Special Issue "The Impact of Fasting on Human Health: Which Is the Current Evidence?"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mohammad Adawi
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Guest Editor
Padeh and Ziv Medical Centers, Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
Interests: rheumatologic disorders; autoimmune disorders; fasting
Dr. Abdulla Watad
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Guest Editor
Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, University of Tel Aviv, Israel
Interests: autoimmunity; autoimmune diseases; impact of diet and fasting on the immune system and autoimmune diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, the topic of fasting has attracted considerable interest from researchers and scholars. An emerging body of literature is showing the beneficial effects of fasting on human health, both in terms of molecular and cellular mechanisms (using in vitro experimentation and animal models) and clinical outcomes. Different fasting regimens and protocols exist, including a periodic diet, caloric or dietary restriction, dietary manipulation, intermittent/time-restricted circadian fasting, and short-term and prolonged fasting. However, from a methodological standpoint, scientific evidence, and a comparison of the effectiveness of the different fasting regimens, is still missing. Therefore, original investigations and studies on humans, especially randomized clinical trials, are especially welcome in this Special Issue. High-quality reviews, with a focus on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, will be appreciated as well.

Dr. Nicola Bragazzi
Dr. Mohammad Adawi
Dr. Abdulla Watad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fasting regimen and protocol
  • caloric restriction
  • intermittent fasting
  • time-restricted/circadian fasting
  • mathematical models of fasting
  • fasting and its impact on health
  • comparison of different fasting regiments and protocols.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Impact of a Motor Imagery-Based Training Program on Agility, Speed, and Reaction Time in a Sample of Young Tennis Athletes during Ramadan Fasting: Insights and Implications from a Randomized, Controlled Experimental Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113306 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The objective of this study was to explore whether a training program incorporating motor imagery could have an effect on physical performance outcomes in terms of agility, speed, and reaction time in a sample of tennis athletes who fasted during the month of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to explore whether a training program incorporating motor imagery could have an effect on physical performance outcomes in terms of agility, speed, and reaction time in a sample of tennis athletes who fasted during the month of Ramadan. Recruited subjects were 27 young male tennis players, randomly allocated to two groups: the imaging training group (n = 13) and a control group (n = 14). The study was designed as a randomized, controlled experimental study. The control group was engaged in watching videos concerning the history of the Olympic Games, whereas the motor imagery group followed a motor imagery-based training program. Physical performance outcomes were assessed during four sessions (one before Ramadan and three during Ramadan) by means of field tests. Our results revealed a drop in all performance outcomes measured in the middle and at the end of Ramadan for both groups (p < 0.01). The effect of the group × time interaction (p < 0.01) was reported for all physical performance outcomes measured for the two groups. This drop in performance was greater for the control group compared to the motor imagery group in the middle and at the end of Ramadan. This study showed that fasting during Ramadan reduced agility, speed, and reaction time performance for tennis players. A motor imagery-based training program could be an effective approach to reduce the effect of fasting during Ramadan and stabilize physical performance outcomes in terms of agility, speed, and reaction time for male tennis players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Fasting on Human Health: Which Is the Current Evidence?)
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Article
Effects of Motor Mental Imagery Training on Tennis Service Performance during the Ramadan Fasting: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1035; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041035 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of motor mental imagery training on tennis service performance among tennis athletes who fast during Ramadan. Participants were 38 young male tennis players, randomly divided into two groups: Imaging Training (IMG, n [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of motor mental imagery training on tennis service performance among tennis athletes who fast during Ramadan. Participants were 38 young male tennis players, randomly divided into two groups: Imaging Training (IMG, n = 18) and control group (CG, n = 20). The CG has watched videos on the history of the Olympic Games, while IMG has followed a training program in motor imagery. The performance of the tennis service was obtained by the product between accuracy and speed of typing (accuracy × average speed of all shots (km/h)). The effect of group/time interaction (p < 0.01) was identified for all performance indicators (accuracy, running speed and performance (speed × precision)), with improvement only in IMG (p = 0.01). The results showed that motor imagery training could be an effective strategy for mitigating/counteracting the negative effects of Ramadan on the tennis service performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Fasting on Human Health: Which Is the Current Evidence?)
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Review

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Review
Effects of Ramadan Observance on Dietary Intake and Body Composition of Adolescent Athletes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12061574 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
To evaluate the effects of Ramadan observance on dietary intake, body mass and body composition of adolescent athletes (design: systematic review and meta-analysis; data sources: PubMed and Web of Science; eligibility criteria for selecting studies: single-group, pre-post, with or without control-group studies, conducted [...] Read more.
To evaluate the effects of Ramadan observance on dietary intake, body mass and body composition of adolescent athletes (design: systematic review and meta-analysis; data sources: PubMed and Web of Science; eligibility criteria for selecting studies: single-group, pre-post, with or without control-group studies, conducted in athletes aged <19 years, training at least 3 times/week, and published in any language before 12 February 2020). Studies assessing body mass and/or body composition and/or dietary intake were deemed eligible. The methodological quality was assessed using ‘QualSyst’. Of the twelve selected articles evaluating body mass and/or body composition, one was of strong quality and eleven were rated as moderate. Ten articles evaluated dietary intake; four were rated as strong and the remaining moderate in quality. Continuation of training during Ramadan did not change body mass from before to the first week (trivial effect size (ES) = −0.011, p = 0.899) or from before to the fourth week of Ramadan (trivial ES = 0.069, p = 0.277). Additionally, Ramadan observance did not change body fat content from before to the first week (trivial ES = −0.005, p = 0.947) and from before to the fourth week of Ramadan (trivial ES = -0.057, p = 0.947). Lean body mass remained unchanged from before to the fourth week of Ramadan (trivial ES = −0.025, p = 0.876). Dietary data showed the intake of energy (small ES = -0.272, p = 0.182), fat (trivial ES = 0.044, p = 0.842), protein (trivial ES = 0.069, p = 0.720), carbohydrate (trivial ES = 0.075, p = 0.606) and water (trivial ES = −0.115, p = 0.624) remained essentially unchanged during as compared to before Ramadan. Continued training of adolescent athletes at least three times/week during Ramadan observance has no effect on body mass, body composition or dietary intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Fasting on Human Health: Which Is the Current Evidence?)
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