  • screening
  • effectiveness
  • successful aging
  • holistic medicine
  • lifestyle changes

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Workplace Health and Wellbeing Training Course Delivered Online and Face-To-Face
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2422; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15112422 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Organisations may benefit from training champions to promote healthy workplace environments and initiatives. This study compared the perceived usefulness and relative effectiveness of an employee training course offered via online and face-to-face formats. Individuals who took part in the training course were assessed [...] Read more.
Organisations may benefit from training champions to promote healthy workplace environments and initiatives. This study compared the perceived usefulness and relative effectiveness of an employee training course offered via online and face-to-face formats. Individuals who took part in the training course were assessed on their perceived competence and confidence to implement changes pre- and post-training. Repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a t-test were conducted to test for significant differences between pre- and post-training scores and/or mode of training, respectively. Although the face-to-face training course was rated as slightly more useful, there were no significant differences between the two modes of training for the other dependent variables, and both modes led to significantly greater perceived competence and confidence post-training. These findings demonstrate the potential benefits of training employees to implement changes in their workplaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Combined Before-and-After Workplace Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles in Healthcare Workers (STI-VI Study): Short-Term Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2053; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092053 - 19 Sep 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to a heavy psycho-physical workload. Health promotion programs can help prevent the onset of chronic and work-related diseases. The aim of the STI-VI ‘before-and-after’ study, with assessments scheduled at 6 and 12 months, was to improve the [...] Read more.
Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to a heavy psycho-physical workload. Health promotion programs can help prevent the onset of chronic and work-related diseases. The aim of the STI-VI ‘before-and-after’ study, with assessments scheduled at 6 and 12 months, was to improve the lifestyle of HCWs with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. A tailored motivational counseling intervention, focusing on dietary habits and physical activity (PA) was administered to 167 HCWs (53 males; 114 females). BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood glucose levels were measured before and after the intervention. The 6-month results (total sample and by gender) showed a marked effect on lifestyle: PA improved (+121.2 MET, p = 0.01), and diets became more similar to the Mediterranean model (+0.8, p < 0.001). BMI dropped (−0.2, p < 0.03), and waist circumference improved even more (−2.5 cm; p < 0.001). Other variables improved significantly: total and LDL cholesterol (−12.8 and −9.4 mg/dL, p < 0.001); systolic and diastolic blood pressure (−4.4 and −2.5 mmHg, p < 0.001); blood glucose (−1.5 mg/dL, p = 0.05); and triglycerides (significant only in women), (−8.7 mg/dL, p = 0.008); but HDL cholesterol levels dropped too. If consolidated at 12 months, these results indicate that our intervention can help HCWs maintain a healthy lifestyle and work ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Clockwise and Counterclockwise Job Shift Work Rotation on Sleep and Work-Life Balance on Hospital Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 2038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15092038 - 18 Sep 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3034
Abstract
Rotational shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, increased risk of cardiovascular and psychological disorders, and may negatively impact work–life balance. The direction of shift rotation (Clockwise, CW or counterclockwise, CCW) and its role in these disorders are poorly understood. The aim of [...] Read more.
Rotational shift work is associated with sleep disturbances, increased risk of cardiovascular and psychological disorders, and may negatively impact work–life balance. The direction of shift rotation (Clockwise, CW or counterclockwise, CCW) and its role in these disorders are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the shift schedule direction on sleep quantity and quality, alertness and work performance, and on work–life balance on hospital nurses. One-hundred female nurses, working a continuous rapid shift schedule in hospitals in the north of Italy, participated in this cross-sectional study. Fifty worked on CW rotation schedule (Morning: 6 a.m.–2 p.m., Afternoon: 2 p.m.–10 p.m., Night: 10 p.m.–6 a.m., 2 rest days) and fifty on CCW rotation (Afternoon, Morning, Morning, Night, 3 rest days). Data were collected by ad hoc questionnaire and daily diary. During the shift cycle CW nurses slept longer (7.40 ± 2.24 h) than CCW (6.09 ± 1.73; p < 0.001). CW nurses reported less frequently than CCW awakening during sleep (40% vs. 80%; p < 0.001), attention disturbance during work (20% vs. 64%; p < 0.001), and interference with social and family life (60% vs. 96% and 20% vs. 70%, respectively; p < 0.001). CCW rotating shift schedule seems to be characterized by higher sleep disturbances and a worse work–life balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Engaged Workaholics Protected against Job-Related Negative Affect and Anxiety before Sleep? A Study of the Moderating Role of Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1996; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091996 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Although the interplay between workaholism and work engagement could explain several open questions regarding the Heavy Work Investment (HWI) phenomenon, few studies have addressed this issue. Thus, with the purpose of filling this literature gap, the present study aimed at examining a model [...] Read more.
Although the interplay between workaholism and work engagement could explain several open questions regarding the Heavy Work Investment (HWI) phenomenon, few studies have addressed this issue. Thus, with the purpose of filling this literature gap, the present study aimed at examining a model where job-related negative affect mediates the relationship between the interplay of workaholism and work engagement, and anxiety before sleep. Since gender could have a role in the way the interplay would impact on the theorized model, we also hypothesized a moderated role of gender on the specific connection concerning the interplay between workaholism and work engagement, in relation to job-related negative affect. Conditional process analysis was conducted on a sample of 146 participants, balanced for gender. Results supported the mediating model and indicated the presence of a moderated role of gender, such that engaged workaholic women reported significantly less job-related negative affect than disengaged workaholic women. On the contrary, the interplay between workaholism and work engagement did not seem significant for men. Results are discussed in light of the limitations and future directions of the research in this field, as well as the ensuing practical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Work Related Stress, Well-Being and Cardiovascular Risk among Flight Logistic Workers: An Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1952; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091952 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Work-related stress is a known occupational hazard, with a putative role on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although several investigations have explored the association in various workplace scenarios, none have focused on the airport flight logistic support personnel, a transportation business of [...] Read more.
Work-related stress is a known occupational hazard, with a putative role on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although several investigations have explored the association in various workplace scenarios, none have focused on the airport flight logistic support personnel, a transportation business of crucial importance, potentially exposed to job stress and consequently to an increase in CVD risk. We explored the relationship between work-related stress and cardiovascular risk in 568 healthy workers of a flight logistic support company using the Health and Safety Executive questionnaire, the Framingham Heart Study General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Prediction Score, and the WHO general well-being index (WHO-5). We used univariate and multivariate statistical methods to take account of possible confounders. Our results show that a low job support significantly increases the CVD risk score and decreases the WHO well-being index with reference to subjects reporting high support on the job. In addition, the well-being index of workers with high strain jobs appears lower in respect to workers employed in low strain job. The multivariate analysis confirms a protective effect of job support, and shows a detrimental influence on CVD risk by physical inactivity, regular intake of alcohol, and a low educational level. In addition, job control, job support, low strain, and high demand coupled with high control (active job) showed a beneficial effect on psychological well-being. Our results suggest that a combination of general risk factors and organizational factors contributes to increase CVD risk and well-being, representing a crucial target for intervention strategies to promote health in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Engagement in Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1915; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091915 - 03 Sep 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
Aware that engagement in the healthcare field needs high levels of emotional intelligence, we began this study to determine relationship between engagement and emotional intelligence in nurses. The objective of this study was to determine the explanatory value of the components of emotional [...] Read more.
Aware that engagement in the healthcare field needs high levels of emotional intelligence, we began this study to determine relationship between engagement and emotional intelligence in nurses. The objective of this study was to determine the explanatory value of the components of emotional intelligence for engagement in a sample of nurses. The final study sample was made up of 2126 working nursing professionals. Data was obtained by distributing, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information, and to collect professional and employment information, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Reduced Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults were used. The results showed that nurses with higher levels of emotional intelligence also scored more highly in engagement, with the interpersonal factor being the greatest predictor of engagement. This study has significant practical implications for the creation of intervention programs and activities to improve the performance of nurses in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
How Does Emotional Intelligence Make One Feel Better at Work? The Mediational Role of Work Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1909; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091909 - 02 Sep 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Although previous research has highlighted the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and job satisfaction, the underlying mechanisms remain relatively unexplored. To address this gap, this study examined employee engagement as a potential mediator of the association. A multi-occupational sample of 405 Spanish professionals [...] Read more.
Although previous research has highlighted the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and job satisfaction, the underlying mechanisms remain relatively unexplored. To address this gap, this study examined employee engagement as a potential mediator of the association. A multi-occupational sample of 405 Spanish professionals completed the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and an Overall Job Satisfaction Scale as well as providing socio-demographic data. As expected, employees’ EI was positively related to engagement dimensions (vigour, dedication and absorption) as well as overall job satisfaction. Bootstrap estimates from multiple mediation analysis confirmed that employees’ perceived EI was indirectly associated with job satisfaction via vigour and dedication scores, even when controlling for the effects of socio-demographic variables. Similarly, the same pattern was found when multiple mediation was conducted for each EI dimension. Our study contributes to understanding of the processes involved in maintaining and enhancing positive attitudes at work, providing the first, encouraging evidence that work engagement play a role in the EI-job satisfaction link. Our results extend the EI literature by elucidating the pathways through which EI is linked to positive employee attitudes and suggests that intervention programs designed to bolster EI might prove effective at increasing job satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Sleep and Mental Health in Truck Drivers: Descriptive Review of the Current Evidence and Proposal of Strategies for Primary Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1852; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091852 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2639
Abstract
Background: Professional truck drivers (TDs) are exposed to stressful working (and living) conditions and are vulnerable. They report physical and mental health problems and psychological distress more frequently than the general population and their problems can affect safety on the roads. Actions [...] Read more.
Background: Professional truck drivers (TDs) are exposed to stressful working (and living) conditions and are vulnerable. They report physical and mental health problems and psychological distress more frequently than the general population and their problems can affect safety on the roads. Actions to improve TDs’ health and reduce the risks of (co-)morbidity or unsafe driving are imperative. Methods: The published studies dealing with the TDs’ sleep habits and mental health were reviewed to define the scenario and organize the preventive strategies proposed thus far. Results: Awareness among TDs of the high risk for health and safety due to (often co-existing) untreated sleep and mental health problems is critical. Alcohol and prescribed or illicit drugs are often misused to compensate for depression, anxiety, job strain, fatigue, and social isolation. Polypharmacy and dependence increase the chance of unsafe behaviors on the road. The TDs’ access to healthcare services is scant, and participation in industry-sponsored wellness programs is limited. Conclusions: Primary prevention is a first unavoidable step to deal with sleep and mental health problems. Educational programs, online support and tele-health assessment/monitoring would help improve the well-being, safety and health of professional TDs and increase safety on the road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Is the Institutional Environment a Challenge for the Well-Being of Female Managers in Europe? The Mediating Effect of Work–Life Balance and Role Clarity Practices in the Workplace
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1813; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15091813 - 22 Aug 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
The advancement of women to top management positions positively affects firm competitiveness. However, this advancement may also negatively affect individuals as women find themselves forced to overwork to match their male counterparts in organisations, which can cause a decrease in their professional well-being. [...] Read more.
The advancement of women to top management positions positively affects firm competitiveness. However, this advancement may also negatively affect individuals as women find themselves forced to overwork to match their male counterparts in organisations, which can cause a decrease in their professional well-being. Although the literature highlights that human resource practices (HRPs) have a positive impact on well-being, it also warns that national institutions may condition the adoption of HRPs by organisations. If that is true, institutions may become either a challenge to—or trigger for—female managers’ well-being. Accordingly, this study analyses the effects of institutions and the mediating effects of HRPs on the influence that is exerted by institutions on well-being. The empirical analysis, which was carried out on a sample of 575 female managers located in 27 European countries, confirms the direct and indirect effects (through HRPs for work–life balance and role clarity) of institutions on female managers’ well-being at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Circumstances and Structure of Occupational Sharp Injuries among Healthcare Workers of a Selected Hospital in Central Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1722; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081722 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
(1) Background: An analysis of work-related sharp injuries in Healthcare Workers (HCWs) based at a selected hospital in Central Poland by presenting the frequency of accidents, injury rates, and identifying circumstances of Needle Sticks and Sharp Injuries (NSSI) and giving Post-Exposure Procedures (PEP). [...] Read more.
(1) Background: An analysis of work-related sharp injuries in Healthcare Workers (HCWs) based at a selected hospital in Central Poland by presenting the frequency of accidents, injury rates, and identifying circumstances of Needle Sticks and Sharp Injuries (NSSI) and giving Post-Exposure Procedures (PEP). (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical documentation regarding work-related NSSI at a district hospital located in central Poland; over the period 2010–2017. The study group included HCWs who had an accident while on duty. (3) Results: Most injuries were reported by nurses and staff over 40, on the morning shift. The most common injuries were using a needle. The most exposed part of the body were fingers. The average annual injury rates were: 1.22/100 Nurses; 2.02/100 doctors; 1.34/100 hospital beds; and 8.59/100,000 inpatient days. The rates for 3-year periods, after the implementation of legal regulations were higher than before. Conclusion: Injuries rates are more reliable for comparison than frequency. Legislation on the need to register injuries seems to be necessary. In the supervision of work safety of personnel, reliable reporting of all injuries by the respective HCWs plays a key role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Occupational Safety and Hygiene of Dentists from Urban and Rural Areas in Terms of Sharp Injuries: Wound Structure, Causes of Injuries and Barriers to Reporting—Cross-Sectional Study, Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1655; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15081655 - 04 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
(1) Background: Frequent contact of the dentist with potentially infectious material (PIM) is undeniable. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of injuries, as well as to identify barriers to reporting and barriers to the implementation of post-exposure [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Frequent contact of the dentist with potentially infectious material (PIM) is undeniable. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of injuries, as well as to identify barriers to reporting and barriers to the implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) among dentists from urban and rural areas. (2) Methods: We surveyed 192 dentists using an anonymous questionnaire. (3) Results: During the 12 months preceding the survey, 63% of dentists from the village and 58.8% of dentists from the city suffered at least one superficial cut, and deep cuts 15.1% and 17.6% respectively. Contact with PIM through spitting on the conjunctiva was 58.9% and 52.1% (village vs. city). Needle stick injuries were 50.4% and fingers were affected in 48.8% cases. The causes of injuries were: inattention 54.7%, rush 27%, unpredictable behavior of the patient 19%, recapping 18.2%. Work in the countryside was associated with a 1.95-times greater chance of not reporting injuries. The distance from a hospital with antiretroviral treatment may be a barrier to the implementation of PEP. (4) Conclusion: The circumstances of the injuries and the reasons for not applying for antiretroviral treatment point to the areas of necessary dentist education in this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Differences of Four Work-Related Behavior and Experience Patterns in Work Ability and Other Work-Related Perceptions in a Finance Company
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071521 - 18 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
The present study applies a salutogenetic approach to psycho-social stress and wellbeing at work and for the first time analyzes the relation of an extended model of four work-related behavior and experience patterns to work related perceptions, like work ability, job satisfaction and [...] Read more.
The present study applies a salutogenetic approach to psycho-social stress and wellbeing at work and for the first time analyzes the relation of an extended model of four work-related behavior and experience patterns to work related perceptions, like work ability, job satisfaction and turnover intention, or engagement. Employees of an international financial services company (N = 182) completed the questionnaire Work-related behavior and experience pattern (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster; AVEM). The AVEM has oftentimes been used for research in helping professions, but research in non-helping professions is scarce. In addition to the AVEM, measures of job satisfaction, work ability, work engagement, presenteeism, and turnover intention were included in this study. Almost half (46.2%) of the sample showed a rather unambitious attitude towards work, followed by a burnout-related risk pattern (22.0%), a healthy pattern (19.8%), and a pattern at risk for overexertion (12.1%). Significantly more favorable scores were found for all work-related perceptions in participants with the healthy pattern compared to those with the burnout-related risk pattern, except for turnover intention where no significant differences were found. For work ability and vigor, those with a healthy pattern also had significantly higher scores than those with an unambitious pattern and a pattern at risk for overexertion. Being at risk for burnout not only affects job-related wellbeing and coping resources, but also work ability and work engagement. A need for personnel and organizational development and health promotion is indicated by a high number of individuals with reduced working motivation and risk patterns for overexertion or burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Young Workers’ Access to and Awareness of Occupational Safety and Health Services: Age-Differences and Possible Drivers in a Large Survey of Employees in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071511 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Young workers are in particular need of occupational safety and health (OSH) services, but it is unclear whether they have the necessary access to such services. We compared young with older workers in terms of the access to and awareness of OSH services, [...] Read more.
Young workers are in particular need of occupational safety and health (OSH) services, but it is unclear whether they have the necessary access to such services. We compared young with older workers in terms of the access to and awareness of OSH services, and examined if differences in employment conditions accounted for age-differences. We used survey data from Italy (INSuLA 1, 2014), with a sample of 8000 employed men and women aged 19 to 65 years, including 732 young workers aged under 30 years. Six questions measured access to services, and five questions assessed awareness of different OSH issues. Several employment conditions were included. Analyses revealed that young workers had less access and a lower awareness of OSH issues compared with older workers. For instance, odds ratios (OR) suggest that young workers had a 1.44 times higher likelihood [95%—confidence interval 1.21–1.70] of having no access to an occupational physician, and were more likely (2.22 [1.39–3.38]) to be unaware of legal OSH frameworks. Adjustment for selected employment conditions (company size, temporary contract) substantially reduced OR’s, indicating that these conditions contribute to differences between older and younger workers. We conclude that OSH management should pay particular attention to young workers in general and, to young workers in precarious employment, and working in small companies in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Envy and Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Moderation Role of Leadership in Public and Private Organizations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15071455 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
Envy is a frequent emotion in work contexts where there is strong competition for resources and the leader is the person who manages them. When employees feel envy, they are likely to use counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), but the use of these behaviors [...] Read more.
Envy is a frequent emotion in work contexts where there is strong competition for resources and the leader is the person who manages them. When employees feel envy, they are likely to use counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), but the use of these behaviors may differ depending on the organization’s ownership. The goal of this study is to develop and test a model for the moderating role of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) in the relationship between envy and CWB in public and private organizations. The study design was cross-sectional. Data were collected from 225 Spanish employees in public and private organizations and analyzed using Path Analysis techniques. Results showed that envy was positively related to CWB, and that LMX was a significant moderator in the relationship between envy and CWB in public organizations, but not in private ones. However, this relationship is positive with high LMX, but less than in subjects with low LMX. Findings provide empirical support for the hypothesized conceptual model. This study is one of the first to explore LMX as a moderator of the relationship between envy and CWB. Thus, this study adds value to previous social exchange studies on LMX by integrating emotion research into the context of an exchange-based relationship. Our findings lead to several practical implications for creating healthy organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnout Risk and Protection Factors in Certified Nursing Aides
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15061116 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of [...] Read more.
Studies have found a higher risk of burnout among employees in the healthcare sector. As such, this study focused on Certified Nursing Aides (CNAs) who have shown a high prevalence of burnout and are therefore considered an especially vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to identify the relationships between some organizational, personal, and sociodemographic factors and burnout. The final study sample included 278 working CNAs with a mean age of 40.88 (SD = 9.41). To compile the data, an ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic information. To collect professional and employment information, we used the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Adults, the Brief Questionnaire on Perceived Social Support, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The results showed that Burnout Syndrome is significantly and negatively related to all the emotional intelligence factors, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. The risk of burnout is higher in younger persons and in permanently employed professionals. General self-efficacy and stress management act as protective factors against the likelihood of burnout. This study suggests that organizations should urge coaching and transformational leadership training programs to promote the wellbeing and organizational commitment of workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 1035; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15051035 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6994
Abstract
Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a [...] Read more.
Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Lifestyle Health Behaviors of Nurses and Midwives: The ‘Fit for the Future’ Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 945; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15050945 - 09 May 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Nurses and midwives (nurses) are the principle role models and health educators for the wider population. This study sought to identify the health-related behaviors of the nursing workforce of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, compared to contemporary recommendations for healthy living and to [...] Read more.
Nurses and midwives (nurses) are the principle role models and health educators for the wider population. This study sought to identify the health-related behaviors of the nursing workforce of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, compared to contemporary recommendations for healthy living and to the Australian general population, matched by gender and age. An electronic cross-sectional survey delivered in 2014–2015 recruited 5041 nurses through the NSW Nurses and Midwives Association and professional networks. Validated health behavior measures were collected and compared to Australian National Health Survey data. Compared with younger nurses, older nurses reported greater adherence to fruit and vegetable guideline recommendations, but were more likely to be overweight or obese. Younger nurses (25–34 years) had the highest risk of harmful drinking. Compared with the Australian general population, slightly higher percentages of nurses met dietary recommendations and slightly fewer were obese, had central adiposity or smoked. Nurses had lower physical activity levels and higher levels of risky drinking across most gender and age groups. Many nurses have lifestyle health behaviors that place them at high risk for developing non-communicable diseases, sometimes at higher risk than the Australian population to whom they deliver health education. Health promotion strategies for nurses are urgently required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Employee Perceptions of Workplace Health Promotion Programs: Comparison of a Tailored, Semi-Tailored, and Standardized Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15050881 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
In the design of workplace health promotion programs (WHPPs), employee perceptions represent an integral variable which is predicted to translate into rate of user engagement (i.e., participation) and program loyalty. This study evaluated employee perceptions of three workplace health programs promoting nutritional consumption [...] Read more.
In the design of workplace health promotion programs (WHPPs), employee perceptions represent an integral variable which is predicted to translate into rate of user engagement (i.e., participation) and program loyalty. This study evaluated employee perceptions of three workplace health programs promoting nutritional consumption and physical activity. Programs included: (1) an individually tailored consultation with an exercise physiologist and dietitian; (2) a semi-tailored 12-week SMS health message program; and (3) a standardized group workshop delivered by an expert. Participating employees from a transport company completed program evaluation surveys rating the overall program, affect, and utility of: consultations (n = 19); SMS program (n = 234); and workshops (n = 86). Overall, participants’ affect and utility evaluations were positive for all programs, with the greatest satisfaction being reported in the tailored individual consultation and standardized group workshop conditions. Furthermore, mode of delivery and the physical presence of an expert health practitioner was more influential than the degree to which the information was tailored to the individual. Thus, the synergy in ratings between individually tailored consultations and standardized group workshops indicates that low-cost delivery health programs may be as appealing to employees as tailored, and comparatively high-cost, program options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Health Care Workers. A Pre-Post Intervention Study in an Italian Paediatric Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 841; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15050841 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Despite relevant recommendations and evidences on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in health care workers (HCWs), vaccination coverage rates in Europe and Italy currently do not exceed 25%. Aim of the study is to measure the variations in vaccination coverage rates in an [...] Read more.
Despite relevant recommendations and evidences on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in health care workers (HCWs), vaccination coverage rates in Europe and Italy currently do not exceed 25%. Aim of the study is to measure the variations in vaccination coverage rates in an Italian pediatric hospital after a promotion campaign performed in the period October–December 2017. The design is a pre-post intervention study. The intervention is based on a wide communication campaign and an expanded offer of easy vaccination on site. The study was carried out at Bambino Gesù Children’s hospital in Rome, Italy, on the whole population of HCWs. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Vaccination coverage rate increased in 2017/18 campaign compared with the 2016/17 one (+95 HCWs vaccinated; +4.4%). The highest increases were detected in males (+45.7%), youngest employees (+142.9%), mean age of employment (+175%), other HCWs (+209.1%), Emergency Area (+151.6%) and Imaging Diagnostic Department (+200.0%). At multivariate logistic regression, working in some departments and being nurses represents a higher risk of being unvaccinated. Although the vaccination coverage rate remained low, a continuous increase of the coverage rate and development of a different consciousness in HCWs was highlighted. The study significantly identified the target for future campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Developing an Extended Model of the Relation between Work Motivation and Health as Affected by the Work Ability as Part of a Corporate Age Management Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 779; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040779 - 17 Apr 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Due to demographic changes, the employee structure in companies is changing dramatically. It will be necessary to offer employees suitable, age-adequate jobs. As one of its foremost goals, optimized business management strategies must create conditions for guaranteeing a person’s health, work ability, and [...] Read more.
Due to demographic changes, the employee structure in companies is changing dramatically. It will be necessary to offer employees suitable, age-adequate jobs. As one of its foremost goals, optimized business management strategies must create conditions for guaranteeing a person’s health, work ability, and work motivation. In the context of corporate age management concepts, the literature recommends to retain and integrate older employees in the organization. This paper aims at developing an extended model of the relation between work motivation and health as affected by work ability and at deriving a host of measures that enterprises can apply as part of a corporate age management policy to counteract the impact of demographic changes. The model also takes into consideration factors influencing the relation between work motivation and health as affected by work ability (socio-demographic parameters, occupation, work-related stress). Additionally, the extended model translates the literature-based results into a corporate setting by way of a corporate age management program. The model comprises a process focusing on retaining and promoting work ability in order to maintain or boost work motivation and health. The host of measures presented serves as a basis to preventively counter demographic change on an individual, interpersonal, and structural level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Bank Employees Stressed? Job Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040707 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Background: The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. [...] Read more.
Background: The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. Methods: The observational pilot study involved 384 employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: Karasek-Model, BEST8 (p < 0.001) and Positivity-Scale. Results: 25% of the sample belonged to high stress group. The workers more stressed were older with a commercial role and consumer of antidepressants/sedatives. Women were much more likely to agree with the perception of feeling unsafe in a possible robbery (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.50–3.91) and with that sales requests were in conflict with one’s own personal moral code (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.38–3.87). Older employees declared feeling inadequate in the workplace (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.07–3.65) and younger employees referred to be anxious about meeting financial budget goals. Workers who had a low positivity had a lower probability of adaptation (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.93). Conclusions: The occupational stress level in the banking sector involves many aspects: gender, type of bank, role, personal morals, high job-demands, low level of decision-making. This study recommended that banks should implement strategic interventions for well-being of employees, and consequently for their productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Medical Surveillance, Continuous Health Promotion and a Participatory Intervention in a Small Company
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040662 - 02 Apr 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers’ wellbeing [...] Read more.
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers’ wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. The aim of this paper is twofold: to signal this way of proceeding with medical surveillance, and to describe an organisational development intervention. Participatory groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the Effort/Reward Imbalance questionnaire, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg Anxiety/Depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample and the lack of a control group call for a cautious evaluation of this study, the participatory strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Can Periodical Examinations of Employees Be Useful in Detection of Glycaemia Impairment and Improving Patients’ Adherence to Medical Recommendations?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 638; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040638 - 30 Mar 2018
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing public health problem. In the search for solutions to this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in the early stages, especially [...] Read more.
Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing public health problem. In the search for solutions to this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in the early stages, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) an additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic processes and therapy in General Practice (GP), followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus provides public health system benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Occupational Accidents in Underground and Surface Mining in Spain Using Data-Mining Techniques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 462; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15030462 - 07 Mar 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen [...] Read more.
An analysis of occupational accidents in the mining sector was conducted using the data from the Spanish Ministry of Employment and Social Safety between 2005 and 2015, and data-mining techniques were applied. Data was processed with the software Weka. Two scenarios were chosen from the accidents database: surface and underground mining. The most important variables involved in occupational accidents and their association rules were determined. These rules are composed of several predictor variables that cause accidents, defining its characteristics and context. This study exposes the 20 most important association rules in the sector—either surface or underground mining—based on the statistical confidence levels of each rule as obtained by Weka. The outcomes display the most typical immediate causes, along with the percentage of accidents with a basis in each association rule. The most important immediate cause is body movement with physical effort or overexertion, and the type of accident is physical effort or overexertion. On the other hand, the second most important immediate cause and type of accident are different between the two scenarios. Data-mining techniques were chosen as a useful tool to find out the root cause of the accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effectiveness of Stress Management at Work: Effects of the Changes in Perceived Stress Reactivity on Mental Health and Sleep Problems Seven Years Later
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15020255 - 03 Feb 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4000
Abstract
The reduction of stress reactivity resulting from stress management interventions prevents disorders and improves mental health, however, its long-term sustainability has been little examined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the effectiveness of a stress management intervention, designed to improve [...] Read more.
The reduction of stress reactivity resulting from stress management interventions prevents disorders and improves mental health, however, its long-term sustainability has been little examined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the effectiveness of a stress management intervention, designed to improve stress reactivity, for mental health and sleep problems seven years later, using longitudinal data from 101 male industrial workers. Linear regressions estimated the adjusted effects of the changes in stress reactivity in general as well as in its six subdimensions (work overload, social conflict, social stress, failure at work, and anticipatory and prolonged reactivity) on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems seven years later. The improvement of the prolonged reactivity had positive effects on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems (unstandardized regression coefficients [Bs] ≥ 0.35, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Depression and sleep problems were further improved by a reduction of the reactivity to social conflicts (Bs ≥ 0.29, p-values < 0.05), and an improvement in the overall reactivity score positively influenced sleep problems (B = 0.07, p = 0.017). In conclusion, the improvement of stress reactivity resulting from a work stress intervention was effective and generally long-lasting in preventing mental health and sleep problems. The reduction of the prolonged reactivity seems of particular importance and efficient in inhibiting negative stress manifestations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Work Related Stress and Health Related Quality of Life: The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables. A Cross Sectional Study in a Region of Central Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15010159 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand–control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form)-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS) and physical composite summary (PCS). In multivariate analysis age, gender (p < 0.001) and job demand (0.045) predicted low PCS. Low MCS predicted poor PCS. Job demand and educational level resulted negatively associated with MCS. In an analysis stratified for age, gender, and educational level, gender and age resulted effect modifier for MCS, gender and education level for PCS. In women increase of decision latitude predict (p = 0.001) an increase in MCS; a low job demand predict high MCS in male (p ≤ 0.001). In younger workers, a lower level of job demand predicted high MCS (<0.001). For PCS, gender and education level resulted effect modifier. In women, high decision latitude predicted higher PCS (p = 0.001) and lower level of job demand results in higher PCS (p ≤ 0.001). Higher educational level resulted predictor of low PCS. Management of risk about work-related stress should consider socio-demographic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
How Work Characteristics Are Related to European Workers’ Psychological Well-Being. A Comparison of Two Age Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15010127 - 13 Jan 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the mechanisms through which work characteristics are related to psychological well-being, exploring the mediational role of work meaningfulness and job satisfaction, and investigating differences in the patterns of relationships between two age groups. The sample was composed of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the mechanisms through which work characteristics are related to psychological well-being, exploring the mediational role of work meaningfulness and job satisfaction, and investigating differences in the patterns of relationships between two age groups. The sample was composed of 36,896 workers from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey. Structural equation modeling analyses and multiple group analyses were performed. The results revealed a parallel mediational model, in which work meaningfulness and general job satisfaction mediate the relationships between work characteristics and well-being. Additionally, job satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between meaningfulness and well-being. These results were confirmed in both age groups (under 55 years old and older workers), but age moderates the relationships between social support and the mediating variables and the relationships between the mediating variables and general well-being. The present study uncovers significant pathways through which time pressure, decision latitude, and social support are related to psychological well-being, depicting an important step in better understanding how and when work characteristics are related to positive outcomes. It provides important clues for promoting psychosocial health at work at the European level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Depressive Symptom and Related Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Female Workers Working at Traditional Markets
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph14121465 - 27 Nov 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
Background: Depression is one of the psychiatric diseases with a high prevalence rate, globally, and reportedly more prevalent among women than among men. Especially, women workers working at traditional markets are in depressive conditions without occupational health services. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Background: Depression is one of the psychiatric diseases with a high prevalence rate, globally, and reportedly more prevalent among women than among men. Especially, women workers working at traditional markets are in depressive conditions without occupational health services. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors having a significant effect on the depressive symptoms of women workers at traditional markets in South Korea. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used and subjects for the present study were 500 female workers in three selected representative traditional marketplaces in South Korea. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that increased BMI (β = 0.297, p = 0.017), poor nutritional status (β = 0.596, p < 0.001), street vendor status (β = 2.589, p = 0.001), job stress (β = 0.491, p < 0.001), lower back pain (β = 0.377, p = 0.011), lower self-efficacy (β = −0.368, p = 0.002) and diminished family function (β = −0.633, p = 0.001) affected workers’ depressive symptoms. The explanatory power of these variables was 38.5%. Conclusions: Based on these results, future research should focus on incorporating theses significant factors into effective interventions designed to decrease depressive symptoms in this population. Moreover, this study will increase interest in occupational health nursing, particularly in relation to vulnerable social groups, and expand the scope of practice in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Solar Radiation Exposure and Outdoor Work: An Underestimated Occupational Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2063; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15102063 - 20 Sep 2018
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 3275
Abstract
A considerably high number of outdoor workers worldwide are constantly exposed for the majority of their working life to solar radiation (SR); this exposure is known to induce various adverse health effects, mainly related to its ultraviolet (UV) component. The skin and the [...] Read more.
A considerably high number of outdoor workers worldwide are constantly exposed for the majority of their working life to solar radiation (SR); this exposure is known to induce various adverse health effects, mainly related to its ultraviolet (UV) component. The skin and the eye are the principal target organs for both acute and long-term exposure. Actinic keratosis, non-melanoma skin cancers, and malignant melanoma are the main long-term adverse skin effects, whereas in the eye pterygium, cataracts, and according to an increasing body of evidence, macular degeneration may be induced. Despite this, SR exposure risk is currently undervalued, if not neglected, as an occupational risk factor for outdoor workers. SR exposure is influenced by various environmental and individual factors, and occupation is one of the most relevant. For a better understanding of this risk and for the development of more effective prevention strategies, one of the main problems is the lack of available and adequate methods to estimate SR worker exposure, especially long-term exposure. The main aims of this review were to provide a comprehensive overview of SR exposure risk of outdoor workers, including the UV exposure levels and the main methods recently proposed for short-term and cumulative exposure, and to provide an update of knowledge on the main adverse eye and skin effects. Finally, we also outline here preventive interventions to reduce occupational risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessReview
Patterns of Harmful Alcohol Consumption among Truck Drivers: Implications for Occupational Health and Work Safety from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15061121 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of productivity losses arising from absenteeism, presenteeism, and workplace injuries. Among occupational categories most affected by the use of this substance, truck drivers are subject to risk factors and risky behaviors that can have a [...] Read more.
Alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of productivity losses arising from absenteeism, presenteeism, and workplace injuries. Among occupational categories most affected by the use of this substance, truck drivers are subject to risk factors and risky behaviors that can have a serious impact on their health, their work, and the general road safety. The use of alcohol during truck-driving activities is, indeed, an important risk factor for traffic accidents. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims at synthesizing the literature regarding harmful alcohol consumption patterns among truck drivers in a rigorous way. A ‘binge drinking’ prevalence of 19.0%, 95% confidence interval or CI (13.1, 26.9) was present. An ‘everyday drinking’ pattern rate of 9.4%, 95% CI (7.0, 12.4) was found, while the rate of alcohol misuse according to the “Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test” (AUDIT)—“Cut down-Annoyed-Guilty-Eye opener questionnaire” (CAGE) instruments was computed to be of 22.7%, 95% CI (14.8, 33.0). No evidence of publication bias could be found. However, there is the need to improve the quality of published research, utilizing standardized reliable instruments. The knowledge of these epidemiological data can be useful for decision makers in order to develop, design, and implement ad hoc adequate policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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Open AccessReview
Obstacles and Future Prospects: Considerations on Health Promotion Activities for Older Workers in Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15061096 - 28 May 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
The ageing of workers is one of the most important issues for occupational health and safety in Europe. The ageing of the active population means that health promotion is a necessity rather than a mere option. This review considers barriers and perspectives for [...] Read more.
The ageing of workers is one of the most important issues for occupational health and safety in Europe. The ageing of the active population means that health promotion is a necessity rather than a mere option. This review considers barriers and perspectives for workplace health promotion for older workers. Lack of awareness on the part of management and inflexibility in the occupational health and safety system appear to be major barriers. To overcome these, it will be necessary to disseminate knowledge regarding the effectiveness of health promotion actions for older workers, encourage greater involvement on the part of social partners, recover resources by replacing medical consumerism and bureaucratic practices, adopt an integrated approach combining the prevention of occupational risks and the promotion of healthy lifestyles, and recognize subsidiarity and the ability of working communities to regulate themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
Open AccessReview
Physical Practice and Wellness Courses Reduce Distress and Improve Wellbeing in Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040578 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate a course to reduce distress in an Italian police force. Based on the findings from the first investigations on this population, courses to improve the ability to manage distress were tailored by management. Several [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate a course to reduce distress in an Italian police force. Based on the findings from the first investigations on this population, courses to improve the ability to manage distress were tailored by management. Several free courses were proposed, including physical efficiency (e.g., total body conditioning) and wellness (e.g., autogenic training) classes. The goal of this research was to evaluate the courses and their impact on the perceived distress and general health of the participants, as well as the effectiveness in increasing the use of adaptive coping strategies. Methods: A descriptive investigation was conducted involving a sample of 105 police officers before (time 1) and after (time 2) they had participated in the courses. Results: Findings confirmed both physical and wellness courses affected, in participants, the perceived distress, thereby increasing the perception of wellbeing. The participants expressed having mental health benefits, the use of adaptive coping strategies increased, while the maladaptive coping strategies decreased. Conclusion: This study confirms that these courses could effectively reduce the risk of chronic disease, a consequence of persistent exposure to distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health Promotion 2018)
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