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Special Issue "Viral Diseases of the Respiratory System—Molecular Mechanisms and Pathogenesis"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Andreas Beineke
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, D-30559 Hannover, Germany
Interests: pathology of the respiratory system; immune regulation; immunodeficiencies; molecular pathology; morbilliviruses; emerging infectious diseases; zoonotic diseases; animal models

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viral infections of the upper and lower respiratory system represent global health issues. Infections can be self-limiting or cause severe acute disease and even fatalities in vulnerable groups such as infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Moreover, persistent pulmonary changes and long-term respiratory problems can occur following infection. In the last several decades, reported cases of pneumotropic agents causing emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans and animals have increased. Recent research in infectious pulmonary diseases such as measles, influenza and the current COVID-19 pandemic clearly shows that detailed knowledge about viral properties, virus entry, molecular pathology, and disease pathogenesis is essential for the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. This Special Issue aims to provide an up-to-date collection of original research and review articles focusing on the progress in infection biology of viral pathogens of the respiratory system. We welcome molecular studies, including in vitro studies and animal experiments, dealing with (but not limited to) host–pathogen interaction, immunology, pathogenesis as well as the development of prevention and treatment strategies of viral respiratory diseases in humans and animals.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Beineke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • respiratory diseases
  • pneumonia
  • pneumotropic viruses
  • pathogenesis
  • host–pathogen interaction
  • pulmonary pathology
  • immunopathology
  • immunity
  • disease prevention
  • treatment
  • zoonotic diseases
  • antiviral therapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
The Upper Respiratory Tract of Felids Is Highly Susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10636; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910636 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Natural or experimental infection of domestic cats and virus transmission from humans to captive predatory cats suggest that felids are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is unclear which cells and compartments of the respiratory tract are infected. To address this question, [...] Read more.
Natural or experimental infection of domestic cats and virus transmission from humans to captive predatory cats suggest that felids are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it is unclear which cells and compartments of the respiratory tract are infected. To address this question, primary cell cultures derived from the nose, trachea, and lungs of cat and lion were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Strong viral replication was observed for nasal mucosa explants and tracheal air–liquid interface cultures, whereas replication in lung slices was less efficient. Infection was mainly restricted to epithelial cells and did not cause major pathological changes. Detection of high ACE2 levels in the nose and trachea but not lung further suggests that susceptibility of feline tissues to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with ACE2 expression. Collectively, this study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently replicate in the feline upper respiratory tract ex vivo and thus highlights the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans to felids. Full article
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Communication
IAPV-Induced Paralytic Symptoms Associated with Tachypnea via Impaired Tracheal System Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 10078; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221810078 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Although it had been reported that Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause systemic infection in honey bees, little is known about how it establishes this infection and results in the typical symptoms, paralysis and trembling. Here, we used our previously constructed IAPV [...] Read more.
Although it had been reported that Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause systemic infection in honey bees, little is known about how it establishes this infection and results in the typical symptoms, paralysis and trembling. Here, we used our previously constructed IAPV infectious clone to investigate viral loads in different tissues of honey bees and further identify the relation between tissue tropism and paralytic symptoms. Our results showed that tracheae showed a greater concentration of viral abundance than other tissues. The abundance of viral protein in the tracheae was positively associated with viral titers, and was further confirmed by immunological and ultrastructural evidence. Furthermore, higher viral loads in tracheae induced remarkable down-regulation of succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase genes, and progressed to causing respiratory failure of honey bees, resulting in the appearance of typical symptoms, paralysis and body trembling. Our results showed that paralysis symptoms or trembling was actually to mitigate tachypnea induced by IAPV infection due to the impairment of honey bee tracheae, and revealed a direct causal link between paralysis symptoms and tissue tropism. These findings provide new insights into the understanding of the underlying mechanism of paralysis symptoms of honey bees after viral infection and have implications for viral disease prevention and specific therapeutics in practice. Full article
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Article
Development of a Rapid Fluorescent Diagnostic System to Detect Subtype H9 Influenza A Virus in Chicken Feces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168823 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The circulation of the H9N2 virus results in significant economic losses in the poultry industry, and its zoonotic transmission highlights the need for a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic and detection system for this virus. In this study, the performance of lateral flow [...] Read more.
The circulation of the H9N2 virus results in significant economic losses in the poultry industry, and its zoonotic transmission highlights the need for a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic and detection system for this virus. In this study, the performance of lateral flow test strips for a fluorescent immunochromatographic test (FICT) was optimized for the diagnosis of H9N2 virus-infected animal samples. The novel monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against influenza A H9 viruses were developed, and two categories of McAbs with linear and conformational epitopes were compared for the performance of rapid diagnostic performance in the presence of feces sample at different time points (2, 4, and 6 days) post-infection (dpi). The limit of detection (LOD) of FICT and Kd values were comparable between linear and conformational epitope McAbs. However, superior performance of linear epitope McAbs pairs were confirmed by two animal studies, showing the better diagnostic performance showing 100% relative sensitivity in fecal samples at 6 dpi although it showed less than 80% sensitivity in early infection. Our results imply that the comparable performance of the linear epitope McAbs can potentially improve the diagnostic performance of FICT for H9N2 detection in feces samples. This highly sensitive rapid diagnostic method can be utilized in field studies of broiler poultry and wild birds. Full article
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Article
CMAS and ST3GAL4 Play an Important Role in the Adsorption of Influenza Virus by Affecting the Synthesis of Sialic Acid Receptors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6081; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22116081 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) initiate infection by attaching Hemagglutinin (HA) on the viral envelope to sialic acid (SA) receptors on the cell surface. Importantly, HA of human IAVs has a higher affinity for α-2,6-linked SA receptors, and avian strains prefer α-2,3-linked SA receptors, [...] Read more.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) initiate infection by attaching Hemagglutinin (HA) on the viral envelope to sialic acid (SA) receptors on the cell surface. Importantly, HA of human IAVs has a higher affinity for α-2,6-linked SA receptors, and avian strains prefer α-2,3-linked SA receptors, whereas swine strains have a strong affinity for both SA receptors. Host gene CMAS and ST3GAL4 were found to be essential for IAV attachment and entry. Loss of CMAS and ST3GAL4 hindered the synthesis of sialic acid receptors, which in turn prevented the adsorption of IAV. Further, the knockout of CMAS had an effect on the adsorption of swine, avian and human IAVs. However, ST3GAL4 knockout prevented the adsorption of swine and avian IAV and the impact on avian IAV was more distinct, whereas it had no effect on the adsorption of human IAV. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that knocking out CMAS and ST3GAL4 negatively regulated IAV replication by inhibiting the synthesis of SA receptors, which also provides new insights into the production of gene-edited animals in the future. Full article
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