Special Issue "Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jamie I. Baum
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA
Interests: skeletal muscle; body composition; energy expenditure; muscle protein synthesis; dietary protein; obesity; chronic disease
Dr. Elisabet Børsheim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Interests: skeletal muscle; exercise; obesity; energy metabolism; substrate metabolism; growth and development; metabolic disturbances

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal Nutrients is currently inviting submissions for a Special Issue entitled “Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease”.

There is increasing awareness of the role skeletal muscle plays in influencing health and disease. In this Special Issue of Nutrients, the critical impact of nutrition on various aspects of skeletal muscle metabolism and the consequences for health and prevention of disease are explored.

Based on your expertise in this field, we think you could make an excellent contribution of either evidence-based original research or a review of the scientific literature.

Dr. Jamie I. Baum
Dr. Elisabet Børsheim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Skeletal muscle
  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Health
  • Disease

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Myostatin Inhibition-Induced Increase in Muscle Mass and Strength Was Amplified by Resistance Exercise Training, and Dietary Essential Amino Acids Improved Muscle Quality in Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051508 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
It has been frequently reported that myostatin inhibition increases muscle mass, but decreases muscle quality (i.e., strength/muscle mass). Resistance exercise training (RT) and essential amino acids (EAAs) are potent anabolic stimuli that synergistically increase muscle mass through changes in muscle protein turnover. In [...] Read more.
It has been frequently reported that myostatin inhibition increases muscle mass, but decreases muscle quality (i.e., strength/muscle mass). Resistance exercise training (RT) and essential amino acids (EAAs) are potent anabolic stimuli that synergistically increase muscle mass through changes in muscle protein turnover. In addition, EAAs are known to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. We have investigated if RT amplifies the anabolic potential of myostatin inhibition while EAAs enhance muscle quality through stimulations of mitochondrial biogenesis and/or muscle protein turnover. Mice were assigned into ACV (myostatin inhibitor), ACV+EAA, ACV+RT, ACV+EAA +RT, or control (CON) over 4 weeks. RT, but not EAA, increased muscle mass above ACV. Despite differences in muscle mass gain, myofibrillar protein synthesis was stimulated similarly in all vs. CON, suggesting a role for changes in protein breakdown in muscle mass gains. There were increases in MyoD expression but decreases in Atrogin-1/MAFbx expression in ACV+EAA, ACV+RT, and ACV+EAA+RT vs. CON. EAA increased muscle quality (e.g., grip strength and maximal carrying load) without corresponding changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and neuromuscular junction stability. In conclusion, RT amplifies muscle mass and strength through changes in muscle protein turnover in conjunction with changes in implicated signaling, while EAAs enhance muscle quality through unknown mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association between Protein Intake and Skeletal Muscle Mass among Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: Results from the DOSANCO Health Study: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010187 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Whether the source of dietary protein intake is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass (AMM) and muscle mass (MM) remains unclear. We conducted this cross-sectional study of 277 residents (115 men, 162 women) aged ≥65 years in Japan to examine the association of [...] Read more.
Whether the source of dietary protein intake is related to appendicular skeletal muscle mass (AMM) and muscle mass (MM) remains unclear. We conducted this cross-sectional study of 277 residents (115 men, 162 women) aged ≥65 years in Japan to examine the association of the amount of dietary protein intake with AMM and MM. We measured dietary protein intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. AMM and MM were assessed based on bioelectrical impedance. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to estimate β coefficients that were adjusted for potential confounders. Among Japanese women aged ≥75 years, but not among women aged 65–74 years, dietary animal protein intake was significantly associated with AMM (β (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.25 (0.10, 0.40)) and MM (β (95% CI): 0.40 (0.16, 0.64)). However, dietary vegetable protein intake was not associated with AMM (β (95% CI): −0.17 (−0.74, 0.41)) and MM (β (95% CI): −0.30 (−1.23, 0.63)). Furthermore, in men aged ≥65 years, dietary protein intake was not associated with AMM or MM. In conclusion, dietary animal protein intake, but not vegetable protein intake, were positively associated with AMM and MM among this population of Japanese women aged ≥75 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Essential Amino Acids and Protein Synthesis: Insights into Maximizing the Muscle and Whole-Body Response to Feeding
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3717; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123717 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4131
Abstract
Ingesting protein-containing supplements and foods provides essential amino acids (EAA) necessary to increase muscle and whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS). Large variations exist in the EAA composition of supplements and foods, ranging from free-form amino acids to whole protein foods. We sought to investigate [...] Read more.
Ingesting protein-containing supplements and foods provides essential amino acids (EAA) necessary to increase muscle and whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS). Large variations exist in the EAA composition of supplements and foods, ranging from free-form amino acids to whole protein foods. We sought to investigate how changes in peripheral EAA after ingesting various protein and free amino acid formats altered muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. Data were compiled from four previous studies that used primed, constant infusions of L-(ring-2H5)-phenylalanine and L-(3,3-2H2)-tyrosine to determine fractional synthetic rate of muscle protein (FSR), WBPS, and circulating EAA concentrations. Stepwise regression indicated that max EAA concentration (EAACmax; R2 = 0.524, p < 0.001), EAACmax (R2 = 0.341, p < 0.001), and change in EAA concentration (ΔEAA; R = 0.345, p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors for postprandial FSR, Δ (change from post absorptive to postprandial) FSR, and ΔWBPS, respectively. Within our dataset, the stepwise regression equation indicated that a 100% increase in peripheral EAA concentrations increases FSR by ~34%. Further, we observed significant (p < 0.05) positive (R = 0.420–0.724) correlations between the plasma EAA area under the curve above baseline, EAACmax, ΔEAA, and rate to EAACmax to postprandial FSR, ΔFSR, and ΔWBPS. Taken together our results indicate that across a large variety of EAA/protein-containing formats and food, large increases in peripheral EAA concentrations are required to drive a robust increase in muscle and whole-body protein synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fighting Sarcopenia in Ageing European Adults: The Importance of the Amount and Source of Dietary Proteins
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123601 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
While an adequate protein intake is important for the maintenance of muscle mass during ageing, the amount and source of protein necessary for optimal prevention of sarcopenia remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the amount and [...] Read more.
While an adequate protein intake is important for the maintenance of muscle mass during ageing, the amount and source of protein necessary for optimal prevention of sarcopenia remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the amount and source of dietary proteins on sarcopenia risk in a cohort of 65–79-year-old European adults within the frame of the NU-AGE study. A total of 986 participants were included in the analysis. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and handgrip strength (HG) were employed to create a continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS). Total amount together with animal- and plant-derived sources of proteins were obtained from a 7-day food record. Differences in SRS were analysed across groups of total protein intake (<0.8 g/body weight (BW); 0.8–<1.0 g/BW; 1.0–<1.2 g/BW; and ≥1.2 g/BW). The association between SRS and the different sources of protein was assessed using isocaloric substitution models adjusted by demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A significant linear dose-response relationship was observed, with a lower SRS linked to higher protein intakes. Based on the isocaloric substitution modelling, a reduced SRS was observed when increasing plant protein to the detriment of animal protein, while holding total protein intake constant. Further, this result remained significant after stratifying the analysis by adherence to different levels of protein intake. Our findings suggest that older adults may benefit from increasing protein intakes above current recommendations. Besides total amount, protein source should be considered when promoting health dietary habits in older adults for the prevention of sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Protein Supplementation Enhances the Effects of Intermittent Loading on Skeletal Muscles by Activating the mTORC1 Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model of Disuse Atrophy
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2729; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12092729 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Inactivity leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, whereas intermittent loading (IL) during hind limb unloading (HU) attenuates muscle atrophy. However, the combined effects of IL and protein supplementation on disuse muscle atrophy are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL and a high-protein [...] Read more.
Inactivity leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, whereas intermittent loading (IL) during hind limb unloading (HU) attenuates muscle atrophy. However, the combined effects of IL and protein supplementation on disuse muscle atrophy are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL and a high-protein oral nutritional supplement (HP) during HU on skeletal muscle mass and protein synthesis/breakdown. Male F344 rats were assigned to the control (CON), 14-day HU (HU), IL during HU (HU + IL), and IL during HU followed by HP administration (2.6 g protein/kg/day; HU + IL + HP) groups. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were sampled 30 min after the last IL and HP supplementation. HU decreased relative soleus and gastrocnemius muscle masses. Relative muscle masses and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were higher in the HU + IL group than the HU group and further higher in the HU + IL + HP group than the HU + IL group in gastrocnemius muscle. Therefore, protein administration plus IL effectively prevented skeletal muscle atrophy induced by disuse, potentially via enhanced activation of targets downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Dietary Protein Requirements in Children: Methods for Consideration
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051554 - 05 May 2021
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
The current protein requirement estimates in children were largely determined from studies using the nitrogen balance technique, which has been criticized for potentially underestimating protein needs. Indeed, recent advances in stable isotope techniques suggests protein requirement as much as 60% higher than current [...] Read more.
The current protein requirement estimates in children were largely determined from studies using the nitrogen balance technique, which has been criticized for potentially underestimating protein needs. Indeed, recent advances in stable isotope techniques suggests protein requirement as much as 60% higher than current recommendations. Furthermore, there is not a separate recommendation for children who engage in higher levels of physical activity. The current evidence suggests that physical activity increases protein requirements to support accretion of lean body masses from adaptations to exercise. The indicator amino acid oxidation and the 15N-end product methods represent alternatives to the nitrogen balance technique for estimating protein requirements. Several newer methods, such as the virtual biopsy approach and 2H3-creatine dilution method could also be deployed to inform about pediatric protein requirements, although their validity and reproducibility is still under investigation. Based on the current evidence, the Dietary Reference Intakes for protein indicate that children 4–13 years and 14–18 years require 0.95 and 0.85 g·kg−1·day−1, respectively, based on the classic nitrogen balance technique. There are not enough published data to overturn these estimates; however, this is a much-needed area of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Animal Protein versus Plant Protein in Supporting Lean Mass and Muscle Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 661; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020661 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 123281
Abstract
Although animal protein is usually considered to be a more potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis than plant protein, the effect of protein source on lean mass and muscle strength needs to be systematically reviewed. This study aimed to examine potential differences in [...] Read more.
Although animal protein is usually considered to be a more potent stimulator of muscle protein synthesis than plant protein, the effect of protein source on lean mass and muscle strength needs to be systematically reviewed. This study aimed to examine potential differences in the effect of animal vs. plant protein on lean mass and muscle strength, and the possible influence of resistance exercise training (RET) and age. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and 3081 articles were screened. A total of 18 articles were selected for systematic review, of which, 16 were used for meta-analysis. Total protein intakes were generally above the recommended dietary allowance at the baseline and end of intervention. Results from the meta-analyses demonstrated that protein source did not affect changes in absolute lean mass or muscle strength. However, there was a favoring effect of animal protein on percent lean mass. RET had no influence on the results, while younger adults (<50 years) were found to gain absolute and percent lean mass with animal protein intake (weighted mean difference (WMD), 0.41 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.74; WMD 0.50%; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.01). Collectively, animal protein tends to be more beneficial for lean mass than plant protein, especially in younger adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Nutritional Orthopedics and Space Nutrition as Two Sides of the Same Coin: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020483 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2415
Abstract
Since the Moon landing, nutritional research has been charged with the task of guaranteeing human health in space. In addition, nutrition applied to Orthopedics has developed in recent years, driven by the need to improve the efficiency of the treatment path by enhancing [...] Read more.
Since the Moon landing, nutritional research has been charged with the task of guaranteeing human health in space. In addition, nutrition applied to Orthopedics has developed in recent years, driven by the need to improve the efficiency of the treatment path by enhancing the recovery after surgery. As a result, nutritional sciences have specialized into two distinct fields of research: Nutritional Orthopedics and Space Nutrition. The former primarily deals with the nutritional requirements of old patients in hospitals, whereas the latter focuses on the varied food challenges of space travelers heading to deep space. Although they may seem disconnected, they both investigate similar nutritional issues. This scoping review shows what these two disciplines have in common, highlighting the mutual features between (1) pre-operative vs. pre-launch nutritional programs, (2) hospital-based vs. space station nutritional issues, and (3) post-discharge vs. deep space nutritional resilience. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to collect documents published from 1950 to 2020, from which 44 references were selected on Nutritional Orthopedics and 44 on Space Nutrition. Both the orthopedic patient and the astronaut were found to suffer from food insecurity, malnutrition, musculoskeletal involution, flavor/pleasure issues, fluid shifts, metabolic stresses, and isolation/confinement. Both fields of research aid the planning of demand-driven food systems and advanced nutritional approaches, like tailored diets with nutrients of interest (e.g., vitamin D and calcium). The nutritional features of orthopedic patients on Earth and of astronauts in space are undeniably related. Consequently, it is important to initiate close collaborations between orthopedic nutritionists and space experts, with the musculoskeletal-related dedications playing as common fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Uremic Sarcopenia: Clinical Evidence and Basic Experimental Approach
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12061814 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
Sustained physical activity extends healthy life years while a lower activity due to sarcopenia can reduce them. Sarcopenia is defined as a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength due not only to aging, but also from a variety of debilitating chronic illnesses [...] Read more.
Sustained physical activity extends healthy life years while a lower activity due to sarcopenia can reduce them. Sarcopenia is defined as a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength due not only to aging, but also from a variety of debilitating chronic illnesses such as cancer and heart failure. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who tend to be cachexic and in frail health, may develop uremic sarcopenia or uremic myopathy due to an imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Here, we review clinical evidence indicating reduced physical activity as renal function deteriorates and explore evidence-supported therapeutic options focusing on nutrition and physical training. In addition, although sarcopenia is a clinical concept and difficult to recapitulate in basic research, several in vivo approaches have been attempted, such as rodent subtotal nephrectomy representing both renal dysfunction and muscle weakness. This review highlights molecular mechanisms and promising interventions for uremic sarcopenia that were revealed through basic research. Extensive study is still needed to cast light on the many aspects of locomotive organ impairments in CKD and explore the ways that diet and exercise therapies can improve both outcomes and quality of life at every level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Considerations for Skeletal Muscle in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop