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Medicina, Volume 57, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 150 articles

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Article
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy with Iloprost Improves Digit Salvage in Severe Frostbite Compared to Iloprost Alone
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1284; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111284 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Frostbite is a freezing injury that can lead to amputation. Current treatments include tissue rewarming followed by thrombolytic or vasodilators. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy might decrease the rate of amputation by increasing cellular oxygen availability to the damaged tissues. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Frostbite is a freezing injury that can lead to amputation. Current treatments include tissue rewarming followed by thrombolytic or vasodilators. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy might decrease the rate of amputation by increasing cellular oxygen availability to the damaged tissues. The SOS-Frostbite study was implemented in a cross-border program among the hyperbaric centers of Geneva, Lyon, and the Mont-Blanc hospitals. The objective was to assess the efficacy of HBO + iloprost among patients with severe frostbite. Materials and Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective single-arm study from 2013 to 2019. All patients received early HBO in addition to standard care with iloprost. Outcomes were compared to a historical cohort in which all patients received iloprost alone between 2000 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were stage 3 or 4 frostbite and initiation of medical care <72 h from frostbite injury. Outcomes were the number of preserved segments and the rate of amputated segments. Results: Thirty patients from the historical cohort were eligible and satisfied the inclusion criteria, and 28 patients were prospectively included. The number of preserved segments per patient was significantly higher in the prospective cohort (mean 13 ± SD, 10) compared to the historical group (6 ± 5, p = 0.006); the odds ratio was significantly higher by 45-fold (95%CI: 6-335, p < 0.001) in the prospective cohort compared to the historical cohort after adjustment for age and delay between signs of freezing and treatment start. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the combination of HBO and iloprost was associated with higher benefit in patients with severe frostbite. The number of preserved segments was two-fold higher in the prospective cohort compared to the historical group (mean of 13 preserved segments vs. 6), and the reduction of amputation was greater in patients treated by HBO + iloprost compared with the iloprost only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperbaric Medicine)
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Article
Minimally Invasive Approaching in Hip Surgery—An Anatomical Investigation of 20 Specimens
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1283; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111283 - 22 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Based on the preparation of 20 formalin-fixed anatomical cadavers, the feasibility of the anterior, minimally invasive approach to the hip joint was investigated in each side of the body. The hypothesis of the study was that the Lateral Femoral [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Based on the preparation of 20 formalin-fixed anatomical cadavers, the feasibility of the anterior, minimally invasive approach to the hip joint was investigated in each side of the body. The hypothesis of the study was that the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve can be spared under the use of this approach. Materials and Methods: The anterior approach to the hip was performed via an incision of 8 cm. The position of the nerve was noticed in relation to the skin incision, and the distance was measured in millimeters. The nerves main, gluteal and femoral trunk were distinguished and investigated for injury. Results: No injury of the main trunk was noticed. The average distance of the main trunk to the skin incision was 14.9 and 15.05 mm in the medial direction, respectively (p < 0.001). Injury of the gluteal branch has to be considered at an overall rate of 40%. Conclusions: The anterior, minimally invasive approach to the hip joint can be performed without injury of the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hip and Fragility Fracture Management)
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Article
Classification and Morphometric Features of Pterion in Thai Population with Potential Sex Prediction
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111282 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The landmark for neurosurgical approaches to access brain lesion is the pterion. The aim of the present study is to classify and examine the prevalence of all types of pterion variations and perform morphometric measurements from previously defined anthropological landmarks. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The landmark for neurosurgical approaches to access brain lesion is the pterion. The aim of the present study is to classify and examine the prevalence of all types of pterion variations and perform morphometric measurements from previously defined anthropological landmarks. Materials and methods: One-hundred and twenty-four Thai dried skulls were investigated. Classification and morphometric measurement of the pterion was performed. Machine learning models were also used to interpret the morphometric findings with respect to sex and age estimation. Results: Spheno-parietal type was the most common type (62.1%), followed by epipteric (11.7%), fronto-temporal (5.2%) and stellate (1.2%). Complete synostosis of the pterion suture was present in 18.5% and was only present in males. While most morphometric measurements were similar between males and females, the distances from the pterion center to the mastoid process and to the external occipital protuberance were longer in males. Random forest algorithm could predict sex with 80.7% accuracy (root mean square error = 0.38) when the pterion morphometric data were provided. Correlational analysis indicated that the distances from the pterion center to the anterior aspect of the frontozygomatic suture and to the zygomatic angle were positively correlated with age, which may serve as basis for age estimation in the future. Conclusions: Further studies are needed to explore the use of machine learning in anatomical studies and morphometry-based sex and age estimation. Thorough understanding of the anatomy of the pterion is clinically useful when planning pterional craniotomy, particularly when the position of the pterion may change with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Systematic Review
The Effects of Different Types of Steroids on Clinical Outcomes in Neonates with Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and GRADE Assessment
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111281 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a condition caused by the aspiration of meconium-stainted amniotic fluid into the lungs, resulting in pulmonary inflammation, neonatal morbidity, and mortality. It is important that these MAS infants receive appropriate care to avoid further [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a condition caused by the aspiration of meconium-stainted amniotic fluid into the lungs, resulting in pulmonary inflammation, neonatal morbidity, and mortality. It is important that these MAS infants receive appropriate care to avoid further complications. Steroids have an anti-inflammatory effect and may be effective in the management of MAS. The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effect of different steroids on clinical outcomes in infants with MAS. Materials and Methods: We systematically searched of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, Clinical Trials.gov, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to 24 January 2021 without language restriction. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of steroids in neonates with MAS were included. We calculated relative risks and weighted mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model to determine the associations between MAS and steroids and GRADE approach was employed for quality of evidence. The main outcomes measures were duration of respiratory distress, oxygen requirement, hospitalization, need for mechanical ventilation, death, and adverse drug reactions. Results: Seven RCTs involving 397 patients were analyzed. Nebulized budesonide and intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone shortened the duration of respiratory distress (MD, −2.46 days; 95% CI, −3.09 to −1.83 and MD, −3.30 days; 95% CI, −4.07 to −2.52, respectively) (moderate certainty). There was a reduction in duration of oxygen requirement in nebulized budesonide use (MD, −2.40 days; 95% CI, −3.40 to −1.40) (low certainty) and IV methylprednisolone use (MD, −3.30 days; 95% CI, −4.07 to −2.52) (moderate certainty). Nebulized budesonide shortened hospitalization stay (MD, −4.47 days; 95% CI, −8.64 to −0.30 days) (low certainty) as IV methylprednisolone use (MD, −7.23 days; 95% CI, −8.19 to −6.07 days) (moderate certainty). None of steroids benefits in death (low certainty). Conclusions: Certain types of steroids may benefit the respiratory aspect, but there was no decrease in mortality in MAS infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatrics)
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Article
Changes in the Plasma Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Factor-1(APE1/Ref-1) Level during Cancer Surgery: An Observational Study
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111280 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is presumed to have more favorable effects on the prognosis of patients with cancer compared with volatile inhaled anesthesia (VIA). We hypothesized that these anesthetics target plasma apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) as [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is presumed to have more favorable effects on the prognosis of patients with cancer compared with volatile inhaled anesthesia (VIA). We hypothesized that these anesthetics target plasma apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) as a possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: The plasma APE1/Ref-1 level was evaluated three times during surgery for cancer, i.e., before anesthesia, immediately after cancer resection, and finally, in the recovery room. Blood (3 cc) was drawn from the radial artery catheter, and plasma APE1/Ref-1 levels were compared according to measurement time and between the two groups. Spearman’s Rho correlation analysis was performed to determine relationships among body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, age, sex, cancer type, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. A total of 166 patients (VIA: 129; TIVA: 37) were enrolled. Results: Plasma APE1/Ref-1 level increased significantly (p = 0.028) after cancer resection compared with before surgery, but no significant difference was observed between anesthetics (p = 0.134). The post-resection plasma APE1/Ref-1 level showed a positive correlation with the NM stages, but not the T stage. Conclusions: The plasma APE1/Ref-1 level increased during surgery with more severe lymph node invasion, but there were no significant differences according to the anesthetics used. Full article
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Article
Parvovirus B19 in Croatia: A Large-Scale Seroprevalence Study
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111279 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Seroepidemiological studies indicate that parvovirus B19 circulates in all areas of the world, although with some differences. The aim of this study is to analyze the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in the Croatian population. Materials and Methods: From [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Seroepidemiological studies indicate that parvovirus B19 circulates in all areas of the world, although with some differences. The aim of this study is to analyze the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in the Croatian population. Materials and Methods: From 2010 to 2021, 1538 serum samples from different populations were tested for the presence of parvovirus B19 IgM/IgG antibodies. Serological tests were performed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: IgG antibodies were detected in 986/64.1% of participants with differences (p < 0.001) among the following population groups: 42.4% of children and adolescents, 67.1% of the adult general population, 66.7% of hemodialysis patients, and 65.6% of liver transplant recipients. Seroprevalence increased with age, from 30.0% in the 6 months–9 years age group to 69.0% in the 40–49 years age group, and remained stable thereafter (68.8–73.3%). There was no difference in the seropositivity among males (66.1%) and females (63.1%), as well as the place of residence (suburban/rural 63.9%, urban 64.1%). IgM antibodies (current/recent infection) were found in 61/4.0% of participants with the highest seropositivity in the youngest age group (11.1%). In pregnant women, seroprevalence was higher in women with an unfavorable obstetric history compared with a normal pregnancy (IgG 71.0% vs. 62.6%; IgM 6.5% vs. 2.4%), but these differences were not significant. Logistic regression showed that the adult population had almost three times higher risk of IgG seropositivity compared to children/adolescents (general population OR = 2.777, 95% CI = 2.023–3.812; hemodialysis patients OR = 2.586, 95% CI = 1.531–4.367; and transplant patients OR = 2.717, 95% CI = 1.604–4.603). A one-year increase in age increased the risk of IgG seroprevalence (OR = 1.017; 95% CI = 1.011–1.022). Conclusions: Older age was the main risk factor for IgG seropositivity. Hemodialysis and organ transplantation seem unrelated to the increased parvovirus B19 seroprevalence. The role of parvovirus B19 in the etiology of TORCH infections needs to be studied further. Full article
Systematic Review
Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Depression in Dental Students during COVID-19 Pandemic
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111278 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on the mental health of the population in general, and in college students in particular. Dental students have seen their teaching altered and their clinical practice reduced. This study was aimed at [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on the mental health of the population in general, and in college students in particular. Dental students have seen their teaching altered and their clinical practice reduced. This study was aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting levels of depression among dental students during the COVID-19 and estimating the pooled prevalence of depression. Materials and Methods: Medline via PubMed and other databases were searched for studies on the prevalence of depression in dental undergraduates, published from 1 December 2019 to 1 September 2021. The pooled proportions of depression were calculated with random effects models. Results: We identified 13 studies from 9 countries. The pooled prevalence of depression in dental students was 37% (95% CI: 26–49%) with no variation due to gender, response rate or methodological quality. We only found a significantly higher prevalence of depression in studies from Asia compared to Europe and America. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dental students are suffering from higher levels of depression compared with the general population or other college students during the COVID-19 pandemic, with differences across regions. Measures to improve mental health and wellbeing of dental students during the pandemic are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Care and Oral Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review
Fetal Surveillance in Pregnancies with Myasthenia Gravis
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111277 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition, that commonly impacts adult women of reproductive age. Myasthenia gravis in pregnancy is rare, but the incidence is higher in different geographical areas. Pregnancies in mothers with MG can have an unfortunate outcome. Acetylcholine receptor antibodies [...] Read more.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition, that commonly impacts adult women of reproductive age. Myasthenia gravis in pregnancy is rare, but the incidence is higher in different geographical areas. Pregnancies in mothers with MG can have an unfortunate outcome. Acetylcholine receptor antibodies may pass into the fetal circulation and can affect the fetal neuromuscular junction, generating transient MG or even fetal arthrogryposis. The 2016 and 2021 International Consensus Guidance for Management of Myasthenia Gravis issued by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America is lacking in recommendation for fetal surveillance for pregnancies in women with MG. The aim of this paper is to highlight fetal and neonatal complications in mothers with MG and to offer antenatal care insights. Close maternal and pregnancy monitoring can improve pregnancy outcome. Patients with MG should be encouraged to conceive, to avoid triggers for exacerbations of the disease during pregnancy and a multidisciplinary team should be established to ensure the optimal support and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Risk Pregnancy)
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Case Report
Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in a Patient Suffering from Epilepsy: Five-Year Follow-Up
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1276; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111276 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
We report an unprecedented case of a young patient with epilepsy coexisting with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), a rare white dot syndrome of unknown etiology, associated with damage to the large zones of the outer retina. Recently, it has been established [...] Read more.
We report an unprecedented case of a young patient with epilepsy coexisting with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), a rare white dot syndrome of unknown etiology, associated with damage to the large zones of the outer retina. Recently, it has been established that epileptic episodes contribute to an inflammatory response both in the brain and the retina. A 13-year-old male patient with epilepsy was referred by a neurologist for an ophthalmologic consultation due to a sudden deterioration of visual acuity in the left eye. The examination, with a key role of multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) with visual field assessment, and electroretinography indicated AZOOR as the underlying entity. Findings at the first admission included enlargement of the blind spot in visual field examination along a typical trizonal pattern, which was revealed by FAF, ICGA, and SS-OCT in the left eye. The right eye exhibited no abnormalities. Seminal follow-up revealed no changes in best corrected visual acuity, and multimodal imaging findings remain unaltered. Thus, no medical intervention is required. Our case and recent laboratory findings suggest a causative link between epilepsy and retinal disorders, although this issue requires further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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Review
Clinical and Histopathological Features of Scleroderma-like Disorders: An Update
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111275 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Scleroderma-like disorders include a set of entities involving cutis, subcutis and, sometimes, even muscular tissue, caused by several pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for different clinical–pathological pictures. The absence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), Raynaud’s phenomenon and capillaroscopic anomalies constitutes an important element of differential diagnosis [...] Read more.
Scleroderma-like disorders include a set of entities involving cutis, subcutis and, sometimes, even muscular tissue, caused by several pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for different clinical–pathological pictures. The absence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), Raynaud’s phenomenon and capillaroscopic anomalies constitutes an important element of differential diagnosis with systemic sclerosis. When scleroderma can be excluded, on the basis of the main body sites, clinical evolution, any associated pathological conditions and specific histological features, it is possible to make a correct diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systemic Sclerosis: Tools for Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Emergency Department Workload and Emergency Care Workers’ Psychosocial Stress in the Outbreak Area
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111274 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Due to the unexpected spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was a serious crisis of emergency medical system collapse. Healthcare workers working in the emergency department were faced with psychosocial stress and workload changes. Materials and Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Due to the unexpected spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was a serious crisis of emergency medical system collapse. Healthcare workers working in the emergency department were faced with psychosocial stress and workload changes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in the emergency department in Daegu and Gyeongbuk, Korea, from November 16 to 25, 2020. In the survey, we assessed the general characteristics of the respondents; changes in the working conditions before and after the COVID-19 pandemic; and resulting post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety statuses using 49 questions. Results: A total of 529 responses were collected, and 520 responses were included for the final analyses. Changes in working conditions and other factors due to COVID-19 varied by emergency department level, region and disease group. Working hours, intensity, role changes, depression and anxiety scores were higher in the higher level emergency department. Isolation ward insufficiency and the risk of infection felt by healthcare workers tended to increase in the lower level emergency department. Treatment and transfer delay were higher in the fever and respiratory disease groups (M = 3.58, SD = 1.18; M = 4.08, SD = 0.95), respectively. In all the disease groups, both treatment and transfer were delayed more in Gyeongbuk than in Daegu. Conclusions: Different goals should be pursued by the levels and region of the emergency department to overcome the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and promote optimal care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
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Review
Clinical Effectiveness of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with a Poor Performance Status
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111273 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are standard treatments for patients with lung cancer. PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA4 antibodies are chosen as the first-line therapy, contributing to the long-term survival and tolerability. Unlike molecular targeting agents, such as gefitinib, lung cancer patients with a poor performance [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are standard treatments for patients with lung cancer. PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA4 antibodies are chosen as the first-line therapy, contributing to the long-term survival and tolerability. Unlike molecular targeting agents, such as gefitinib, lung cancer patients with a poor performance status (PS) display unsatisfactory clinical improvements after ICI treatment. Several previous reports also demonstrated that the PS is identified as one of the most probable prognostic factors for predicting poor outcomes after ICI treatment. However, first-line pembrolizumab seemed to be effective for lung cancer patients with a PS of 2 if PD-L1 expression was greater than 50%. Currently, the induction of ICIs in patients with lung cancer with a poor PS is controversial. These problems are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Therapies for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Ⅱ)
Review
The Lymphatic System in Breast Cancer: Anatomical and Molecular Approaches
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111272 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of premature mortality among women and it is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumours worldwide. For this reason, routine screening for prevention and early diagnosis is important for the quality of life of [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of premature mortality among women and it is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumours worldwide. For this reason, routine screening for prevention and early diagnosis is important for the quality of life of patients. Breast cancer cells can enter blood and lymphatic capillaries, then metastasizing to the regional lymph nodes in the axilla and to both visceral and non-visceral sites. Rather than at the primary site, they seem to enter the systemic circulation mainly through the sentinel lymph node and the biopsy of this indicator can influence the axillary dissection during the surgical approach to the pathology. Furthermore, secondary lymphoedema is another important issue for women following breast cancer surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Considering these fundamental aspects, the present article aims to describe new methodological approaches to assess the anatomy of the lymphatic network in the axillary region, as well as the molecular and physiological control of lymphatic vessel function, in order to understand how the lymphatic system contributes to breast cancer disease. Due to their clinical implications, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing lymph node metastasis in breast cancer are also examined. Beyond the investigation of breast lymphatic networks and lymphatic molecular mechanisms, the discovery of new effective anti-lymphangiogenic drugs for future clinical settings appears essential to support any future development in the treatment of breast cancer. Full article
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Article
Vitamin D Enhanced the Osteogenic Differentiation of Cell Spheroids Composed of Bone Marrow Stem Cells
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1271; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111271 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Vitamin D is a bone modulator widely used in regenerative medicine. This study aimed to analyze the effects of vitamin D on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: Spheroids were fabricated using human [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Vitamin D is a bone modulator widely used in regenerative medicine. This study aimed to analyze the effects of vitamin D on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: Spheroids were fabricated using human bone marrow-derived stem cells, and were cultured in the presence of vitamin D at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 nM. Stem cell spheroids were fabricated and the morphological evaluation was conducted on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Determination of qualitative cellular viability was performed with Live/Dead Kit assay on days 1 and 7. Quantitative cellular viability was evaluated with Cell Counting Kit-8 on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. To analyze the osteogenic differentiation of cell spheroids, alkaline phosphatase activity assays were performed with commercially available kit on days 7 and 14. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression levels of RUNX2, BSP, OCN, and COL1A1 on days 7 and 14. Results: The stem cells produced well-formed spheroids, and addition of vitamin D did not result in any noticeable changes in the shape. The addition of vitamin D did not significantly change the diameter of the spheroids at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 nM concentrations. Quantitative cell viability results from days 1, 3, 7 and 14 showed no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). There was significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity in the 0.1 nM group when compared with the control group on day 14 (p < 0.05). Real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of RUNX2, OCN, and COL1A1 were significantly increased when vitamin D was added to the culture. Conclusions: Based on these findings, we concluded that vitamin D could be applied to the increased osteogenicity of stem cell spheroids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Periodontics and Dental Implantology)
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Article
Stable Low-Grade Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Does Not Compromise Clinical Outcome of Minimally Invasive Tubular Decompression in Patients with Spinal Stenosis
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111270 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In recent literature, the routine addition of arthrodesis to decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with concomitant stable low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcome, complication and re-operation rates following minimally [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In recent literature, the routine addition of arthrodesis to decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with concomitant stable low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcome, complication and re-operation rates following minimally invasive (MIS) tubular decompression without arthrodesis in patients suffering from LSS with or without concomitant stable low-grade degenerative spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Ninety-six consecutive patients who underwent elective MIS lumbar decompression with a mean follow-up of 27.5 months were included in the study. The spondylolisthesis (S) group comprised 53 patients who suffered from LSS with stable degenerative spondylolisthesis, and the control (N) group included 43 patients suffering from LSS without spondylolisthesis. Outcome measures included complications and revision surgery rates. Pre- and post-operative visual analog scale (VAS) for both back and leg pain was analyzed, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to evaluate functional outcome. Results: The two groups were comparable in most demographic and preoperative variables. VAS for back and leg pain improved significantly following surgery in both groups. Both groups showed significant improvement in their ODI scores, at one and two years postoperatively. The average length of hospital stay was significantly higher in patients with spondylolisthesis (p-value< 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of post-operative complications rates or re-operation rates. Conclusions: Our results indicate that MIS tubular decompression may be an effective and safe procedure for patients suffering from LSS, with or without degenerative stable spondylolisthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Diagnosis and Treatment Options)
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Article
Predictors of Clinical Course and Outcomes of Acute Diverticulitis: The Role of Age and Ethnicity
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111269 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Acute diverticulitis (AD) is the leading and most burdensome complication of colonic diverticulosis. However, risk factors for its development and predictors of its course are still poorly defined. In this regard, the association of a young age with a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Acute diverticulitis (AD) is the leading and most burdensome complication of colonic diverticulosis. However, risk factors for its development and predictors of its course are still poorly defined. In this regard, the association of a young age with a complicated course and worse outcome are still controversial. Moreover, little research has addressed the effect of ethnicity on the course of AD. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of these variables on AD’s course and outcome in the diverse and unique ethnic landscape of Israel. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the charts of patients with a radiologically confirmed diagnosis of AD. Patients’ outcomes and disease course, including hospitalization duration, complications, and recurrent episodes, were documented and compared among different age and ethnic groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of complicated AD. Results: Overall, 637 patients with AD were included, the majority (95%) had distal colon AD, and almost one quarter of them were aged less than 50 years. The majority of patients in the young age (<50) group were males (69.7%). Nonetheless, the rate of recurrent episodes (35.3% vs. 37.3%, p = 0.19), hospitalization duration (5 ± 4.7 vs. 6 ± 3.2, p = 0.09) and complications rate (17.3% vs. 13.7%; p = 0.16) were similar for both age groups. In the ethnicity group analysis, Arab minority patients had a first episode of AD at a significantly younger age compared to their Jewish counterparts (51.8 vs. 59.4 years, p < 0.001). However, factors such as a complicated course (16% vs. 15%; p = 0.08) and relapsing episode rates (33% vs. 38%; p = 0.36) did not differ significantly between groups. None of the variables, including young age and ethnic group, were predictors of complicated AD course in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: AD is increasingly encountered in young patients, especially in ethnic minority groups, but neither ethnicity nor young age was associated with worse outcomes. Full article
Case Report
Absence of Wharton’s Jelly at the Abdominal Site of the Umbilical Cord Insertion. Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1268; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111268 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Wharton’s jelly is a specialized connective tissue surrounding and protecting umbilical cord vessels. In its absence, the vessels are exposed to the risk of compression or rupture. Because the condition is very rare and there are no available antepartum investigation methods for diagnosis, [...] Read more.
Wharton’s jelly is a specialized connective tissue surrounding and protecting umbilical cord vessels. In its absence, the vessels are exposed to the risk of compression or rupture. Because the condition is very rare and there are no available antepartum investigation methods for diagnosis, these cases are usually discovered after delivery, frequently after in utero fetal demise. We report the fortunate case of a 29-year-old nulliparous woman, with an uncomplicated pregnancy, admitted at 39 weeks in labor where a persistently abnormal cardiotocographic trace led to delivery by cesarean section of a healthy 3500 g newborn. After delivery, a Wharton’s jelly anomaly was identified at the abdominal umbilical insertion (umbilical cord vessels, approximately 1 cm in length, were completely uncovered by Wharton’s jelly), which required surgical thread elective ligation. In the presence of a persistently abnormal CTG trace, in a pregnancy with no clinical settings suggestive of either chronic or acute fetal hypoxemia, the absence of Wharton’s jelly should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Risk Pregnancy)
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Article
Longitudinal Motor Functional Outcomes and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns of Muscle Involvement in Upper Limbs in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111267 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes using both upper limb muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at shoulder, arm and forearm levels and Performance of upper limb (PUL) in ambulant and non-ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes using both upper limb muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at shoulder, arm and forearm levels and Performance of upper limb (PUL) in ambulant and non-ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) patients. We also wished to define whether baseline muscle MRI could help to predict functional changes after one year. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients had both baseline and 12month muscle MRI and PUL assessments one year later. Results: Ten were ambulant (age range 5–16 years), and 17 non ambulant (age range 10–30 years). Increased abnormalities equal or more than 1.5 point on muscle MRI at follow up were found on all domains: at shoulder level 12/27 patients (44%), at arm level 4/27 (15%) and at forearm level 6/27 (22%). Lower follow up PUL score were found in 8/27 patients (30%) at shoulder level, in 9/27 patients (33%) at mid-level whereas no functional changes were found at distal level. There was no constant association between baseline MRI scores and follow up PUL scores at arm and forearm levels but at shoulder level patients with moderate impairment on the baseline MRI scores between 16 and 34 had the highest risk of decreased function on PUL over a year. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that the integrated use of functional scales and imaging can help to monitor functional and MRI changes over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: MR Imaging and Genetic Findings)
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Review
A Review of Natural Products for Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111266 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Background and Objectives: acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly called acute renal failure (ARF), is commonly defined as an abrupt decline in renal function, clinically manifesting as a reversible acute increase in nitrogen waste products—measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels—over [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly called acute renal failure (ARF), is commonly defined as an abrupt decline in renal function, clinically manifesting as a reversible acute increase in nitrogen waste products—measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels—over the course of hours to weeks. AKI occurs in about 20% of all hospitalized patients and is more common in the elderly. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent the occurrence of AKI, and to detect and treat early, since it is known that a prolonged period of kidney injury increases cardiovascular complications and the risk of death. Despite advances in modern medicine, there are no consistent treatment strategies for preventing the progression to chronic kidney disease. Through many studies, the safety and efficacy of natural products have been proven, and based on this, the time and cost required for new drug development can be reduced. In addition, research results on natural products are highly anticipated in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. In relation to AKI, many papers have reported that many natural products can prevent and treat AKI. Conclusions: in this paper, the results of studies on natural products related to AKI were found and summarized, and the mechanism by which the efficacy of AKI was demonstrated was reviewed. Many natural products show that AKI can be prevented and treated, suggesting that these natural products can help to develop new drugs. In addition, we may be helpful to elucidate additional mechanisms and meta-analysis in future natural product studies. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111265 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the influence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related symptoms on prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large clinical population of patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 2127 patients (mean age 55 years, 24% women) underwent diagnostic polysomnography and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the influence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related symptoms on prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large clinical population of patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 2127 patients (mean age 55 years, 24% women) underwent diagnostic polysomnography and were evaluated using the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the predictive value of OSA-associated symptoms for prevalent cardiovascular disease, after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including age, obesity, and co-morbidities. Results: Patients with OSA and CVD were older and had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI); the percentage of obese patients was also higher (83% vs. 70%, p < 0001). They also had greater neck, waist, and hip circumferences and a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) [odds ratio (95% CI) 1.112 (0.708–1.748), p = 0.64], insomnia symptoms (AIS ≥ 6) [odds ratio (95% CI) 0.748 (0.473–1.184), p = 0.21], frequent awakenings [odds ratio (95% CI) 1.599 (1.019–2.508), p = 0.06], and nocturia [odds ratio (95% CI) 1.359 (0.919–2.009), p = 0.124] were not associated with CVD after adjustment for the previous confounders. On the other hand, depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10) independently predicted prevalent CVD [odds ratio (95% CI) 1.476 (1.154–1.887), p = 0.002]. Further analysis in subgroups stratified by age, BMI, and gender demonstrated that depressive symptoms predicted prevalent CVD but only in the subgroup of younger (age group < 60 years), obese (BMI group ≥ 30), and male (OR = 1.959, 95% CI = 1.209–3.175, p = 0.006) OSA patients. Conclusions: OSA patients with CVD were more likely to complain of less typical OSA symptoms and depressive symptoms compared to patients without CVD in this large clinical patient cohort, supportingthecomplexity and heterogeneityof OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Apnea and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Case Report
Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis Associated with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: An Autopsy Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1264; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111264 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Valve vegetation is one of the most fearful findings for physicians. The first diagnosis that comes to their mind is infective endocarditis (IE), but it can also be noninfective; nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE). NBTE can be even more challenging than IE for physicians [...] Read more.
Valve vegetation is one of the most fearful findings for physicians. The first diagnosis that comes to their mind is infective endocarditis (IE), but it can also be noninfective; nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE). NBTE can be even more challenging than IE for physicians because of the wide range of differential diagnoses such as malignancies, autoimmune disorders and human immunodeficiency virus. A 45-year-old woman presented at the emergency room with a sudden onset of dysarthria and right-sided hemiplegia. Laboratory data showed her blood counts and coagulation test were mostly normal and the magnetic resonance imaging detected a high-signal-intensity change in her left brain. An echocardiogram found a vegetation-like structure on her atrial valve. We highly suspected IE leading to cerebral embolism. The clot was successfully removed by our neurosurgeons and anticoagulation therapy was started concurrently. Her state of consciousness improved, but then she suffered a brain hemorrhage and died. The autopsy revealed that the cause of her vegetation was acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Based on these findings, it is important to remember that APL can be the cause of NBTE even if the blood count and coagulation tests are almost normal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Article
A Higher Polygenic Risk Score Is Associated with a Higher Recurrence Rate of Atrial Fibrillation in Direct Current Cardioversion-Treated Patients
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111263 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) within six months after sinus rhythm restoration with direct current cardioversion (DCC) is a significant treatment challenge. Currently, the factors influencing outcome are mostly unknown. Studies have found a link between genetics and the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) within six months after sinus rhythm restoration with direct current cardioversion (DCC) is a significant treatment challenge. Currently, the factors influencing outcome are mostly unknown. Studies have found a link between genetics and the risk of AF and efficacy of rhythm control. The aim of this study was to examine the association between eight single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and the risk of AF development and recurrence after DCC. Materials and Methods: Regarding the occurrence of AF, 259 AF cases and 108 controls were studied. Genotypes for the eight SNVs located in the genes CAV1, MYH7, SOX5, KCNN3, ZFHX3, KCNJ5 and PITX2 were determined using high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Six months after DCC, a telephone interview was conducted to determine whether AF had recurred. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated as the unweighted sum of risk alleles. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess SNV and PRS association with AF occurrence and recurrence after DCC. Results: The risk allele of rs2200733 (PITX2) was significantly associated with the development of AF (p = 0.012, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.206–4.423). AF recurred in 60% of patients and the allele generally associated with a decreased risk of AF of rs11047543 (SOX5) was associated with a greater risk of AF recurrence (p = 0.014, OR = 0.223, 95% CI = 0.067–0.738). A PRS of greater than 7 was significantly associated (p = 0.008) with a higher likelihood of developing AF after DCC (OR = 4.174, 95% CI = 1.454–11.980). Conclusions: A higher PRS is associated with increased odds of AF recurrence after treatment with DCC. PITX2 (rs2200733) is significantly associated with an increased risk of AF. The protective allele of rs11047543 (SOX5) is associated with a greater risk of AF recurrence. Further studies are needed to predict the success of rhythm control and guide patient selection towards the most efficacious treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atrial Fibrillation Management)
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Review
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Athletes: Scoping Review
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1262; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111262 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate regional pain, usually affecting distal limbs, that follows trauma or surgery. Athletes may develop CRPS because of exposure to traumatic or overuse injuries. The aim of the present [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate regional pain, usually affecting distal limbs, that follows trauma or surgery. Athletes may develop CRPS because of exposure to traumatic or overuse injuries. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature about CRPS type 1 in athletes. Materials and Methods: We searched two online databases (PubMed and Web of Science), selecting papers aiming at investigating CRPS type 1 (algodystrophy) in athletes. The analysis of databases was made considering original articles published until 30 June 2021, written in English. Results: Fifteen papers (12 case reports, 3 case series) were selected for a total of 20 clinical cases (15 females, 5 males), aged between 10 and 46 years (mean age 18.4 ± 9.8 standard deviation years). Patients included practiced different types of sport (soccer, athletics, gymnastics, basketball). The most involved anatomical sites were lower limbs, and time to diagnosis ranged from 2 days to 4 years. The most used treatments were pharmacological and physical therapies, but sometimes invasive approaches, as regional nerve, or lumbar sympathetic blocks, were provided. The main assessed outcomes were return to activity and pain. Conclusions: Our review suggests a higher prevalence of CRPS type 1 in younger people and in lower limbs than in general population but confirms the higher prevalence in females. However, the number of studies addressing CRPS in athletes is limited, as well as the number of involved patients, considering that only few and heterogeneous case reports were published about this topic. Moreover, the high prevalence of old studies (only 5 available studies in the last 10 years) might have influenced the choice of both assessment tools and management strategies. Despite these limitations, athletes showing disproportionate pain after sport-related injury should be promptly evaluated and treated through a multidimensional approach to avoid long-term consequences of algodystrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Solutions for Musculoskeletal Disorders in Athletes)
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Article
Emphysema-Predominant COPD Had a Greater 5-Year Mortality and a Worse Annual Decline in Lung Function Than Airway Obstruction-Predominant COPD or Asthma at Initial Same Degree of Airflow Obstruction
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1261; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111261 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We studied whether the extent of exertional oxygen desaturation and emphysema could cause greater mortality in COPD and asthma independent of airflow obstruction. Materials and Methods: We performed a 5-year longitudinal observational study in COPD and asthma patients who matched [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We studied whether the extent of exertional oxygen desaturation and emphysema could cause greater mortality in COPD and asthma independent of airflow obstruction. Materials and Methods: We performed a 5-year longitudinal observational study in COPD and asthma patients who matched for airflow obstruction severity. All subjects performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and followed spirometry and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6MWT every 3–6 months. Overall survival was recorded. Cumulative survival curves were performed according to the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: The COPD group had higher emphysema scores, higher Δinspiratory capacities (ICs) and lower SpO2 during the 6MWT, which showed a greater yearly decline in FEV1 (40.6 mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (28 mL) than the asthma group (FEV1, 9.6 mL; FVC, 1.2 mL; p < 0.05). The emphysema-predominant COPD group had an accelerated annual decline in lung function and worse survival. The nadir SpO2 ≤ 80% and a higher emphysema score were the strong risk factors for mortality in COPD patients. Conclusions: The greater structural changes with a higher emphysema score and greater desaturation during the 6MWT in COPD may contribute to worse yearly decline in FEV1 and higher five-year mortality than in asthma patients with a similar airflow obstruction. The lowest SpO2 ≤ 80% during the 6MWT and emphysema-predominant COPD were the strong independent factors for mortality in chronic obstructive airway disease patients. Full article
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Article
Efficacy and Safety of Vacuum-Assisted Excision for Benign Breast Mass Lesion: A Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1260; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111260 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background and Objective: Breast mass lesions are common; however, determining the malignant potential of the lesion can be ambiguous. Recently, to evaluate breast mass lesions, vacuum-assisted excision (VAE) biopsy has been widely used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Breast mass lesions are common; however, determining the malignant potential of the lesion can be ambiguous. Recently, to evaluate breast mass lesions, vacuum-assisted excision (VAE) biopsy has been widely used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic role of VAE. Materials and Methods: Relevant articles were obtained by searching PubMed and EMBASE on 3 September 2021. Meta-analyses were performed using odds ratios and proportions. To assess heterogeneity, we conducted a subgroup analysis and meta-regression tests. Results: Finally, 26 studies comprising 18,170 patients were included. All of these were observational studies. The meta-analysis showed that the complete resection rate of VAE was 0.930. In the meta-regression test, there was no significant difference. The meta-analysis showed a recurrence rate of 0.039 in the VAE group. The meta-regression test showed no statistical significance. Postoperative hematoma, pain, and ecchymosis after VAE were 0.092, 0.082, and 0.075, respectively. Conclusion: VAE for benign breast lesions showed favorable outcomes with respect to complete resection and complications. This meta-analysis suggested that VAE for low-risk benign breast lesions is a reasonable option for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Full article
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Review
Efficacy and Safety of Sugammadex for the Reversal of Rocuronium-Induced Neuromuscular Blockade in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111259 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Sugammadex is widely used in anesthesia to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB). In patients with compromised kidney function, most drugs show alteration of their pharmacokinetic profile with reduced clearance. The purpose of this article is to examine the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Sugammadex is widely used in anesthesia to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB). In patients with compromised kidney function, most drugs show alteration of their pharmacokinetic profile with reduced clearance. The purpose of this article is to examine the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of sugammadex in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving general anesthesia, using a systematic review. Materials and Methods: The databases of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, KoreaMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies comparing the efficacy or safety outcomes of sugammadex administration for the reversal of rocuronium-induced NMB, in ESRD patients (group R) or in those with normal renal function (group N) undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Results: We identified nine studies with 655 patients—six prospective, case-control studies with 179 patients (89 and 90 in groups R and N) and three retrospective observational studies with 476 ESRD patients. In the six prospective studies, the times taken to reach a train-of-four ratio ≥0.9, 0.8, and 0.7 were significantly longer in group R than in group N (weighted mean difference [95% confidence interval] [min]: 1.14 [0.29 to 2.00], 0.9 [0.24 to 1.57], 0.89 [0.20 to 1.57], respectively). The total plasma clearance of sugammadex was significantly lower in group R than in group N. There was no significant difference in the incidence of NMB recurrence and prolonged time to recovery between the groups. In the three retrospective studies, the possibility of sugammadex-related adverse events appears to be insignificant. Conclusions: Sugammadex may effectively and safely reverse rocuronium-induced NMB in patients with ESRD, although the recovery to a TOF ratio of 0.9 may be prolonged compared to patients with normal renal function. Further studies are needed, considering the small number of studies included and the high heterogeneity of some of the results. Full article
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Review
Maternal–Fetal Outcomes in Women with Endometriosis and Shared Pathogenic Mechanisms
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111258 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
The connection between endometriosis and pregnancy outcomes is trending among the research topics. Until recently, endometriosis and its painful symptomatology were considered to be alleviated by pregnancy. However, these beliefs have shifted, as emerging literature has demonstrated the role of this condition in [...] Read more.
The connection between endometriosis and pregnancy outcomes is trending among the research topics. Until recently, endometriosis and its painful symptomatology were considered to be alleviated by pregnancy. However, these beliefs have shifted, as emerging literature has demonstrated the role of this condition in affecting pregnancy evolution. The underlying pathogenesis of endometriosis is still poorly understood, all the more when pregnancy complications are involved. Debatable opinions on endometriosis associated with obstetric complications exist because of the potential bias resulting from the heterogeneity of preceding evidence. This review aims to evaluate the connection between endometriosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes and their shared pathogenic mechanisms. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and focused on the studies that include placenta praevia, premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous preterm birth, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, obstetric hemorrhages (ante- and postpartum bleeding, abruptio placentae), miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational cholestasis, small for gestational age, and their association with endometriosis. Not only the risks of emergence were highlighted, but also the pathogenic connections. Epigenetic alterations of some genes were found to be mirrored both in endometriosis and obstetric complications. This review issues a warning for providing increased attention to pregnant women with endometriosis and newborns as higher risks of preeclampsia, placental issues, and preterm deliveries are associated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Endometriosis)
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Review
A Portrait of Intratumoral Genomic and Transcriptomic Heterogeneity at Single-Cell Level in Colorectal Cancer
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111257 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
In the study of cancer, omics technologies are supporting the transition from traditional clinical approaches to precision medicine. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity (ITH) is detectable within a single tumor in which cancer cell subpopulations with different genome features coexist in a patient in different tumor [...] Read more.
In the study of cancer, omics technologies are supporting the transition from traditional clinical approaches to precision medicine. Intra-tumoral heterogeneity (ITH) is detectable within a single tumor in which cancer cell subpopulations with different genome features coexist in a patient in different tumor areas or may evolve/differ over time. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is characterized by heterogeneous features involving genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic alterations. The study of ITH is a promising new frontier to lay the foundation towards successful CRC diagnosis and treatment. Genome and transcriptome sequencing together with editing technologies are revolutionizing biomedical research, representing the most promising tools for overcoming unmet clinical and research challenges. Rapid advances in both bulk and single-cell next-generation sequencing (NGS) are identifying primary and metastatic intratumoral genomic and transcriptional heterogeneity. They provide critical insight in the origin and spatiotemporal evolution of genomic clones responsible for early and late therapeutic resistance and relapse. Single-cell technologies can be used to define subpopulations within a known cell type by searching for differential gene expression within the cell population of interest and/or effectively isolating signal from rare cell populations that would not be detectable by other methods. Each single-cell sequencing analysis is driven by clustering of cells based on their differentially expressed genes. Genes that drive clustering can be used as unique markers for a specific cell population. In this review we analyzed, starting from published data, the possible achievement of a transition from clinical CRC research to precision medicine with an emphasis on new single-cell based techniques; at the same time, we focused on all approaches and issues related to this promising technology. This transition might enable noninvasive screening for early diagnosis, individualized prediction of therapeutic response, and discovery of additional novel drug targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Landscapes in Colorectal Carcinoma)
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Review
Bipolar Disorder and Comorbid Use of Illicit Substances
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1256; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111256 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Substance use disorders (SUD) are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and significantly affect clinical outcomes. Incidence and management of illicit drug use differ from alcohol use disorders, nicotine use of behavioral addictions. It is not yet clear why people with bipolar disorder [...] Read more.
Substance use disorders (SUD) are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and significantly affect clinical outcomes. Incidence and management of illicit drug use differ from alcohol use disorders, nicotine use of behavioral addictions. It is not yet clear why people with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of addictive disorders, but recent data suggest common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings and epigenetic alterations. In the absence of specific diagnostic instruments, the clinical interview is conducive for the diagnosis. Treating SUD in bipolar disorder requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. Most treatment trials focus on single drugs, such as cannabis alone or in combination with alcohol, cocaine, or amphetamines. Synopsis of data provides limited evidence that lithium and valproate are effective for the treatment of mood symptoms in cannabis users and may reduce substance use. Furthermore, the neuroprotective agent citicoline may reduce cocaine consumption in BD subjects. However, many of the available studies had an open-label design and were of modest to small sample size. The very few available psychotherapeutic trials indicate no significant differences in outcomes between BD with or without SUD. Although SUD is one of the most important comorbidities in BD with a significant influence on clinical outcome, there is still a lack both of basic research and clinical trials, allowing for evidence-based and specific best practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Bipolar Disorder)
Article
Effects of Female Reproductive Hormone Levels on Inadvertent Intraoperative Hypothermia during Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery: A Retrospective Study
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57111255 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Female reproductive hormones may affect core body temperature. This study aimed to investigate the effects of female reproductive hormones on inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia in patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Female reproductive hormones may affect core body temperature. This study aimed to investigate the effects of female reproductive hormones on inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia in patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 660 menstruating and menopausal female patients aged 19–65 years. The patients were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia: non-hypothermia group (N = 472) and hypothermia group (N = 188). After propensity score matching, 312 patients (N = 156 in each group) were analyzed to investigate the association between intraoperative hypothermia and female reproductive hormones. As potential predictors of inadvertent hypothermia, the levels of female reproductive hormones were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results: The association of estradiol (r = −0.218, p = 0.000) and progesterone (r = −0.235, p = 0.000) levels with inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia was significant but weakly negative before matching; however, it was significant and moderately negative after matching (r = −0.326, p = 0.000 and r = −0.485, p = 0.000, respectively). In a binary logistic analysis, the odds ratio for estradiol was 0.995 (p = 0.014, 0.993 < 95% confidence interval [CI] < 0.998) before matching and 0.993 (p = 0.000, 0.862 < 95% CI < 0.930) after matching, and that for progesterone was 0.895 (p = 0.000, 0.862 < 95% CI < 0.930) before matching and 0.833 (p = 0.014, 0.990 < 95% CI < 0.996) after matching. Conclusions: Estradiol and progesterone levels were associated with inadvertent intraoperative hypothermia. However, the odds ratio for female reproductive hormone levels was close to 1. Therefore, female reproductive hormones may not be a risk factor for hypothermia during gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. However, a small sample size in this study limits the generalizability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
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