Special Issue "Multimedia Cartography"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Beata Medynska-Gulij
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cartography and Geomatics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-680 Poznan, Poland
Interests: cartographic design; multimedia cartography; geomedia; geomatic process; graphical means of expression; topographic works of art; mapping techniques; cultural heritage in virtual reality; reconstruction of historiogeographic space
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. David Forrest
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Geographical & Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, East Quadrangle, Main Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Interests: usability of GIS to design and produce sensible maps; design of topographic maps, especially at medium scales; design and usability of tourist and public transport mapping and information systems; geospatial data usability
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Paweł Cybulski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cartography and Geomatics, Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
Interests: cartographic animation; eye tracking; geovisualization; multimedia cartography; visual perception
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cartographic forms of expression connected with multimedia are technologies that interactively integrate image, video, audio, and animations. Multimedia cartography is a branch of cartography that focuses on the utilization of multimedia for the visualization and communication of data relating to space. The multidimensionality of spatial data is best presented using multimedia, for the user may more efficiently obtain and process information when he/she is forced to utilize multiple senses. The greater the interactivity between the data and the user, the greater the level of engagement with such multimedia.

This Special Issue focuses on the efficiency and attractiveness of the media for the visualization of spatial features and their information potential. We would like to invite you to submit your work exploring different media for cartography: film, animation, music, graphics, photos, sound, virtual and augmented reality, and others.

Contributions can address the following topics:

  • Maps as the core of multimedia presentation
  • Information potential of multimedia
  • Medium efficiency and medium attractiveness for the visualization of spatial features
  • Rules of map design for multimedia cartography
  • Media for cartography: film, animation, music, graphics, photos, audio, virtual and augmented reality, and others
  • Tools for designing specific cartographic multimedia products
  • Statistic and topographic maps at medium scales

Prof. Dr. Beata Medynska-Gulij
Dr. David Forrest
Dr. Pawel Cybulski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multimedia cartography
  • Information potential of multimedia
  • Map in film, animation
  • Multimedia visualization of spatial features
  • Medium efficiency
  • Medium attractiveness
  • Multimedia cartographic product

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Modern Cartographic Forms of Expression: The Renaissance of Multimedia Cartography
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 484; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10070484 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
This article summarizes the Special Issue of “Multimedia Cartography”. We present three main research fields in which multimedia cartography and the study of the effectiveness of multimedia maps are currently taking place. In each of these fields, we describe how published research is [...] Read more.
This article summarizes the Special Issue of “Multimedia Cartography”. We present three main research fields in which multimedia cartography and the study of the effectiveness of multimedia maps are currently taking place. In each of these fields, we describe how published research is embedded in the broader context of map design and user studies. The research refers to contemporary technological trends such as web HTML5 standards, virtual reality, eye tracking, or 3D printing. Efficiency, performance, and usability studies of multimedia maps were also included. The research published in this issue is interdisciplinary. They combine traditional mapping methods with new technologies. They are searching for new places for cartography in, e.g., the environment of computer games. They combine the design of the map with its perception by users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)

Research

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Article
Empirical Insights from a Study on Outlier Preserving Value Generalization in Animated Choropleth Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040208 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in [...] Read more.
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in space, in time, and in a combination of both dimensions, value smoothing based on a first order spatial neighborhood facilitated the detection of local outliers best, followed by the spatiotemporal and temporal generalization variants. We did not find any evidence that value generalization helps in detecting global trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Effectiveness of Memorizing an Animated Route—Comparing Satellite and Road Map Differences in the Eye-Tracking Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030159 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 523
Abstract
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, [...] Read more.
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, background layers can be easily altered by map users. The animation attracts people’s attention better than static images, but it causes some perceptual problems. This study examined the influence of the number of turns on the effectiveness (correctness) and efficiency of memorizing the animated route on different cartographic backgrounds. The routes of three difficulty levels, based on satellite and road background, were compared. The results show that the satellite background was not a significant factor influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of route memorizing. Recordings of the eye movement confirmed this. The study reveals that there were intergroup differences in participants’ visual behavior. Participants who described their spatial abilities as “very good” performed better (in terms of effectiveness and efficiency) in route memorizing tasks. For future research, there is a need to study route variability and its impact on participants’ performance. Moreover, future studies should involve differences in route visualization (e.g., without and with ephemeral or permanent trail). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Web Map Effectiveness in the Responsive Context of the Graphical User Interface
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030134 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
The main objective of this article was to determine the effectiveness of a web map GUI (Graphical User Interface) layout designed specifically for desktop monitors and smartphones. A suitable design of buttons for the graphical user interface is vital for the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
The main objective of this article was to determine the effectiveness of a web map GUI (Graphical User Interface) layout designed specifically for desktop monitors and smartphones. A suitable design of buttons for the graphical user interface is vital for the effectiveness of web maps. This article presents a study of three rules that prevail in GUI map design in terms of responsiveness, which was analyzed on two devices: a smartphone and a PC screen. The GUI effectiveness study, based on six variants of web maps, was conducted by means of eye-tracking on a group of 120 participants. An additional goal was to find an index (based on eye movements, mouse tracking, and time) that would be assessing the effectiveness of the GUI layout on both devices. The main motivation for conducting the research described in the article was the desire to find a synthetic measure based on more than one factor (time) in the context of determining the effectiveness of the GUI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
TouchTerrain—3D Printable Terrain Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030108 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
TouchTerrain is a simple-to-use web application that makes creating 3D printable terrain models from anywhere on the globe accessible to a wide range of users, from people with no GIS expertise to power users. For coders, a Python-based standalone version is available from [...] Read more.
TouchTerrain is a simple-to-use web application that makes creating 3D printable terrain models from anywhere on the globe accessible to a wide range of users, from people with no GIS expertise to power users. For coders, a Python-based standalone version is available from the open-source project’s GitHub repository. Analyzing 18 months of web analytics gave us a preliminary look at who is using the TouchTerrain web application and what their models are used for; and to map out what terrains on the globe they chose to 3D print. From July 2019 to January 2021, more than 20,000 terrain models were downloaded. Models were created for many different use cases, including education, research, outdoor activities and crafting mementos. Most models were realized with 3D printers, but a sizable minority used CNC machines. Our own experiences with using 3D printed terrain in a university setting have been very positive so far. Anecdotal evidence points to the strong potential for 3D printed terrain models to provide significant help with specific map-related tasks. For the introductory geology laboratory, 3D printed models were used as a form of “training wheels” to aid beginning students in learning to read contour maps, which are still an important tool for geology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Mini-Map for Gamers Who Walk and Teleport in a Virtual Stronghold
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020096 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Studies of the effectiveness of multimedia cartography products may include mini-map design for navigation. In this study, we have touched upon designing gameplay to indicate the impact of the mini-map on the time effectiveness of a player that can walk or teleport himself/herself [...] Read more.
Studies of the effectiveness of multimedia cartography products may include mini-map design for navigation. In this study, we have touched upon designing gameplay to indicate the impact of the mini-map on the time effectiveness of a player that can walk or teleport himself/herself along marked out points in virtual topographic space. The eye-tracking examination of gamers’ effectiveness in a non-complex game of collecting coins in a reconstructed stronghold on the holm provided us with a new perspective on the role of mini-maps. The more time gamers took to examine the mini-map, the more time they needed to finish the game, thus decreasing their effectiveness. The teleporting gamers had significantly higher time effectiveness than walking gamers, however, the data obtained showed only a minor difference between the proportions of the mini-map examination time to the total game time for walking and teleportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
The Land Use Mapping Techniques (Including the Areas Used by Pedestrians) Based on Low-Level Aerial Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9120754 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping [...] Read more.
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping methods to visualize land use in a dynamic context thanks to cyclically obtained UAV imaging. The aim of the research is to produce thematic maps showing the actual land use of the small area urbanized by pedestrians. The research was based on low-level aerial imagery that recorded the movement of pedestrians in the research area. Additionally, based on the observation of pedestrian movement, researchers pointed out the areas of land that pedestrians used incorrectly. For this purpose, the author will present his own concept of the point-to-polygon transformation of pedestrians’ representation. The research was an opportunity to demonstrate suitable mapping techniques to effectively convey the information on land use by pedestrians. The results allowed the authors of this article to draw conclusions on the choice of suitable mapping techniques during the process of thematic land use map design and to specify further areas for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Panoramic Mapping with Information Technologies for Supporting Engineering Education: A Preliminary Exploration
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110689 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
The present researchers took multistation-based panoramic images and imported the processed images into a virtual tour platform to create webpages and a virtual reality environment. The integrated multimedia platform aims to assist students in a surveying practice course. A questionnaire survey was conducted [...] Read more.
The present researchers took multistation-based panoramic images and imported the processed images into a virtual tour platform to create webpages and a virtual reality environment. The integrated multimedia platform aims to assist students in a surveying practice course. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate the platform’s usefulness to students, and its design was modified according to respondents’ feedback. Panoramic photos were taken using a full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera with an ultra-wide-angle zoom lens mounted on a panoramic instrument. The camera took photos at various angles, generating a visual field with horizontal and vertical viewing angles close to 360°. Multiple overlapping images were stitched to form a complete panoramic image for each capturing station. Image stitching entails extracting feature points to verify the correspondence between the same feature point in different images (i.e., tie points). By calculating the root mean square error of a stitched image, we determined the stitching quality and modified the tie point location when necessary. The root mean square errors of nearly all panoramas were lower than 5 pixels, meeting the recommended stitching standard. Additionally, 92% of the respondents (n = 62) considered the platform helpful for their surveying practice course. We also discussed and provided suggestions for the improvement of panoramic image quality, camera parameter settings, and panoramic image processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Experts and Gamers on Immersion into Reconstructed Strongholds
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 655; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110655 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
In this study, we have touched upon a problem in evaluating the method of immersion in specific historico-geographical virtual space constructed on the basis of traditional cartographic and graphic materials. We have obtained opinions from two groups of users on the perception of [...] Read more.
In this study, we have touched upon a problem in evaluating the method of immersion in specific historico-geographical virtual space constructed on the basis of traditional cartographic and graphic materials. We have obtained opinions from two groups of users on the perception of cultural objects reconstructed in a virtual reality previously unknown to them. To achieve our objective and answer the questions, we have adopted four main stages of research: to pinpoint concepts adopted by researchers by discussing two types of approach, to create a virtual reality application according to the scheme based on knowledge from analog sources and digital actions in several workspaces, to prepare and conduct a survey among experts and gamers, and to graphically juxtapose the results of the survey. The evaluation by experts in medieval strongholds and serious story game users of the specific ways of immersion in the VR of reconstructed buildings in the current area provides researchers with an extended view of its effectiveness and attractiveness as well as with suggestions for further design processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
A Feasibility Study of Map-Based Dashboard for Spatiotemporal Knowledge Acquisition and Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 636; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110636 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Map-based dashboards are among the most popular tools that support the viewing and understanding of a large amount of geo-data with complex relations. In spite of many existing design examples, little is known about their impacts on users and whether they match the [...] Read more.
Map-based dashboards are among the most popular tools that support the viewing and understanding of a large amount of geo-data with complex relations. In spite of many existing design examples, little is known about their impacts on users and whether they match the information demand and expectations of target users. The authors first designed a novel map-based dashboard to support their target users’ spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition and analysis, and then conducted an experiment to assess the feasibility of the proposed dashboard. The experiment consists of eye-tracking, benchmark tasks, and interviews. A total of 40 participants were recruited for the experiment. The results have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed map-based dashboard in supporting the given tasks. At the same time, the experiment has revealed a number of aspects for improvement related to the layout design, the labeling of multiple panels and the integration of visual analytical elements in map-based dashboards, as well as future user studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Interactive Web-Map of the European Freeway Junction A1/A4 Development with the Use of Archival Cartographic Sources
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070438 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
In the article, authors have analyzed cartographic materials presenting the spatial development of Gliwice with the use of multimedia tools. The materials prove that this area has played an important part in the road system of the region, country and even part of [...] Read more.
In the article, authors have analyzed cartographic materials presenting the spatial development of Gliwice with the use of multimedia tools. The materials prove that this area has played an important part in the road system of the region, country and even part of Europe since the 19th century. The six maps from the studied area were analyzed e.g., the Urmesstischblätter map, polish topographic maps, and the OpenStreetMap. Based on these maps and their legends, vectorization of the main roads of the analyzed area was carried out. The evolution of the main road corridors on the six maps was analyzed with respect to the location of the European freeway junction (A1/A4), constituting a basis for the web map. According to the authors, the use of the interactive web map is the most comprehensive method of all technologies used by modern cartography. Spatial data collected from different cartographic publications (from the first half of the 19th century till the present) consider the most significant aspects of changes in the road network of the analyzed area in a detailed and user-friendly way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
User Experience in Using Graphical User Interfaces of Web Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 412; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070412 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to show the differences in users’ experience when performing an interactive task with GUI buttons arrangement based on Google Maps and OpenStreetMap in a simulation environment. The graphical user interface is part of an interactive multimedia map, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to show the differences in users’ experience when performing an interactive task with GUI buttons arrangement based on Google Maps and OpenStreetMap in a simulation environment. The graphical user interface is part of an interactive multimedia map, and the interaction experience depends mainly on it. For this reason, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with users to examine how people experience interaction through the GUI. Based on the results related to eye movement, we presented several valuable recommendations for the design of interactive multimedia maps. For better GUI efficiency, it is suitable to group buttons with similar functions in screen corners. Users first analyze corners and only then search for the desired button. The frequency of using a given web map does not translate into generally better performance while using any GUI. Users perform more efficiently if they work with the preferred GUI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
A Sightseeing Spot Recommendation System That Takes into Account the Visiting Frequency of Users
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9070411 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
The present study aimed to design, develop, operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system that can efficiently and usefully support tourists while considering their visiting frequencies. This system was developed by integrating social networking services (SNSs), Web-geographic information systems (GIS) and recommendation [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to design, develop, operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system that can efficiently and usefully support tourists while considering their visiting frequencies. This system was developed by integrating social networking services (SNSs), Web-geographic information systems (GIS) and recommendation systems. The system recommends sightseeing spots to users with different visiting frequencies, adopting two recommendation methods (knowledge-based recommendation and collaborative recommendation methods). Additionally, the system was operated for six weeks in Kamakura City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the total number of users was 61. Based on the results of the web questionnaire survey, the usefulness of the system when sightseeing was high, and the recommendation function of sightseeing spots, which is an original function, received mainly good ratings. From the results of the access analysis of users’ log data, the total number of sessions in this system was 329, 77% used mobile devices, and smartphones were used most frequently. Therefore, it is evident that the system was used by different types of devices just as it was designed for, and that the system was used according to the purpose of the present study, which is to support the sightseeing activities of users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Time, Spatial, and Descriptive Features of Pedestrian Tracks on Set of Visualizations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(6), 348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9060348 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to elaborate on and evaluate a multiperspective cartographic visualization of the spatial behavior of pedestrians in urban space. The detailed objective is to indicate the level of usefulness of the proposed visualization methods for analyzing and interpreting [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to elaborate on and evaluate a multiperspective cartographic visualization of the spatial behavior of pedestrians in urban space. The detailed objective is to indicate the level of usefulness of the proposed visualization methods for analyzing and interpreting the following features: track shape (trajectory geometry), topographical truth, track length, track visibility, walking time, motivation for getting to the finish point, walking speed, stops, spatial context (spatial surroundings, street names, and so on), and trajectory similarity. Each of the elaborated visualization presents spatial data from a different perspective and visually strengthens other aspects of the behavior of participants of the experiment. Recording the movement of participants by means of global positioning system (GPS) receivers was the first method used in the research, with the other one being a questionnaire that made it possible to determine what kind of motivation pedestrians had when selecting a track leading to the finish point. The results demonstrate different levels of usefulness of the six presented visualizations for reading selected features of the spatial behavior of pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Complexity Level of People Gathering Presentation on an Animated Map—Objective Effectiveness Versus Expert Opinion
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9020117 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
The aim of the following study was to present three alternative methods of visualization on animated maps illustrating the movement of people gathered at an open-air event recorded on photographs taken by a drone. The effectiveness of an orthorectified low-level aerial image (a [...] Read more.
The aim of the following study was to present three alternative methods of visualization on animated maps illustrating the movement of people gathered at an open-air event recorded on photographs taken by a drone. The effectiveness of an orthorectified low-level aerial image (a so-called orthophoto), a dot distribution map, and a buffer map was tested in an experiment featuring experts, and key significance was attached to the juxtaposition of objective responses with subjective opinions. The results of the study enabled its authors to draw conclusions regarding the importance of visualizing topographic references (stable objects) and people (mobile objects) and the usefulness of the particular elements of animated maps for their analysis and interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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