Topic Editors

Imaging Group, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH56NT, UK
Guangdong Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence and Digital Economy (SZ), Shenzhen 518107, China
Dr. Rui Song
Earth Observation Data Group, Atmospheric, Oceanic & Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Techniques and Science Exploitations for Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration

Abstract submission deadline
31 January 2025
Manuscript submission deadline
31 March 2025
Viewed by
38108

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last 50 years, our knowledge of the Earth and planets within our solar system has hugely increased as a direct result of satellite missions sent to space to act as our eyes. Many novel scientific discoveries and engineering breakthroughs benefit from the availability of the vast volume of spaceborne data, but on the other hand, they are hugely underexploited due to the limitation of processing capacity of computing-based data handling and interpretations.

We would like to invite you to submit articles relating to previous and new satellite missions, new science results, and novel methods and/or their applications for Earth observation and planetary exploration. We seek original research covering all aspects of satellite missions, Earth observation, planetary science, planetary remote sensing, geographic information system science, new techniques, and novel applications of satellite data processing techniques.

We look forward to receiving your submissions, which will be vigorously triaged and reviewed within a much shorter turnaround time than most current journals in this field.

Dr. Yu Tao
Dr. Siting Xiong
Dr. Rui Song
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • earth observation
  • satellite remote sensing
  • planetary science
  • planetary remote sensing
  • solar system
  • satellite data processing
  • imaging
  • machine learning and deep learning
  • planetary mapping
  • remote sensing data science

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Aerospace
aerospace
2.6 3.4 2014 22.3 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 5.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 8.3 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 7.3 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Universe
universe
2.9 4.3 2015 20.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Data
data
2.6 4.3 2016 22 Days CHF 1600 Submit

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Published Papers (28 papers)

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30 pages, 6517 KiB  
Article
MeSat Mission: Exploring Martian Environment with THz Radiometer Payload and Optimal Trajectory
by Vahid Rastinasab, Weidong Hu, Mohammadreza Saghamanesh, Kamel Djamel Eddine Kerrouche and Mohammad Kazem Tahmasebi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(11), 1893; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs16111893 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
Space exploration presents vast prospects for scientific, industrial, and economic progress. This paper introduces the MeSat mission as a pioneering approach to Mars exploration. The MeSat aims to deepen our understanding of Martian conditions and resources by employing an optimized Earth-to-Mars trajectory, enabling [...] Read more.
Space exploration presents vast prospects for scientific, industrial, and economic progress. This paper introduces the MeSat mission as a pioneering approach to Mars exploration. The MeSat aims to deepen our understanding of Martian conditions and resources by employing an optimized Earth-to-Mars trajectory, enabling a comprehensive study of the Martian atmosphere and surface. The mission comprises a cargo microsatellite hosting three 6U CubeSats and two 3U CubeSats, deployed into four separate Mars orbits to form a constellation. Each CubeSat carries distinct payloads: a THz radiometer for Martian water vapor atmospheric observation, a high-resolution surface camera, a high-tech spectrometer, and a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for wind speed readings. This paper includes the majority of the key parameters; however, we focus our discussion more on two aspects of this pioneering mission: the first aspect contains the proposal of four distinct payloads for the study of Mars’ atmosphere and the second aspect proposes an optimal mission design algorithm that analyzes a fuel-efficient low-thrust trajectory from Earth to Mars. Regarding the payloads, the THz radiometer requires a specific design; hence, we explain this payload in more depth; the rest of the payloads, we suggest utilizing commercially available elements for the cost-effective manufacture of a whole system. For mission trajectory optimization, the study employs a dual-step hybrid optimization algorithm (PSO-homotopy) to analyze fuel-efficient low-thrust trajectories from Earth to Mars, incorporating the ephemeris dynamics model to account for gravitational perturbations in the entire Solar System. In practical mission design, crucial factors like hyperbolic excess velocity, diverse opportunities for Earth launch and Mars rendezvous, varied propulsion systems, and time of flight (TOF) play vital roles in trajectory optimization. In summary, for the MeSat mission, we propose a comprehensive Mars environmental mission design. We consider all aspects of the mission from trajectory design to engineering detail design, since we would like to inspire future Mars missions with a complete report. Full article
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26 pages, 7612 KiB  
Article
Uttarakhand State Earthquake Early Warning System: A Case Study of the Himalayan Environment
by Pankaj Kumar, Kamal, Mukat Lal Sharma, Ravi Sankar Jakka and Pratibha
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s24113272 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
The increased seismic activity observed in the Himalayas, coupled with the expanding urbanization of the surrounding areas in northern India, poses significant risks to both human lives and property. Developing an earthquake early warning system in the region could help in alleviating these [...] Read more.
The increased seismic activity observed in the Himalayas, coupled with the expanding urbanization of the surrounding areas in northern India, poses significant risks to both human lives and property. Developing an earthquake early warning system in the region could help in alleviating these risks, especially benefiting cities and towns in mountainous and foothill regions close to potential earthquake epicenters. To address this concern, the government and the science and engineering community collaborated to establish the Uttarakhand State Earthquake Early Warning System (UEEWS). The government of Uttarakhand successfully launched this full-fledged operational system to the public on 4 August 2021. The UEEWS includes an array of 170 accelerometers installed in the seismogenic areas of the Uttarakhand. Ground motion data from these sensors are transmitted to the central server through the dedicated private telecommunication network 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This system is designed to issue warnings for moderate to high-magnitude earthquakes via a mobile app freely available for smartphone users and by blowing sirens units installed in the buildings earmarked by the government. The UEEWS has successfully issued alerts for light earthquakes that have occurred in the instrumented region and warnings for moderate earthquakes that have triggered in the vicinity of the instrumented area. This paper provides an overview of the design of the UEEWS, details of instrumentation, adaptation of attributes and their relation to earthquake parameters, operational flow of the system, and information about dissemination of warnings to the public. Full article
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25 pages, 6989 KiB  
Article
Improved A* Algorithm for Path Planning Based on CubeSats In-Orbit Electromagnetic Transfer System
by Duo Xu, Honghao Yue, Yong Zhao, Fei Yang, Jun Wu, Xueting Pan, Tao Tang and Yuhao Zhang
Aerospace 2024, 11(5), 394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aerospace11050394 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
For future large-scale CubeSat applications in orbit, the deployer must accommodate a greater number of CubeSats and facilitate cluster releases. This paper introduces an improved A* algorithm tailored for CubeSat in-orbit transfer path planning. Unlike the traditional A* algorithm, this enhanced version incorporates [...] Read more.
For future large-scale CubeSat applications in orbit, the deployer must accommodate a greater number of CubeSats and facilitate cluster releases. This paper introduces an improved A* algorithm tailored for CubeSat in-orbit transfer path planning. Unlike the traditional A* algorithm, this enhanced version incorporates a path coordination strategy to manage congestion caused by the simultaneous transfer of many CubeSats, ensuring they reach their designated release positions smoothly and thus significantly boosting the efficiency of CubeSat transfers. Additionally, the algorithm develops a cost model for attitude disturbances on the electromagnetic conveying platform and crafts an improved cost function. It strategically balances the reduction in attitude disturbances caused by CubeSat transfers with the efficiency of these transfers. The primary goal is to minimize platform disturbances while optimizing the number of steps CubeSats need to reach their intended positions. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated through detailed case studies, which confirm that during the CubeSat transfer process, the platform’s attitude remains stable, and the transfer efficiency is well-managed, achieving efficient path planning for the in-orbit transfer of numerous CubeSats. Full article
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14 pages, 3468 KiB  
Article
Through-Ice Acoustic Communication for Ocean Worlds Exploration
by Hyeong Jae Lee, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Mircea Badescu, Stewart Sherrit, Benjamin Hockman, Scott Bryant, Samuel M. Howell, Elodie Lesage and Miles Smith
Sensors 2024, 24(9), 2776; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s24092776 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Subsurface exploration of ice-covered planets and moons presents communications challenges because of the need to communicate through kilometers of ice. The objective of this task is to develop the capability to wirelessly communicate through kilometers of ice and thus complement the potentially failure-prone [...] Read more.
Subsurface exploration of ice-covered planets and moons presents communications challenges because of the need to communicate through kilometers of ice. The objective of this task is to develop the capability to wirelessly communicate through kilometers of ice and thus complement the potentially failure-prone tethers deployed behind an ice-penetrating probe on Ocean Worlds. In this paper, the preliminary work on the development of wireless deep-ice communication is presented and discussed. The communication test and acoustic attenuation measurements in ice have been made by embedding acoustic transceivers in glacial ice at the Matanuska Glacier, Anchorage, Alaska. Field test results show that acoustic communication is viable through ice, demonstrating the transmission of data and image files in the 13–18 kHz band over 100 m. The results suggest that communication over many kilometers of ice thickness could be feasible by employing reduced transmitting frequencies around 1 kHz, though future work is needed to better constrain the likely acoustic attenuation properties through a refrozen borehole. Full article
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21 pages, 5872 KiB  
Tutorial
Introduction to Reproducible Geospatial Analysis and Figures in R: A Tutorial Article
by Philippe Maesen and Edouard Salingros
Data 2024, 9(4), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data9040058 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 836
Abstract
The present article is intended to serve an educational purpose for data scientists and students who already have experience with the R language and which to start using it for geospatial analysis and map creation. The basic concepts of raster data, vector data, [...] Read more.
The present article is intended to serve an educational purpose for data scientists and students who already have experience with the R language and which to start using it for geospatial analysis and map creation. The basic concepts of raster data, vector data, CRS and datum are first presented along with a basic workflow to conduct reproducible geospatial research in R. Examples of important types of maps (scatter, bubble, choropleth, hexbin and faceted) created from open-source environmental data are illustrated and their practical implementation in R is discussed. Through these examples, essential manipulations on geospatial vector data are demonstrated (reading, transforming CRS, creating geometries from scratch, buffer zones around existing geometries and intersections between geometries). Full article
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17 pages, 1296 KiB  
Article
The Statistical Analysis of Exoplanet and Host Stars Based on Multi-Satellite Data Observations
by Yanke Tang, Xiaolu Li, Kai Xiao, Ning Gai, Shijie Li, Futong Dong, Yifan Wang and Yang Gao
Universe 2024, 10(4), 182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe10040182 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 738
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid development of exoplanet research has provided us with an opportunity to better understand planetary systems in the universe and to search for signs of life. In order to further investigate the prevalence of habitable exoplanets and to validate [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid development of exoplanet research has provided us with an opportunity to better understand planetary systems in the universe and to search for signs of life. In order to further investigate the prevalence of habitable exoplanets and to validate planetary formation theories, as well as to comprehend planetary evolution, we have utilized confirmed exoplanet data obtained from the NASA Exoplanet Archive database, including data released by telescopes such as Kepler and TESS. By analyzing these data, we have selected a sample of planets around F, G, K, and M-type stars within a radius range of 1 to 20 R and with orbital periods ranging from 0.4 days to 400 days. Using the IDEM method based on these data, we calculated the overall formation rate, which is estimated to be 2.02%. Then, we use these data to analyze the relationship among planet formation rates, stellar metallicity, and stellar gravitational acceleration (logg). We firstly find that the formation rate of giant planets is higher around metal-rich stellars, but it inhibits the formation of gas giants when logg > 4.5, yet the stellar metallicity seems to have no effect on the formation rate of smaller planets. Secondly, the host stellar gravitational acceleration affects the relationship between planet formation rate and orbital period. Thirdly, there is a robust power-law relationship between the orbital period of smaller planets and their formation rate. Finally, we find that, for a given orbital period, there is a positive correlation between the planet formation rate and the logg. Full article
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31 pages, 8707 KiB  
Article
Multiple SSO Space Debris Flyby Trajectory Design Based on Cislunar Orbit
by Siyang Zhang and Shuquan Wang
Universe 2024, 10(3), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe10030145 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
This paper investigates the trajectory design problem in the scenario of a multiple Sun-synchronous Orbit (SSO) space debris flyby mission from a DRO space station. At first, the characteristics of non-planar transfer from DRO to SSO in the Earth–Moon system are analyzed. The [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the trajectory design problem in the scenario of a multiple Sun-synchronous Orbit (SSO) space debris flyby mission from a DRO space station. At first, the characteristics of non-planar transfer from DRO to SSO in the Earth–Moon system are analyzed. The methods of large-scale ergodicity and pruning are utilized to investigate single-impulse and two-impulse DRO–Earth transfers. Using a powered lunar flyby, the two-impulse DRO–Earth transfer is able to fly by SSO debris while satisfying the requirements of the mission. After the local optimization, the optimal result of two-impulse DRO–Earth transfer and flyby is obtained. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is used to design the Pareto-optimal trajectories of multiple flybys. The semi-analytical optimization method is developed to provide the estimations of the transfer parameters in order to reduce the computations caused by the evolutionary algorithm. Simulations show that transferring from the 3:2 resonant DRO to a near-coplanar flyby of a SSO target debris using a powered lunar gravity assist needs a 0.47 km/s velocity increment. The mission’s total velocity increment is 1.39 km/s, and the total transfer time is 2.23 years. Full article
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11 pages, 5279 KiB  
Communication
Granite Extraction Based on the SDGSAT-1 Satellite Thermal Infrared Spectrometer Imagery
by Boqi Yuan, Qinjun Wang, Jingyi Yang, Wentao Xu and Chaokang He
Sensors 2024, 24(6), 1750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s24061750 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Earth observation by remote sensing plays a crucial role in granite extraction, and many current studies use thermal infrared data from sensors such as ASTER. The challenge lies in the low spatial resolution of these satellites, hindering precise rock type identification. A breakthrough [...] Read more.
Earth observation by remote sensing plays a crucial role in granite extraction, and many current studies use thermal infrared data from sensors such as ASTER. The challenge lies in the low spatial resolution of these satellites, hindering precise rock type identification. A breakthrough emerges with the Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (TIS) on the Sustainable Development Science Satellite 1 (SDGSAT-1) launched by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With an exceptional 30 m spatial resolution, SDGSAT-1 TIS opens avenues for accurate granite extraction using remote sensing. This study, exemplified in Xinjiang’s Karamay region, introduces the BR-ISauvola method, leveraging SDGSAT-1 TIS data. The approach combines band ratio with adaptive k-value selection using local grayscale statistical features for Sauvola thresholding. Focused on large-scale granite extraction, results show F1 scores above 70% for Otsu, Sauvola, and BR-ISauvola. Notably, BR-ISauvola achieves the highest accuracy at 82.11%, surpassing Otsu and Sauvola by 9.62% and 0.34%, respectively. This underscores the potential of SDGSAT-1 TIS data as a valuable resource for granite extraction. The proposed method efficiently utilizes spectral information, presenting a novel approach for rapid granite extraction using remote sensing TIS imagery, even in scenarios with low spectral resolution and a single data source. Full article
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12 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Mercury’s Bow Shock and Magnetopause Variations According to MESSENGER Data
by Dmitry Nevsky, Alexander Lavrukhin and Igor Alexeev
Universe 2024, 10(1), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe10010040 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft magnetometer that describes the magnetopause and the bow shock crossing points of the Mercury’s magnetosphere, we have calculated the parameters of the paraboloids of revolution approximating the obtained points. For each spacecraft orbit, the subsolar magnetopause and [...] Read more.
Using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft magnetometer that describes the magnetopause and the bow shock crossing points of the Mercury’s magnetosphere, we have calculated the parameters of the paraboloids of revolution approximating the obtained points. For each spacecraft orbit, the subsolar magnetopause and bow shock standoff distances were obtained, based on the paraboloid parameters for each crossing point. The dependences of the magnetopause and bow shock subsolar standoff distances on the Mercury’s position relative to the Sun have been obtained. These profiles agree with decreases of the solar wind plasma dynamic pressure and the interplanetary magnetic field strength with heliocentric distance. The variations of the interplanetary and magnetosheath magnetic field were investigated. The average subsolar magnetosheath thickness and the value of the magnetic field jump at the bow shock during the transition from the upstream interplanetary magnetic field region to the magnetosheath were obtained. Full article
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16 pages, 4311 KiB  
Article
Modeling Development of a Diamagnetically Stabilized Magnetically Levitated Gravimeter
by Kazi Rifat Bin Rafiq, Abigail Joseph, Naiya Yokochi, Peter James, Annette von Jouanne and Alex Yokochi
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s24020350 - 6 Jan 2024
Viewed by 813
Abstract
The aim of this work is to create a new type of gravimeter that can function effectively in the challenging conditions of space, specifically on the surfaces of planets and moons. The proposed device, called a diamagnetically stabilized magnetically levitated gravimeter (DSMLG), uses [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to create a new type of gravimeter that can function effectively in the challenging conditions of space, specifically on the surfaces of planets and moons. The proposed device, called a diamagnetically stabilized magnetically levitated gravimeter (DSMLG), uses magnetic forces to balance a test mass against the force of gravity, allowing for accurate measurements. A diamagnetically stabilized levitation structure comprises a floating magnet, diamagnetic material, and a lifting magnet. The floating magnet levitates between two diamagnetic plates without the need for external energy input due to the interaction between the magnetic forces of the floating magnet and the stabilizing force of the diamagnetic material. This structure allows for stable levitation of the floating magnet without requiring additional energy. The goal is to design a gravimeter that is lightweight, requires minimal power, can withstand extreme temperatures and shocks, and has a low data rate. The authors envision this gravimeter being used on various robotic spacecraft, such as landers and rovers, to study the interiors of rocky and icy celestial bodies. This paper reports on the results of a finite element model analysis of the DSMLG and the strength of the resulting diamagnetic spring. The findings contribute to the understanding of the levitation characteristics of diamagnetically stabilized structures and provide valuable insights for their practical applications, including in the development of the proposed DSMLG. Full article
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20 pages, 43110 KiB  
Article
Feature Scalar Field Grid-Guided Optical-Flow Image Matching for Multi-View Images of Asteroid
by Sheng Zhang, Yong Xue, Yubing Tang, Ruishuan Zhu, Xingxing Jiang, Chong Niu and Wenping Yin
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5786; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15245786 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Images captured by deep space probes exhibit large-scale variations, irregular overlap, and remarkable differences in field of view. These issues present considerable challenges for the registration of multi-view asteroid sensor images. To obtain accurate, dense, and reliable matching results of homonymous points in [...] Read more.
Images captured by deep space probes exhibit large-scale variations, irregular overlap, and remarkable differences in field of view. These issues present considerable challenges for the registration of multi-view asteroid sensor images. To obtain accurate, dense, and reliable matching results of homonymous points in asteroid images, this paper proposes a new scale-invariant feature matching and displacement scalar field-guided optical-flow-tracking method. The method initially uses scale-invariant feature matching to obtain the geometric correspondence between two images. Subsequently, scalar fields of coordinate differences in the x and y directions are constructed based on this correspondence. Next, interim images are generated using the scalar field grid. Finally, optical-flow tracking is performed based on these interim images. Additionally, to ensure the reliability of the matching results, this paper introduces three methods for eliminating mismatched points: bidirectional optical-flow tracking, vector field consensus, and epipolar geometry constraints. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a 98% matching correctness rate and a root mean square error of 0.25 pixels. By combining the advantages of feature matching and optical-flow field methods, this approach achieves image homonymous point matching results with precision and density. The matching method exhibits robustness and strong applicability for asteroid images with cross-scale, large displacement, and large rotation angles. Full article
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29 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Multi-Satellite Observation-Relay Transmission-Downloading Coupling Scheduling Method
by Changyuan He and Yunfeng Dong
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(24), 5639; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15245639 - 6 Dec 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
With the development of satellite cluster technology, the earth observation capability of satellite clusters has been greatly enhanced, along with the improvement of satellite earth observation and inter-satellite data transmission ability. Nevertheless, it is difficult to coordinate satellite observation, inter-satellite data transmission, and [...] Read more.
With the development of satellite cluster technology, the earth observation capability of satellite clusters has been greatly enhanced, along with the improvement of satellite earth observation and inter-satellite data transmission ability. Nevertheless, it is difficult to coordinate satellite observation, inter-satellite data transmission, and satellite–ground data download to satisfy the constraints of satellite multi-subsystems. In this article, the multi-satellite observation-relay transmission-downloading coupling scheduling problem is described. Based on the conventional tabu search algorithm for multi-satellite earth observation, the data transmission path planning algorithm is integrated to carry out the entire coupling process of multi-satellite observation, inter-satellite data transmission, and satellite–ground data downloading. Referring to the idea of the artificial potential field method, the satellite cluster profit-state evaluation function is introduced to enhance the local search process within the tabu search framework. Moreover, in the data transmission planning algorithm, the rule-based Dijkstra data transmission path planning method is proposed based on two data transmission path planning strategies and the satellite cluster state-strategy selection rules. The simulation results show that the proposed method can realize the entire process of scheduling satellite cluster observation, relay transmission, and downloading and enhance the ability of the satellite cluster to obtain observation data. The improved Dijkstra method enhances the adaptability of the data transmission path planning method to the multi-subsystem coupled problem, and the improved local search in the tabu search method elevates the searching capability of the algorithm. Full article
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17 pages, 9317 KiB  
Article
Design of In-Orbit Sample Container Transfer Mechanism for Chang’E-5 Lunar Sample Return Mission
by Weijun Wang, Yuxin Cui, Chenkun Qi, Yanyan Cao, Yuhua Zhang, Chongfeng Zhang and Shigang Wang
Aerospace 2023, 10(12), 992; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aerospace10120992 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
In this paper, a pawl composite linkage transfer mechanism is designed for the automatic in-orbit sample transfer mission of Chang’E-5 lunar sample return mission, which can realize the sample container in-orbit transfer under various critical constraints such as lightweight, miniaturization, and narrow working [...] Read more.
In this paper, a pawl composite linkage transfer mechanism is designed for the automatic in-orbit sample transfer mission of Chang’E-5 lunar sample return mission, which can realize the sample container in-orbit transfer under various critical constraints such as lightweight, miniaturization, and narrow working space. Resistance during the whole process as well as the sensitive factors that affect the resistance during the sample container transfer process are investigated and designed. The sample container transfer process has been verified by the test system on the ground, indicating that the design can satisfy the requirements of the sample transfer mission. The developed transfer mechanism completed the Chang’E-5 sample return mission successfully with good consistency between space and ground, verifying the correctness and effectiveness of the design. Full article
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27 pages, 29790 KiB  
Review
Yutu-2 Radar Observations at the Chang’E-4 Landing Site: The Shallow Geological Structure and Its Dielectric Properties
by Zhonghan Lei and Chunyu Ding
Universe 2023, 9(11), 461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/universe9110461 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
China has successfully carried out five lunar exploration missions since 2007. These missions indicate that China has successfully implemented a three-step lunar exploration program of “orbiting, landing, and returning”. Among them, the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by the Yutu-2 rover in the [...] Read more.
China has successfully carried out five lunar exploration missions since 2007. These missions indicate that China has successfully implemented a three-step lunar exploration program of “orbiting, landing, and returning”. Among them, the Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by the Yutu-2 rover in the Chang’E-4 (CE-4) mission is the only one still operating on the far side of the Moon. Up to now, the Yutu-2 radar has measured a large amount of scientific data, and its observations are of great significance to human cognition of the geological evolution of the lunar surface and the exploration of possible lunar in situ resources. This paper reviews the scientific results obtained by previous researchers based on the radar exploration data of Yutu-2, focusing mainly on three aspects, e.g., the geological structure of the shallow surface at the CE-4 landing site, the dielectric properties of the shallow subsurface materials and the special geological features. Finally, the prospects of Yutu-2 radar research priorities and future exploration, and the application trend of Moon-based ground-penetrating radar are given. Full article
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16 pages, 8854 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Suppression Design of Stray Light Pollution in a Spectral Imager Loaded on a Polar-Orbiting Satellite
by Shuaishuai Chen and Xinhua Niu
Sensors 2023, 23(17), 7625; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s23177625 - 2 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
As the non-imaging light of optical instruments, stray light has an important impact on normal imaging and data quantification applications. The FY-3D Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) operates in a sun-synchronous orbit, with a scanning field of view of 110° and a surface [...] Read more.
As the non-imaging light of optical instruments, stray light has an important impact on normal imaging and data quantification applications. The FY-3D Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) operates in a sun-synchronous orbit, with a scanning field of view of 110° and a surface imaging width of more than 2300 km, which can complete two coverage observations of global targets per day with high detection efficiency. According to the characteristics of the operating orbit and large-angle scanning imaging of MERSI, a stray light radiation model of the polar-orbiting spectrometer is constructed, and the design requirements of stray light suppression are proposed. Using the point source transmittance (PST) as the merit function of the stray light analysis method, the instrument was simulated with all stray light suppression optical paths, and the effectiveness of stray light elimination measures was verified using the stray light test. In this paper, the full-link method of “orbital stray light radiation model-system, internal and external simulation design-system analysis and actual test comparison verification” is proposed, and there is a maximum decrease in the system’s PST by about 10 times after applying the stray light suppression’s optimization design, which can provide a general method for stray light suppression designs for polar-orbit spectral imagers. Full article
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17 pages, 2414 KiB  
Article
KARI and NASA JSC Collaborative Endeavors for Joint Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter Flight Dynamics Operations: Architecture, Challenges, Successes, and Lessons Learned
by Young-Joo Song, Jonghee Bae, SeungBum Hong, Jun Bang, Kara M. Pohlkamp and Shane Fuller
Aerospace 2023, 10(8), 664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aerospace10080664 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
This paper outlines the collaborative efforts between the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Flight Dynamics (FD) operation of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO). From the outset of the [...] Read more.
This paper outlines the collaborative efforts between the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Flight Dynamics (FD) operation of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO). From the outset of the KPLO program, the joint KARI KPLO FD team and NASA JSC Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) have devoted significant time and effort towards ensuring the mission’s success. This paper begins by introducing the aims and scope of the collaborative work, followed by a detailed description of the efforts made between the KPLO FD team and JSC FOD. This includes the top-level concept, interface architecture, test results, established operation procedures/timeline, and the summary of the joint rehearsal conducted. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges and lessons learned from this journey, particularly from the practical FD operational perspectives. Thanks to the joint team’s collaborative efforts, KPLO has successfully entered lunar orbit and is performing its mission exceptionally well. The joint experience has fostered mutual trust between KARI and NASA JSC, serving as a foundation for further cooperation and collaboration. The efforts and outcomes described in this work will provide valuable insights to experts worldwide who are willing to foster similar international collaborations in the future. Full article
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17 pages, 9257 KiB  
Article
Large Area High-Resolution 3D Mapping of the Von Kármán Crater: Landing Site for the Chang’E-4 Lander and Yutu-2 Rover
by Yu Tao, Jan-Peter Muller, Susan J. Conway, Siting Xiong, Sebastian H. G. Walter and Bin Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(10), 2643; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15102643 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
We demonstrate the creation of a large area of high-resolution (260 × 209 km2 at 1 m/pixel) DTM mosaic from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images over the Chang’E-4 landing site at Von Kármán crater using an [...] Read more.
We demonstrate the creation of a large area of high-resolution (260 × 209 km2 at 1 m/pixel) DTM mosaic from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images over the Chang’E-4 landing site at Von Kármán crater using an in-house deep learning-based 3D modelling system developed at University College London, called MADNet, trained with lunar orthorectified images and digital terrain models (DTMs). The resultant 1 m DTM mosaic is co-aligned with the Chang’E-2 (CE-2) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)—SELenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) blended DTM product (SLDEM), providing high spatial and vertical congruence. In this paper, technical details are briefly discussed, along with visual and quantitative assessments of the resultant DTM mosaic product. The LROC NAC MADNet DTM mosaic was compared with three independent DTM datasets, and the mean differences and standard deviations are as follows: PDS photogrammetric DTM at 5 m grid-spacing had a mean difference of −0.019 ± 1.09 m, CE-2 DTM at 20 m had a mean difference of −0.048 ± 1.791 m, and SLDEM at 69 m had a mean difference of 0.577 ± 94.940 m. The resultant LROC NAC MADNet DTM mosaic, alongside a blended LROC NAC and CE-2 MADNet DTM mosaic and a separate LROC NAC, orthorectified image mosaic, are made publicly available via the ESA planetary science archive’s guest storage facility. Full article
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25 pages, 12346 KiB  
Data Descriptor
A Set of Geophysical Fields for Modeling of the Lithosphere Structure and Dynamics in the Russian Arctic Zone
by Anatoly Soloviev, Alexey Petrunin, Sofia Gvozdik and Roman Sidorov
Data 2023, 8(5), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data8050091 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
This paper presents a set of various geological and geophysical data for the Arctic zone, including some detailed models for the eastern part of the Russian Arctic zone. This hard-to-access territory has a complex geological structure, which is poorly studied by direct geophysical [...] Read more.
This paper presents a set of various geological and geophysical data for the Arctic zone, including some detailed models for the eastern part of the Russian Arctic zone. This hard-to-access territory has a complex geological structure, which is poorly studied by direct geophysical methods. Therefore, these data can be used in an integrative analysis for different purposes. These are the gravity field, heat flow, and various seismic tomography models. The gravity field data include several reductions calculated during our preceding studies, which are more appropriate for the study of the Earth’s interiors than the initial free air anomalies. Specifically, these are the Bouguer, isostatic, and decompensative gravity anomalies. A surface heat flow map included in the dataset is based on a joint inversion of multiple geophysical data constrained by the observations from the International Heat Flow Commission catalog. Available seismic tomography models were analyzed to select the best one for further investigation. We provide the models for the sedimentary cover and the Moho depth, which are significantly improved compared to the existing ones. The database provides a basis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the region. Full article
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15 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
Stray Light Analysis and Suppression of the Visible to Terahertz Integrated Cloud Detection Optical System
by Haiwei Jiang and Xinhua Niu
Sensors 2023, 23(8), 4115; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s23084115 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The wide-spectrum integrated imaging method can simultaneously obtain the spectral information of different spectral bands of the same target, which is conducive to the realization of the high-precision detection of target characteristics, and can simultaneously obtain more comprehensive elements such as the structure, [...] Read more.
The wide-spectrum integrated imaging method can simultaneously obtain the spectral information of different spectral bands of the same target, which is conducive to the realization of the high-precision detection of target characteristics, and can simultaneously obtain more comprehensive elements such as the structure, shape, and microphysical parameters of the cloud. However, for stray light, the same surface has different characteristics at different wavelengths, and a wider spectral band means more complex and diverse sources of stray light, which renders the analysis and suppression of stray light more difficult. In this work, according to the characteristics of the visible-to-terahertz integrated optical system design scheme, the influence of material surface treatment on stray light was studied; the stray light analysis and optimization of the whole link of light transmission were carried out. For the sources of stray light in different channels, targeted suppression measures such as front baffle, field stop, special structure baffle, and reflective inner baffle were adopted. The simulation results indicate that when the off-axis field of view was greater than 10°. The point source transmittance (PST) of the terahertz channel is on the order of 10−4, the visible and infrared channels are less than 10−5, and the final terahertz PST was on the order of 10−8, while visible and infrared channels were lower than 10−11. Here, we present a method for stray light suppression based on conventional surface treatments for broadband imaging systems. Full article
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30 pages, 13121 KiB  
Article
High-Temperature Oxidation of Magnesium- and Iron-Rich Olivine under a CO2 Atmosphere: Implications for Venus
by Shan-Shan Zhong, Yu-Yan Sara Zhao, Honglei Lin, Rui Chang, Chao Qi, Junhu Wang, Bing Mo, Yuanyun Wen, Wen Yu, Di-Sheng Zhou, Xiao-Wen Yu, Xiongyao Li and Jianzhong Liu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(8), 1959; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15081959 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Understanding crust–atmosphere interactions on Venus is fundamentally important to interpretations of Venus’ surface spectroscopic data. Olivine, in basaltic crust, is oxidized under a heated CO2 atmosphere. However, the oxidation rates, product assemblages and spectral characteristics of olivine samples with different Fa# values [...] Read more.
Understanding crust–atmosphere interactions on Venus is fundamentally important to interpretations of Venus’ surface spectroscopic data. Olivine, in basaltic crust, is oxidized under a heated CO2 atmosphere. However, the oxidation rates, product assemblages and spectral characteristics of olivine samples with different Fa# values remain largely unclear. Herein, we investigated the oxidation of olivine with different Fa# values (Fa09, Fa29 and Fa71) under CO2 atmosphere at 470 °C and 900 °C and characterized the oxidation products (both microscopically and macroscopically), conversion rates and VNIR spectra. The results showed that the oxidation of olivine produced magnesioferrite, magnetite, laihunite, hematite and maghemite at 470 °C and hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite and amorphous SiO2 at 900 °C. Both high temperature and high Fa# values accelerated the oxidation rates. The production of oxide coatings on olivine grains (74 μm in size) was estimated to be completed within tens to hundreds of years at 470 °C in natural settings, with even shorter periods under higher temperatures. Thus, CO2 oxidation would quickly eliminate olivine spectral characteristics, and spectral parameters at 850 and 1020 nm, as well as other relevant spectral windows (considering shifts induced by the elevated temperature), could be used to trace olivine oxidation processes. This work presented a case study connecting microscopic features to spectral characteristics for Venus’ surface–atmosphere interactions. Further studies considering more realistic Venus’ surface–atmosphere conditions will be essential to better interpret the measured spectroscopic data and determine the origins of the high emissivity detected on elevated terrain on Venus. Full article
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18 pages, 3725 KiB  
Article
A Scheduling Method of Using Multiple SAR Satellites to Observe a Large Area
by Qicun Zheng, Haixia Yue, Dacheng Liu and Xiaoxue Jia
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 3353; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s23063353 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
This paper presents a scheduling problem of using multiple synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites to observe a large irregular area (SMA). SMA is usually considered as a kind of nonlinear combinatorial optimized problem and its solution space strongly coupled with geometry grows exponentially [...] Read more.
This paper presents a scheduling problem of using multiple synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites to observe a large irregular area (SMA). SMA is usually considered as a kind of nonlinear combinatorial optimized problem and its solution space strongly coupled with geometry grows exponentially with the increasing magnitude of SMA. It is assumed that each solution of SMA yields a profit associated with the acquired portion of the target area, and the objective of this paper is to find the optimal solution yielding the maximal profit. The SMA is solved by means of a new method composed of three successive phases, namely, grid space construction, candidate strip generation and strip selection. First, the grid space construction is proposed to discretize the irregular area into a set of points in a specific plane rectangular coordinate system and calculate the total profit of a solution of SMA. Then, the candidate strip generation is designed to produce numerous candidate strips based on the grid space of the first phase. At last, in the strip selection, the optimal schedule for all the SAR satellites is developed based on the result of the candidate strip generation. In addition, this paper proposes a normalized grid space construction algorithm, a candidate strip generation algorithm and a tabu search algorithm with variable neighborhoods for the three successive phases, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in this paper, we perform simulation experiments on several scenarios and compare our method with the other seven methods. Compared to the best of the other seven methods, our proposed method can improve profit by 6.38% using the same resources. Full article
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14 pages, 8743 KiB  
Article
Instance and Data Generation for the Offline Nanosatellite Task Scheduling Problem
by Cezar Antônio Rigo, Edemar Morsch Filho, Laio Oriel Seman, Luís Loures and Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt
Data 2023, 8(3), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/data8030062 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
This paper discusses several cases of the Offline Nanosatellite Task Scheduling (ONTS) optimization problem, which seeks to schedule the start and finish timings of payloads on a nanosatellite. Modeled after the FloripaSat-I mission, a nanosatellite, the examples were built expressly to test the [...] Read more.
This paper discusses several cases of the Offline Nanosatellite Task Scheduling (ONTS) optimization problem, which seeks to schedule the start and finish timings of payloads on a nanosatellite. Modeled after the FloripaSat-I mission, a nanosatellite, the examples were built expressly to test the performance of various solutions to the ONTS problem. Realistic input data for power harvesting calculations were used to generate the instances, and an instance creation procedure was employed to increase the instances’ difficulty. The instances are made accessible to the public to facilitate a fair comparison of various solutions and to aid in establishing a baseline for the ONTS problem. Additionally, the study discusses the various orbit types and their effects on energy harvesting and mission performance. Full article
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28 pages, 6202 KiB  
Article
Reasoning-Based Scheduling Method for Agile Earth Observation Satellite with Multi-Subsystem Coupling
by Changyuan He, Yunfeng Dong, Hongjue Li and Yingjia Liew
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(6), 1577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15061577 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
With the rapid development of agile Earth observation satellites (AEOSs), these satellites are able to conduct more high-quality observation missions. Nevertheless, while completing these missions takes up more data transmission and electrical energy resources, it also increases the coupling within each satellite subsystem. [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of agile Earth observation satellites (AEOSs), these satellites are able to conduct more high-quality observation missions. Nevertheless, while completing these missions takes up more data transmission and electrical energy resources, it also increases the coupling within each satellite subsystem. To address this problem, we propose a reasoning-based scheduling method for an AEOS under multiple subsystem constraints. First, we defined the AEOS mission scheduling model with multi-subsystem constraints. Second, we put forward a state variable prediction method that reflects the different coupling states of a satellite after analyzing the coupling relationships between various subsystems and identifying the primary limiting coupling states for each subsystem. Third, we established the reasoning rules corresponding to the planning strategies of different coupling states of the satellite by adding two planning strategies based on the planning strategies of existing planning methods. By comparing the proposed method to three heuristic scheduling methods and a meta-heuristic scheduling method, the results show that our method has better performance in terms of scheduling results and efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 17740 KiB  
Technical Note
Multiscale Analysis of Reflected Radiation on Lunar Surface Region Based on MRRT Model
by Yunfei Liu, Qiang Guo and Guifu Wang
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(4), 1158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15041158 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
The moon has stable luminosity. Radiometric calibration on the lunar region is a good step in the right direction with the expansion of instrument observation capabilities. The uneven composition and terrain types of the lunar surface make it possible for inaccuracies in albedo [...] Read more.
The moon has stable luminosity. Radiometric calibration on the lunar region is a good step in the right direction with the expansion of instrument observation capabilities. The uneven composition and terrain types of the lunar surface make it possible for inaccuracies in albedo calculation from coarse-scale data if the within-pixel topology is overlooked. The expression between the region’s bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) and the actual microtopography reflectance was established by the multiple reflections of radiation between terrains (MRRT) model. This research studied the radiation properties on the lunar surface region at various spatial resolutions (scales) based on the MRRT model. To determine the ideal scale of microtopography to be built, the scale-effect evaluation factor of albedo is established, and the scale-effect function is fitted. Experiments demonstrate that a microtopography with a spatial resolution of 60 m to 120 m, with 80 m being the most suitable scale, can be constructed for an area having (6000 × 6000) m2. This research adds to the MRRT model’s applicability analysis in multiscale DEM modeling, helps choose and build a radiation calibration field on the lunar surface, and lays the groundwork for employing the area of the lunar surface for radiation calibration. Full article
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16 pages, 15821 KiB  
Article
A Mantle Plume Beneath South China Revealed by Electrical Conductivity Obtained from Three-Dimensional Inversion of Geomagnetic Data
by Shiwen Li, Yunhe Liu and Jianping Li
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/s23031249 - 21 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1786
Abstract
A three-dimensional electrical conductivity model of the mantle beneath South China is presented using the geomagnetic depth sounding method in this paper. The data misfit term in the inversion function is measured by the L1-norm to suppress the instability caused by large noises [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional electrical conductivity model of the mantle beneath South China is presented using the geomagnetic depth sounding method in this paper. The data misfit term in the inversion function is measured by the L1-norm to suppress the instability caused by large noises contained in the observed data. To properly correct the ocean effect in responses at coastal observatories, a high-resolution (1° × 1°) heterogeneous and fixed shell is included in inversion. The most striking feature of the obtained model is a continuous high-conductivity anomaly that is centered on ~(112° E, 27° N) in the mantle. The average conductivity of the anomaly appears to be two to four times higher than that of the global average models at the most sensitive depths (410–900 km) of geomagnetic depth sounding. Further analysis combining laboratory-measured conductivity models with the observed conductivity model shows that the anomaly implies excess temperature in the mantle. This suggests the existence of a mantle plume, corresponding to the Hainan plume, that originates in the lower mantle, passes through the mantle transition zone, and enters the upper mantle. Our electrical conductivity model provides convincing evidence for the mantle plume beneath South China. Full article
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18 pages, 1614 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Task Planning Method for Multi-Satellite System Based on a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
by Jun Long, Shimin Wu, Xiaodong Han, Yunbo Wang and Limin Liu
Aerospace 2023, 10(1), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/aerospace10010070 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
The increasing number of satellites for specific space tasks makes it difficult for traditional satellite task planning that relies on ground station planning and on-board execution to fully exploit the overall effectiveness of satellites. Meanwhile, the complex and changeable environment in space also [...] Read more.
The increasing number of satellites for specific space tasks makes it difficult for traditional satellite task planning that relies on ground station planning and on-board execution to fully exploit the overall effectiveness of satellites. Meanwhile, the complex and changeable environment in space also poses challenges to the management of multi-satellite systems (MSS). To address the above issues, this paper formulates a mixed integer optimization problem to solve the autonomous task planning for MSS. First, we constructed a multi-agent-based on-board autonomous management and multi-satellite collaboration architecture. Based on this architecture, we propose a hybrid genetic algorithm with simulated annealing (H-GASA) to solve the multi-satellite cooperative autonomous task planning (MSCATP). With the H-GASA, a heuristic task scheduling scheme was developed to deal with possible task conflicts in MSCATP. Finally, a simulation scenario was established to validate our proposed H-GASA, which exhibits a superior performance in terms of computational power and success rate compared to existing algorithms. Full article
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23 pages, 15728 KiB  
Article
Geostationary Full-Spectrum Wide-Swath High-Fidelity Imaging Spectrometer: Optical Design and Prototype Development
by Jiacheng Zhu, Zhicheng Zhao, Quan Liu, Xinhua Chen, Huan Li, Shaofan Tang and Weimin Shen
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(2), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs15020396 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
The optical system of an imaging spectrometer working on a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) covering a full optical spectrum of 0.3–12.5 μm is analyzed and designed. It enables a ground coverage of 400 × 400 km by internal scanning and achieves a high [...] Read more.
The optical system of an imaging spectrometer working on a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) covering a full optical spectrum of 0.3–12.5 μm is analyzed and designed. It enables a ground coverage of 400 × 400 km by internal scanning and achieves a high spatial resolution of 25 m. The full spectrum is divided into five sub-bands, and each band adopts four spectrometers to splice in the field of view to achieve the ultra-long slit required by the wide swath. The total length of the slit is up to 241.3 mm. This paper focuses on compact spectrometers with long slits that can meet the splicing requirements and points out that low spectral distortions, low stray light, high signal-to-noise ratio, and uniform spectral response are necessary for high-fidelity performance. The Offner and Wynne–Offner high-fidelity spectrometers based on convex blazed gratings are designed, and prototypes of each band are developed as well. The properties of long slits and convex blazed gratings are presented. The maximum length of a single slit is 61.44 mm. The groove density of gratings for five bands ranges from 8.8 lp/mm to 312.1 lp/mm, and the peak efficiency is up to 86.4%. The alignment and test of the spectrometers are introduced. Results show that the developed spectrometers have high fidelity and fulfill all requirements. Full article
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16 pages, 8478 KiB  
Article
Cold and Wet Mantle Transition Zone Beneath the Mediterranean Sea Revealed by the Electrical Image
by Shiwen Li and Yunhe Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app13020689 - 4 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
A three-dimensional electrical conductivity model of the mantle beneath North Africa and Southern Europe is obtained by geomagnetic depth sounding. C-responses are estimated from geomagnetic data observed at observatories in and around the region and converted to the electrical structure of the mantle [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional electrical conductivity model of the mantle beneath North Africa and Southern Europe is obtained by geomagnetic depth sounding. C-responses are estimated from geomagnetic data observed at observatories in and around the region and converted to the electrical structure of the mantle transition zone. The limited-memory quasi-Newton method is chosen to minimize the nonlinear objective function of inversion, while the forward modeling relies on a staggered-grid finite difference method in the spherical coordinate system. The data misfit term of the inversion function is measured using the L1-norm in order to suppress the response instability caused by the significant noise contained in the observed data. In order to adequately correct the ocean effect in observatories near the coast, a fixed shell comprised of ocean and land is incorporated in inversion. A banded zone with reduced conductivity is present in the three-dimensional model, primarily seen in the lower mantle transition zone and lower mantle beneath the Mediterranean Sea. Combining laboratory-measured conductivity models, we propose that subducted slabs causing reduced temperature and a water reservoir in the mantle transition zone should be responsible for the observed electrical model. Full article
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