Special Issue "Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cristina Cortis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health University of Cassino e Lazio Meridionale, 03043 Cassino, Italy
Interests: sport; performance; monitoring; physical activity; training; testing; motor control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Andrea Fusco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health University of Cassino e Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training; monitoring; balance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Carl Foster
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training, exercise physiology; monitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After the success of the first edition (https://0-www-mdpi-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Exercise_Evaluation), we would love to re-open the Special Issue to continue the development in this topic of particular interest. In line with the previous edition, the idea is to focus on exercise evaluation and prescription, aiming to attract papers related to how to use either laboratory or field evaluations to generate training advice. Training might seem related mostly to athletes, but normal people (and patients) need specific advices as much as the athletes.  We suspect that there are a number of strategies available that will allow the generation of quantitatively specific training advice that is appropriate for individuals within the “exercise universe”.Authors are invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, reviews and viewpoints focusing on exercise evaluation and prescription on patients, healthy people, and athletes, based on findings observed in laboratory or field evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Cortis
Dr. Andrea Fusco
Prof. Dr. Carl Foster
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise prescription
  • Exercise testing
  • Training programs
  • Translation of exercise testing to exercise prescription

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Article
Association of Performance in Strength and Plyometric Tests with Change of Direction Performance in Young Female Team-Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6040083 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when [...] Read more.
The change of direction (COD) ability is a task-specific skill dependent on different factors such as the degree of the turn, which has led to differentiating CODs as more force- (>90°) or velocity-oriented (<90°). Considering force and velocity requirements is of importance when designing sport-specific training programs for enhancing COD performance. Thus, 25 female handball and soccer players participated in this study, which investigated the association between three different strength and plyometric exercises and force- and velocity-oriented COD performance. By utilizing the median split analysis, the participants were further divided into a fast (n = 8) and a slow (n = 8) COD group, to investigate differences in step kinematics between fast and slow performers. The correlational analysis revealed that the bilateral back squat and unilateral quarter squat were significantly associated with several force- and velocity-oriented COD performance (r = −0.46 to −0.64), while the association between plyometric and COD performance was limited (r < 0.44). The fast COD group revealed higher levels of strength, jump height, peak velocities, higher step frequencies, shorter ground contact times, and greater acceleration and braking power (d > 1.29, p < 0.03). It was concluded that the observed correlation between strength and COD performance might be due to stronger athletes being able to produce more workload in a shorter time, which was supported by the step kinematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Tensiomyographic Responses to Warm-Up Protocols in Collegiate Male Soccer Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6040080 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of knee flexors and extensors in 15 collegiate male soccer players following different warm-up protocols [small-sided games (SSG), dynamic (DYN), and plyometric (PLY)] were evaluated. Tensiomyography (TMG) was used to assess contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td) and maximal displacement (Dm) of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) of both legs before and after each warm-up, while countermovement jump height variables, 20 m sprint, t-test and sit-and-reach were measured following the warm-ups. TMG was analyzed using a three-way [condition × time × leg] ANOVA, while performance variables were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects of time were observed for BF-Tc (p = 0.035), RF-Td (p < 0.001), and BF-Td, (p = 0.008), and a main effect of condition was seen for RF-Tc (p = 0.038). Moreover, participants’ 20 m sprint improved following SSG (p = 0.021) compared to DYN and PLY. Sit-and-reach was greater following PLY (p = 0.021). No significant interactions were noted for the measured TMG variables. Warm-up-specific improvements were demonstrated in sprint speed and flexibility following SSG and PLY, respectively. The present study revealed changes in certain TMG measures following the warm-ups that suggest enhanced response of lower leg muscles regardless of specific activities used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Article
Pressure. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Concussion and Injury Risk in Retired Professional Rugby Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030078 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
This study interviewed retired professional rugby union players (≤10 years since retirement) to discuss their careers in the game of rugby union. The primary aim of the study was to document their understanding of concussion knowledge and the analogies they use to describe [...] Read more.
This study interviewed retired professional rugby union players (≤10 years since retirement) to discuss their careers in the game of rugby union. The primary aim of the study was to document their understanding of concussion knowledge and the analogies they use to describe concussion. In addition, these interviews were used to determine any explicit and implicit pressures of playing professional rugby as described by ex-professional rugby players. Overall, 23 retired professional rugby players were interviewed. The participants had played the game of rugby union (n = 23) at elite professional standard. A semi-structured individual interview design was conducted with participants between June to August 2020. The research team reviewed the transcripts to identify the major themes from the interviews using a reflexive thematic analysis approach. Four major themes were identified: (1) medical and theoretical understanding of concussion, (2) descriptions of concussion and disassociated language, (3) personal concussion experience, and (4) peer influences on concussion within the sport. These were further divided into categories and subcategories. The interviews highlighted that players did not fully understand the ramifications of concussive injury and other injury risk, as it became normalised as part of their sport. This normalisation was supported by trivialising the seriousness of concussions and using dismissive language amongst themselves as players, or with coaching staff. As many of these ex-professional players are currently coaching rugby (48%), these interviews could assist coaches in treating concussion as a significant injury and not downplaying the seriousness of concussion in contact sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Article
Exploring Physical Fitness Profile of Male and Female Semiprofessional Basketball Players through Principal Component Analysis—A Case Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030067 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Basketball is a sport in continuous evolution, being one of these key aspects of the players’ physical fitness that has an impact on the game. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and identify the physical fitness level and profiles of basketball players according [...] Read more.
Basketball is a sport in continuous evolution, being one of these key aspects of the players’ physical fitness that has an impact on the game. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and identify the physical fitness level and profiles of basketball players according to sex. Total of 26 semi-professional basketball players were assessed (13 male, 13 female) through inertial devices in different previously validated fitness tests. T-test for independent samples and principal component analysis were used to analyze sex-related differences and to identify physical fitness profiles. The results showed differences according to sex in all physical fitness indexes (p < 0.01; d > 1.04) with higher values in males, except in accelerometer load during small-sided games (p = 0.17; d < 0.20). Four principal components were identified in male and female basketball players, being two common ([PC1] aerobic capacity and in-game physical conditioning, [PC4 male, PC3 female] unipodal jump performance) and two different profiles (male: [PC2] bipodal jump capacity and acceleration, [PC3] curvilinear displacement; female: [PC2] bipodal jump capacity and curvilinear displacement, [PC4] deceleration). In conclusion, training design must be different and individualized according to different variables, including physical fitness profiles between them. For practical applications, these results will allow knowing the advantages and weaknesses of each athlete to adapt training tasks and game systems based on the skills and capabilities of the players in basketball. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Functional Translation of Exercise Responses from Exercise Testing to Exercise Training: The Test of a Model
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030066 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Exercise prescription based on exercise test results is complicated by the need to downregulate the absolute training intensity to account for cardiovascular drift in order to achieve a desired internal training load. We tested a recently developed generalized model to perform this downregulation [...] Read more.
Exercise prescription based on exercise test results is complicated by the need to downregulate the absolute training intensity to account for cardiovascular drift in order to achieve a desired internal training load. We tested a recently developed generalized model to perform this downregulation using metabolic equivalents (METs) during exercise testing and training. A total of 20 healthy volunteers performed an exercise test to define the METs at 60, 70, and 80% of the heart rate (HR) reserve and then performed randomly ordered 30 min training bouts at absolute intensities predicted by the model to achieve these levels of training intensity. The training HR at 60 and 70% HR reserve, but not 80%, was significantly less than predicted from the exercise test, although the differences were small. None of the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) values during training were significantly different than predicted. There was a strong overall correlation between predicted and observed HR (r = 0.88) and RPE (r = 0.52), with 92% of HR values within ±10 bpm and 74% of RPE values within ±1 au. We conclude that the generalized functional translation model is generally adequate to allow the generation of early absolute training loads that lead to desired internal training loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Pattern of the Heart Rate Performance Curve in Subjects with Beta-Blocker Treatment and Healthy Controls
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030061 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 557
Abstract
(1): Heart rate performance curve (HRPC) in incremental exercise was shown to be not uniform, causing false intensity estimation applying percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax). HRPC variations are mediated by β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The aim was to study age and [...] Read more.
(1): Heart rate performance curve (HRPC) in incremental exercise was shown to be not uniform, causing false intensity estimation applying percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax). HRPC variations are mediated by β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The aim was to study age and sex dependent differences in HRPC patterns in adults with β-blocker treatment (BB) and healthy controls (C). (2): A total of 535 (102 female) BB individuals were matched 1:1 for age and sex (male 59 ± 11 yrs, female 61 ± 11 yrs) in C. From the maximum incremental cycle ergometer exercise a first and second heart rate (HR) threshold (Th1 and Th2) was determined. Based on the degree of the deflection (kHR), HRPCs were categorized as regular (downward deflection (kHR > 0.1)) and non-regular (upward deflection (kHR < 0.1), linear time course). (3): Logistic regression analysis revealed a higher odds ratio to present a non-regular curve in BB compared to C (females showed three times higher odds). The odds for non-regular HRPC in BB versus C decreased with older age (OR interaction = 0.97, CI = 0.94–0.99). Maximal and submaximal performance and HR variables were significantly lower in BB (p < 0.05). %HRmax was significantly lower in BB versus C at Th2 (male: 77.2 ± 7.3% vs. 80.8 ± 5.0%; female: 79.2 ± 5.1% vs. 84.0 ± 4.3%). %Pmax at Th2 was similar in BB and C. (4): The HRPC pattern in incremental cycle ergometer exercise is different in individuals receiving β-blocker treatment compared to healthy individuals. The effects were also dependent on age and sex. Relative HR values at Th2 varied substantially depending on treatment. Thus, the percentage of Pmax seems to be a stable and independent indicator for exercise intensity prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Correlation between Official and Common Field-Based Fitness Tests in Elite Soccer Referees
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030059 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Official tests are used to assess the fitness status of soccer referees, and their results correlate with match performance. However, FIFA-approved tests expose the referees to high physical demands and are difficult to implement during the sportive year. The aim of our study [...] Read more.
Official tests are used to assess the fitness status of soccer referees, and their results correlate with match performance. However, FIFA-approved tests expose the referees to high physical demands and are difficult to implement during the sportive year. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 × 40-m sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (IR1) official tests and other field-based tests that require no or little equipment, are not time-consuming, and impose low physical demands. All tests were performed by male referees from the Regional Section of the Italian Referee Association (n = 30). We observed a strong correlation between 6 × 40-m sprint and Illinois agility tests (r = 0.63, p = 0.001) and a moderate correlation between Yo-Yo IR1 and hand-grip strength in the dominant (r = 0.45, p = 0.014) and non-dominant hand (r = 0.41, p = 0.031). Interestingly, only a moderate correlation (r = −0.42, p = 0.025) was observed between the FIFA official tests, 6 × 40-m sprint and Yo-Yo IR1. These results suggest that Illinois agility and hand-grip tests could represent simple and low-physical-impact tools for repeated assessment and monitoring of referee fitness throughout the sportive season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Prediction of Exercise Capacity and Training Prescription from the 6-Minute Walk Test and Rating of Perceived Exertion
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020052 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Walking tests, such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT), are popular methods of estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in clinical populations. However, the strength of the distance vs. VO2peak relationship is not strong, and there are no equations for [...] Read more.
Walking tests, such as the 6-min walk test (6MWT), are popular methods of estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in clinical populations. However, the strength of the distance vs. VO2peak relationship is not strong, and there are no equations for estimating ventilatory threshold (VT), which is important for training prescription and prognosis. Since the 6MWT is often limited by walking mechanics, prediction equations that include simple additional predictors, such as the terminal rating of perceived exertion (RPE), hold the potential for improving the prediction of VO2max and VT. Therefore, this study was designed to develop equations for predicting VO2peak and VT from performance during the 6MWT, on the basis of walking performance and terminal RPE. Clinically stable patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program (N = 63) performed the 6MWT according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. At the end of each walk, the subject provided their terminal RPE on a 6–20 Borg scale. Each patient also performed a maximal incremental treadmill test with respiratory gas exchange to measure VO2peak and VT. There was a good correlation between VO2peak and 6MWT distance (r = 0.80) which was improved by adding the terminal RPE in a multiple regression formula (6MWT + RPE, R2 = 0.71, standard error of estimate, SEE = 1.3 Metabolic Equivalents (METs). The VT was also well correlated with walking performance, 6MWT distance (r = 0.80), and was improved by the addition of terminal RPE (6MWT + RPE, R2 = 0.69, SEE = 0.95 METs). The addition of terminal RPE to 6MWT distance improved the prediction of maximal METs and METs at VT, which may have practical applications for exercise prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Effects of Activity Tracker-Based Counselling and Live-Web Exercise on Breast Cancer Survivors during Italy COVID-19 Lockdown
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020050 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 665
Abstract
Background: To prevent and fight the increase of daily sedentary time and to promote and stimulate the positive effects of physical activity and exercise on health, both traditional interventions and new strategies are important for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The research goal was [...] Read more.
Background: To prevent and fight the increase of daily sedentary time and to promote and stimulate the positive effects of physical activity and exercise on health, both traditional interventions and new strategies are important for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The research goal was to compare the effects of weekly personal feedback, based on objectively measured physical activity, on the trends of both daily sedentary time and on the physical activity of BCS (E group) with those of an intervention also including online supervised physical exercise sessions (E+ group), during the Italy COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: The Italian COVID-19 emergency allowed the possibility to also observe the effects of social and personal limitations. A total of 51 BCS were studied over an 18-week period and had an objective registration of day-to-day sedentary time, physical activity, and sleep. Both subsamples received weekly or fortnight personal feedback. Data were analysed considering four key periods, according to the COVID-19 emergency steps. Results: Statistical analysis showed an additive effect for sedentary time and a multiplicative effect both for light-to vigorous and light-intensity physical activities. The E group had a high overall sedentary time and a different trend of light-to vigorous and light-intensity physical activities, with a reduction from the 1st to the 2nd periods (national and personal restrictions), showing a significant rise just at the end of the national restrictions. Conclusions: The use of an activity tracker and its accompanying app, with the reception of weekly tailored advice and supervised online physical exercise sessions, can elicit proper physical activity recomposition in BCS in the COVID-19 era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Workload Accomplished in Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020047 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Exercise training is an important component of clinical exercise programs. Although there are recognized guidelines for the amount of exercise to be accomplished (≥70,000 steps per week or ≥150 min per week at moderate intensity), there is virtually no documentation of how much [...] Read more.
Exercise training is an important component of clinical exercise programs. Although there are recognized guidelines for the amount of exercise to be accomplished (≥70,000 steps per week or ≥150 min per week at moderate intensity), there is virtually no documentation of how much exercise is actually accomplished in contemporary exercise programs. Having guidelines without evidence of whether they are being met is of limited value. We analyzed both the weekly step count and the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) of patients (n = 26) enrolled in a community clinical exercise (e.g., Phase III) program over a 3-week reference period. Step counts averaged 39,818 ± 18,612 per week, with 18% of the steps accomplished in the program and 82% of steps accomplished outside the program. Using the sRPE method, inside the program, the patients averaged 162.4 ± 93.1 min per week, at a sRPE of 12.5 ± 1.9 and a frequency of 1.8 ± 0.7 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 2042.5 ± 1244.9 AU. Outside the program, the patients averaged 144.9 ± 126.4 min, at a sRPE of 11.8 ± 5.8 and a frequency of 2.4 ± 1.5 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 1723.9 ± 1526.2 AU. The total exercise load using sRPE was 266.4 ± 170.8 min per week, at a sRPE of 12.6 ± 3.8, and frequency of 4.2 ± 1.1 times per week, for a calculated exercise load of 3359.8 ± 2145.9 AU. There was a non-linear relationship between steps per week and the sRPE derived training load, apparently attributable to the amount of non-walking exercise accomplished in the program. The results suggest that patients in a community clinical exercise program are achieving American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, based on the sRPE method, but are accomplishing less steps than recommended by guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Physiological and Psychological Responses to Three Distinct Exercise Training Regimens Performed in an Outdoor Setting: Acute and Delayed Response
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020044 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the acute responses to three time-matched exercise regimens. Ten trained adults (age, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) = 25.9 ± 5.6 yr, 50.9 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the acute responses to three time-matched exercise regimens. Ten trained adults (age, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) = 25.9 ± 5.6 yr, 50.9 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1, and 22.1 ± 1.8 kg·m−2) completed sprint interval training (SIT) requiring 14 × 5 s efforts with 35 s of recovery, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) consisting of 18 × 15 s efforts at ~90% of peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 15 s of recovery, and vigorous continuous training (CT) consisting of 8.75 min at ~85 %HRpeak, in randomized order. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, affective valence, and enjoyment were monitored. Moreover, indices of neuromuscular function, autonomic balance, diet, mental stress, incidental physical activity (PA), and sleep were measured 24 h after each session to analyze the magnitude of recovery. Both HIIT and CT exhibited a greater %HRpeak and time ≥ 90 %HRpeak than SIT (p < 0.05). Blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were higher in response to SIT and HIIT vs. CT (p < 0.05); however, there were no differences in enjoyment (p > 0.05). No differences were exhibited in any variable assessed along 24 h post-exercise between conditions (p > 0.05). These data suggest that HIIT and CT accumulate the longest duration at near maximal intensities, which is considered a key factor to enhance VO2max. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020043 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 575
Abstract
Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric [...] Read more.
Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), time at MIF, velocity, dynamic time in sticking, and surface electromyography in several distances from the bar to the chest. Results: For velocity, there was a difference between the pre-sticking and sticking region (1.98 ± 0.32 and 1.30 ± 0.43, p = 0.039) and dynamic time between the pre-sticking and the sticking region (0.40 ± 0.16 and 0.97 ± 0.37, p = 00.021). In static test for the MIF, differences were found between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 784; 1088; p = 0.010) and between 10.0 cm and 5.0 cm (CI 95% 527; 768; p < 0.001). Regarding the RFD, differences were found (CI 95% 938; 1240; p = 0.004) between 5.0 cm and 25.0 cm and between 10.0 cm and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 513; 732; p < 0.001). In relation to time, there were differences between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 0.330; 0.515; p < 0.001), 5.0 cm, and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 0.928; 1.345; p = 0.001), 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm (p < 0.05) and 15.0 cm and 25.0 cm (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the muscles in electromyography, although the triceps showed the highest muscle activation values. Conclusions: The maximum isometric force, rate of force development, time, velocity, and dynamic time had lower values, especially in the initial and intermediate phases in the sticking region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Detection of the Anaerobic Threshold in Endurance Sports: Validation of a New Method Using Correlation Properties of Heart Rate Variability
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020038 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Past attempts to define an anaerobic threshold (AnT) have relied upon gas exchange kinetics, lactate testing and field-based evaluations. DFA a1, an index of heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) fractal correlation properties, has been shown to decrease with exercise intensity. The intent of [...] Read more.
Past attempts to define an anaerobic threshold (AnT) have relied upon gas exchange kinetics, lactate testing and field-based evaluations. DFA a1, an index of heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) fractal correlation properties, has been shown to decrease with exercise intensity. The intent of this study is to investigate whether the AnT derived from gas exchange is associated with the transition from a correlated to uncorrelated random HRV pattern signified by a DFA a1 value of 0.5. HRV and gas exchange data were obtained from 15 participants during an incremental treadmill run. Comparison of the HR reached at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was made to the HR reached at a DFA a1 value of 0.5 (HRVT2). Based on Bland–Altman analysis and linear regression, there was strong agreement between VT2 and HRVT2 measured by HR (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Mean VT2 was reached at a HR of 174 (±12) bpm compared to mean HRVT2 at a HR of 171 (±16) bpm. In summary, the HR associated with a DFA a1 value of 0.5 on an incremental treadmill ramp was closely related to that of the HR at the VT2 derived from gas exchange analysis. A distinct numerical value of DFA a1 representing an uncorrelated, random interbeat pattern appears to be associated with the VT2 and shows potential as a noninvasive marker for training intensity distribution and performance status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Predictive Validity of the Snatch Pull Force-Velocity Profile to Determine the Snatch One Repetition-Maximum in Male and Female Elite Weightlifters
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020035 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Background: The prediction of one repetition-maximum (1RM) performance from specific tests is highly relevant for the monitoring of training in weightlifting. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the predictive validity of the theoretical 1RM snatch (snatchth) computed from the two-point [...] Read more.
Background: The prediction of one repetition-maximum (1RM) performance from specific tests is highly relevant for the monitoring of training in weightlifting. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the predictive validity of the theoretical 1RM snatch (snatchth) computed from the two-point snatch pull force-velocity relationship (FvR2) to determine actual snatch 1RM performance in elite weightlifters. Methods: Eight (three female, five male) elite weightlifters carried out a 1RM snatch test followed by a snatch pull test with loads of 80% and 110% of the previously determined 1RM snatch. Barbell kinematics were determined for all lifts using video-tracking. From the snatch pull barbell kinematics, the snatch pull FvR2 was modeled and the snatchth was calculated. Results: The main findings indicated a non-significant (p = 0.706) and trivial (d = 0.01) mean difference between the actual 1RM snatch performance and the snatchth. Both measures showed an extremely large correlation (r = 0.99). The prediction accuracy of the actual 1RM snatch from snatchth was 0.2 ± 1.5 kg (systematic bias ± standard deviation of differences). Conclusions: This study provides a new approach to estimate 1RM snatch performance in elite weightlifters using the snatch pull FvR2. The results demonstrate that the snatchth-model accurately predicts 1RM snatch performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Review

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Review
Indirect Structural Muscle Injuries of Lower Limb: Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030075 - 13 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Muscle injuries are the most common trauma in team and individual sports. The muscles most frequently affected are those of the lower limb, and in particular hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris and calf muscles. Although several scientific studies have tried to propose different rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Muscle injuries are the most common trauma in team and individual sports. The muscles most frequently affected are those of the lower limb, and in particular hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris and calf muscles. Although several scientific studies have tried to propose different rehabilitation protocols, still too often the real rehabilitation process is not based on scientific knowledge, especially in non-elite athletes. Moreover, the growing use of physical and instrumental therapies has made it increasingly difficult to understand what can be truly effective. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review proposed therapeutic algorithms for muscle injuries, proposing a concise and practical summary. Following a three-phase rehabilitation protocol, this review aims to describe the conservative treatment of indirect structural muscle injuries, which are the more routinely found and more challenging type. For each phase, until return to training and return to sport are completed, the functional goal, the most appropriate practitioner, and the best possible treatment according to current evidence are expressed. Finally, the last section is focused on the specific exercise rehabilitation for the four main muscle groups with a structured explanatory timetable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Review
Applicability of Field Aerobic Fitness Tests in Soccer: Which One to Choose?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(3), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6030069 - 18 Aug 2021
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Abstract
A desire to make fitness testing cheaper and easier to conduct in a team-sport setting has led to the development of numerous field aerobic fitness tests. This has contributed to a growing confusion among strength and conditioning coaches about which one to use. [...] Read more.
A desire to make fitness testing cheaper and easier to conduct in a team-sport setting has led to the development of numerous field aerobic fitness tests. This has contributed to a growing confusion among strength and conditioning coaches about which one to use. The main aim of this narrative review was to examine the reliability, validity, sensitivity and usefulness of the commonly used field aerobic fitness tests and to provide practical guidelines for their use in soccer. The University of Montreal track test (UMTT) and Vam Eval test seem the best options for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while the highest signal-to-noise ratio of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT) suggests its superior sensitivity to track changes in fitness. The UMTT and 30-15IFT are the best solutions for prescription of long and short high-intensity interval training sessions, respectively. All field tests mostly present with marginal usefulness, but the smallest worthwhile change for UMTT or Vam Eval test, Yo-YoIRT2 and 30-15IFT are smaller than their stage increment making the improvement of only one stage in the test performance already worthwhile. Strength and conditioning coaches are advised to choose the test based on their specific purpose of testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)

Other

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Case Report
Relationships between Workload, Heart Rate Variability, and Performance in a Recreational Endurance Runner
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6010030 - 22 Mar 2021
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Abstract
Background: The association between heart rate variability (HRV), training load (TL), and performance is poorly understood. Methods: A middle-aged recreational female runner was monitored during a competitive 20-wk macrocycle divided into first (M1) and second mesocycle (M2) in which best performances over 10 [...] Read more.
Background: The association between heart rate variability (HRV), training load (TL), and performance is poorly understood. Methods: A middle-aged recreational female runner was monitored during a competitive 20-wk macrocycle divided into first (M1) and second mesocycle (M2) in which best performances over 10 km and 21 km were recorded. Volume (km), session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), TL, and monotony (mean TL/SD TL) were the workload parameters recorded. The root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals (RMSSD), its coefficient of variation (RMSSDcv), and the RMSSD:RR ratio were the HRV parameters monitored. Results: During M2, RMSSD (p = 0.006) and RMSSD:RR (p = 0.002) were significantly increased, while RR was significantly reduced (p = 0.017). Significant correlations were identified between monotony and volume (r = 0.552; p = 0.012), RR (r = 0.447; p = 0.048), and RMSSD:RR (r = −0.458; p = 0.042). A sudden reduction in RMSSD (from 40.31 to 24.34 ms) was observed the day before the first symptoms of an influenza. Conclusions: The current results confirm the practicality of concurrent HRV and sRPE monitoring in recreational runners, with the RMSSD:RR ratio indicative of specific adaptations. Excessive training volume may be associated to both elevated monotony and reduced RMSSD:RR. Identification of mesocycle patterns is recommended for better individualization of the periodization used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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