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Volume 11, September

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 11, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): For battery electric vehicles, vehicle weight is a design parameter, which needs to be estimated using an iterative approach, thus causing weight fluctuations during the early development phase. Weight fluctuations require, in turn, other vehicle components to be redesigned and can lead to a change in their size (secondary volume change) and weight (secondary weight change). Furthermore, a change in component size can lead to collisions between components. To quantify these effects, we exemplify the vehicle wheels and their secondary volume and weight changes. The presented approach enables an estimation of the impact of weight fluctuations on the available installation space and can prevent time-consuming iterations during the development process. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
CRITIC Method and Grey System Theory in the Study of Global Electric Cars
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040079 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Science and technology development is a crucial for the elimination of air pollutants. The electric car industry, for example, contributes to minimizing emissions and climate change. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of electric car sales and its market [...] Read more.
Science and technology development is a crucial for the elimination of air pollutants. The electric car industry, for example, contributes to minimizing emissions and climate change. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of electric car sales and its market share in 14 countries, from past to future, by integrating important criteria through the inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) method in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), grey model first-order one variables (GM(1,1)), and grey relation analysis (GRA) method in grey system theory. First, the GM(1,1) estimates future terms based on historical time-series. Second, the objective weights of each variable, in every year, are determined by the CRITIC method. Finally, the research uses the GRA method for computing grades and ranks. The empirical result then reveals the performance and rank of electric car sales during the time period of 2016–2023. The analysis results thus reveal market share picture and direction of growth in the electric car industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
2 kW Dual-Output Isolated DC/DC Converter Based on Current Doubler and Step-Down Chopper
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040078 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In the context of the auxiliary power for motor-driven vehicles having two systems, we propose a new topology for a dual-output isolated DC/DC converter, which offers advantages in terms of efficiency and size. The proposed circuit consists of an H-bridge inverter, a transformer, [...] Read more.
In the context of the auxiliary power for motor-driven vehicles having two systems, we propose a new topology for a dual-output isolated DC/DC converter, which offers advantages in terms of efficiency and size. The proposed circuit consists of an H-bridge inverter, a transformer, and an integrated circuit of a current doubler and step-down chopper. Considering the high power and high frequency, our objective was to evaluate and identify the issues of an actual device with a power output of 2 kW and switching frequency of 400 kHz. The circuit feasibility was examined through measurements of the prototype, and both the voltage target response and load disturbance response characteristics were confirmed to operate as designed. The maximum and minimum efficiencies of this circuit were 81.3 and 61.5%, respectively, demonstrating that the load loss of the step-down chopper had a significant impact on the efficiency. The loss analysis revealed that the loss at the integrated circuit on the secondary side accounted for more than 50% of the total loss. Moreover, issues such as the behavior at power-on, efficiency, and size were identified and evaluated, thereby achieving the objectives of the study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Cell to Battery System in BEVs: Analysis of System Packing Efficiency and Cell Types
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040077 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
The motivation of this paper is to identify possible directions for future developments in the battery system structure for BEVs to help choosing the right cell for a system. A standard battery system that powers electrified vehicles is composed of many individual battery [...] Read more.
The motivation of this paper is to identify possible directions for future developments in the battery system structure for BEVs to help choosing the right cell for a system. A standard battery system that powers electrified vehicles is composed of many individual battery cells, modules and forms a system. Each of these levels have a natural tendency to have a decreased energy density and specific energy compared to their predecessor. This however, is an important factor for the size of the battery system and ultimately, cost and range of the electric vehicle. This study investigated the trends of 25 commercially available BEVs of the years 2010 to 2019 regarding their change in energy density and specific energy of from cell to module to system. Systems are improving. However, specific energy is improving more than energy density. More room for improvements is thus to be gained in packaging optimization and could be a next step for further battery system development. Other aspects looked at are cell types and sizes. There, a trend to larger and prismatic cells could be identified. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Management System Design for Good Delivery Electric Trike Equipped with Different Powertrain Configurations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040076 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 705
Abstract
This paper demonstrates the design of an electric trike’s energy management system for a goods delivery service via various possible component configurations. A model of the energy management system was first developed based on general engineering vehicles’ equations using Matlab software. Various component [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates the design of an electric trike’s energy management system for a goods delivery service via various possible component configurations. A model of the energy management system was first developed based on general engineering vehicles’ equations using Matlab software. Various component configurations, such as the usage of two battery types (lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)), implementation of three braking strategies (full mechanical, parallel, and series strategies), the presence of a range extender (RE), and various masses of range extenders were simulated by using the model. The driving cycle of the e-trike as input data in the simulation was obtained by driving the vehicle around Bandung City. Speed, distance, and elevation were obtained by using GPS-based software. The simulation results showed that the most efficient and effective component configuration was to use the serial regenerative braking strategy with no RE equipped. This configuration achieved an efficiency of 18.07 km/kWh. However, for a longer route, the usage of a 20-kg RE was required to prevent the state of charge drop below 30%. The NCA with serial regenerative braking and 20-kg RE had an efficiency of 17.47 km/kWh for the complete route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced-Order Electro-Thermal Battery Model Ready for Software-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop BMS Evaluation for an Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040075 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 884
Abstract
The software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop tests of a battery management system require a real-time compatible electro-thermal battery pack model. In our study, a numerically complex electrochemical-thermal model has been characterized from experimental data of a nickel-rich, silicon-graphite 18650-type lithium-ion cell. While it accurately represents [...] Read more.
The software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop tests of a battery management system require a real-time compatible electro-thermal battery pack model. In our study, a numerically complex electrochemical-thermal model has been characterized from experimental data of a nickel-rich, silicon-graphite 18650-type lithium-ion cell. While it accurately represents the electro-thermal battery behavior, it is hardly suitable for real-time application due to its intensively numerical solving effort and related calculation time if no huge numerical efforts are applied to reduce the model. The objective of this paper is to present a simple method to derive a reduced-order electro-thermal cell model from the complex electrochemical-thermal cell model and build a real-time compatible battery pack model with the reduced-order cell model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Low-Cost Tractor Motorization with Main Farming Implements
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040074 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of a low-cost tractor equipped with a parallel hybrid engine, which was simulated using AMESim software. The tractor was evaluated with three different farming implements attached to the tractor, and each implement [...] Read more.
The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of a low-cost tractor equipped with a parallel hybrid engine, which was simulated using AMESim software. The tractor was evaluated with three different farming implements attached to the tractor, and each implement requires a different type of power. The first simulation was executed without any implements attached. The tractor was able to run for 170 s with the electric motor only, which resulted in fuel savings during this period. The first implement, a moldboard plow, was attached for the second round of evaluation, and the electric motor ran by itself for 150 s, which also led to fuel savings during operation. During the third simulation, the tractor was attached to a Bette Harvest, which has a very high-power demand. The obtained results show that both engines were engaged to provide the required energy. During the final round of evaluation, simulations were run for a straw tub grinder. In this simulation, the electric motor ran alone until the battery was fully discharged. Thereafter, the combustion engine was activated in order to facilitate operations and to charge the battery. The results show that the parallel hybrid architecture employed for the low-cost tractor significantly decreased the CO2 emissions and minimized the consumption of fuel. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Charging Systems for Passenger Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040073 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
This paper explores current and potential future use of fast charging stations for electric passenger vehicles. The aim of the paper is to analyse current charging patterns at fast charging stations and the role of fast charging among different charging options. These patterns [...] Read more.
This paper explores current and potential future use of fast charging stations for electric passenger vehicles. The aim of the paper is to analyse current charging patterns at fast charging stations and the role of fast charging among different charging options. These patterns are explored along the lines of the technical capabilities of the vehicles and it is found that with increasing battery capacity the need for fast charging decreases. However, for those vehicles with large charging capacities there are indications that fast charging is perceived as more convenient as these are used more often. Such results indicate a larger share for fast charging if charging capacities increase in the future. Results from a spatial analysis show that most fast charging is done at a considerable distance from home, suggesting mostly ‘on the road’ charging sessions. Some fast charging sessions are relatively close to home, especially for those without private home charging access. This shows some future potential for fast charging in cities with many on-street parking facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fast Charging System for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Dual-Output DC/DC Converters Using Duty Cycle and Frequency
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040072 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 497
Abstract
As part of the integration process of the auxiliary power systems of electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, this study proposes a method to control two different voltage types using two control factors of the rectangular alternating waveforms contained in [...] Read more.
As part of the integration process of the auxiliary power systems of electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles, this study proposes a method to control two different voltage types using two control factors of the rectangular alternating waveforms contained in DC/DC converters, namely the duty cycle and frequency. A prototype circuit consisting of an H-bridge inverter, a transformer, two series resonant filters and two diode bridge circuits was constructed. The H-bridge inverter was connected to the primary side of the transformer and the diode bridge rectifier circuit was connected to the secondary side in parallel. Series resonant filters were inserted between one of the diode bridge circuits and the transformer. Thereafter, the proposed control method was applied to the transformer voltage of the prototype circuit. Although the circuit operation became complex owing to the circulating current flowing between the ground (GND) of the two output circuits, it exhibited ideal static and dynamic characteristics, thereby confirming the possibility of controlling two voltages with the duty cycle and frequency control factors. The results of the efficiency evaluation and loss analysis demonstrated a minimum efficiency of 68.3% and a maximum efficiency of 88.9%. As the output power of the circuit containing the resonant filters increased, the current peak value increased and the circuit became less efficient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Initial Rotor Position Detection for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on High-Frequency Voltage Injection without Filter
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040071 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 527
Abstract
The accurate initial rotor position of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is necessary for starting the motor, and for the position sensorless control method adopted by a PMSM control system under some working conditions. This paper presents a new method to detect [...] Read more.
The accurate initial rotor position of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is necessary for starting the motor, and for the position sensorless control method adopted by a PMSM control system under some working conditions. This paper presents a new method to detect the initial rotor position of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The method does not need a low-pass filter, and has strong robustness and a simple calculation method. According to the relationship between high-frequency current response and rotor position angle θ, the rotor position angle can be obtained by arctangent and linear formulae. Finally, the magnetic polarity of the rotor is distinguished according to the change of inductance. In this method, the arctangent function is used to eliminate the filtering process and reduce the influence of the parameter deviation of the motor system on the detection accuracy of the initial position. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Permanent Magnet Machines and Drives for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Future of Ultrafast Charging: A Choice Experiment in the Netherlands
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040070 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Ultrafast charging is developing and will soon be available to electric vehicles (EV). This research focuses on the feasibility of ultrafast charging for EV passenger cars in the Netherlands. We carried out a stated choice experiment with 311 respondents (all EV drivers) and [...] Read more.
Ultrafast charging is developing and will soon be available to electric vehicles (EV). This research focuses on the feasibility of ultrafast charging for EV passenger cars in the Netherlands. We carried out a stated choice experiment with 311 respondents (all EV drivers) and developed mixed logit models based on random utility maximization. In deciding which charging type to choose, this research identified the charging point characteristics, price, proximity to shopping facilities, certainty of charging availability and not having to make a detour as key influential factors for EV drivers. Price changes and not having to make a detour substantially affect users’ choices for the charging types. Contrary to expectations, no significant results were found for urban density, age, technology awareness and importance of sustainability. Finally, the research results show that there is demand for ultrafast charging in the Netherlands even if users have to pay slightly more compared to other forms of charging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fast Charging System for Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Particle Swarm Optimization and Real-Road/Driving-Cycle Analysis Based Powertrain System Design for Dual Motor Coupling Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040069 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 597
Abstract
In this study, a planetary gear based dual motor coupling electric vehicle is proposed, which achieves higher system efficiency by enabling motor working under high operating efficiency area. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of the proposed configuration are analyzed and the reasonable working modes [...] Read more.
In this study, a planetary gear based dual motor coupling electric vehicle is proposed, which achieves higher system efficiency by enabling motor working under high operating efficiency area. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of the proposed configuration are analyzed and the reasonable working modes are established. Secondly, the optimal dual motor parameters are derived according to the statistical analysis on the typical driving conditions and the collected real road driving data. Especially, the optimal parameters of planetary gear and final transmission ratio are obtained using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, based on the developed mode shift algorithm, the dual motor coupling full vehicle model is developed and the vehicle performance is analyzed using MATLAB/Simulink. For the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule) driving cycle, it is seen from the simulation results of motor operating points that the proposed dual motor configuration is mostly operated under the high efficiency range, and the power consumption is significantly reduced by 7.6% compared with the single motor configuration. For the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle), WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle) and real road driving conditions, the proposed dual motor configuration also achieves system efficiency improvement of 5.0%~16.3%, which confirms the validity of the proposed configuration and its corresponding parameter matching and control algorithm development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drivability Optimization by Reducing Oscillation of Electric Vehicle Drivetrains
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040068 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 564
Abstract
The drivetrain of electric vehicles differs significantly from vehicles with combustion engines. Current concepts of electric vehicle drivetrains usually have a low damping. Typically, there is no clutch to separate the inertial mass of the electric drive machine from the rest of the [...] Read more.
The drivetrain of electric vehicles differs significantly from vehicles with combustion engines. Current concepts of electric vehicle drivetrains usually have a low damping. Typically, there is no clutch to separate the inertial mass of the electric drive machine from the rest of the vehicle drivetrain. External (road unevenness, potholes, etc.) and internal excitation (torque changes of the electric machine, brake interferences, etc.) cause jerk oscillation and sometimes high component stress. These excitations can be reduced by suitable drivability functions, to which a reference filter can also be assigned. A common approach known from conventional drivetrains is to limit the gradient of the demand torque of the drive machine or the driver′s desired torque in order to influence the torque build-up of the drive machine and to reduce the excitation of jerk oscillations. A second approach is the use of a prefilter. The prefilter uses the inverse dynamics of the drivetrain to influence the demand torque of the drive machine. In this paper, the influence of a prefilter based on the inverse dynamics of electric vehicle drivetrains to reduce oscillations is investigated. In addition, an anti-jerk control enhances the drivability function afterwards. All investigations are made on a hardware-in-the-loop test bench to create reproducible results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Thermal Effects in Different Lightweight Constructions for Vehicular Wireless Power Transfer Modules
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040067 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 609
Abstract
This paper presents a thermal investigation of lightweight on-board receiver modules of wireless power transfer systems for electric vehicles. The studied modules are capable of receiving up to 11 kW at a resonance frequency of 85 kHz over a distance of 110–160 mm. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a thermal investigation of lightweight on-board receiver modules of wireless power transfer systems for electric vehicles. The studied modules are capable of receiving up to 11 kW at a resonance frequency of 85 kHz over a distance of 110–160 mm. The receiver modules were built as sandwich and space–frame concept to design stiff and lightweight structures. The high transmission power of automotive wireless power transfer systems combined with the multi-part assembly of receiver modules led to challenges in heat management. To address this, the physical behaviour of the proposed lightweight concepts were studied on component and system level using a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility for wireless power transfer systems. Special emphasis was laid on the validation of a thermal simulation model, which uses analytical calculated power losses taking into account their temperature dependency. The proposed simulation model is consistent with the experimental validation of the critical active components. The performed systematic studies build the basis for a more sophisticated thermal dimensioning of various constructions for wireless power transfer modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Power Transfer for EVs)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Battery State of Health Estimation Methods: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenges
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040066 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
To cope with the new transportation challenges and to ensure the safety and durability of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, high performance and reliable battery health management systems are required. The Battery State of Health (SOH) provides critical information about its performances, [...] Read more.
To cope with the new transportation challenges and to ensure the safety and durability of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, high performance and reliable battery health management systems are required. The Battery State of Health (SOH) provides critical information about its performances, its lifetime and allows a better energy management in hybrid systems. Several research studies have provided different methods that estimate the battery SOH. Yet, not all these methods meet the requirement of automotive real-time applications. The real time estimation of battery SOH is important regarding battery fault diagnosis. Moreover, being able to estimate the SOH in real time ensure an accurate State of Charge and State of Power estimation for the battery, which are critical states in hybrid applications. This study provides a review of the main battery SOH estimation methods, enlightening their main advantages and pointing out their limitations in terms of real time automotive compatibility and especially hybrid electric applications. Experimental validation of an online and on-board suited SOH estimation method using model-based adaptive filtering is conducted to demonstrate its real-time feasibility and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System and Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Computationally Efficient Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Approximate Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040065 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 943
Abstract
This article presents an energy management method for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) based on approximate Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (A-PMP). The A-PMP optimizes gearshift commands and torque distribution for overall energy efficiency. As a practical numerical solution in PMP, the proposed methodology [...] Read more.
This article presents an energy management method for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) based on approximate Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (A-PMP). The A-PMP optimizes gearshift commands and torque distribution for overall energy efficiency. As a practical numerical solution in PMP, the proposed methodology utilizes a piecewise linear approximation of the engine fuel rate and state of charge (SOC) derivative by considering drivability and fuel economy simultaneously. Moreover, battery aging is explicitly studied by introducing a control-oriented model, which aims to investigate the effect of battery aging on the optimization performance in the development of the HEVs. An approximate energy management strategy with piecewise linear models is then formulated by the A-PMP, which targets a better performance for the Hamiltonian optimization. The gearshift map is extracted from the optimal results in the standard PMP to hinder frequent gearshift by considering both drivability and fuel economy. Utilizing an approximated Hamilton function, the torque distribution, gearshift command, and the battery aging degradation are jointly optimized under a unified framework. Simulations are performed for dynamic programming (DP), PMP, and A-PMP to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed methodology achieves a close fuel economy compared with the DP-based optimal solution. Moreover, it improves the computation efficiency by 50% and energy saving by 3.5%, compared with the PMP, while ensuring good drivability and fuel efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System and Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Design Method of Double-Boost DC/DC Converter with High Voltage Gain for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040064 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Direct current to direct current (DC/DC) converters are required to have higher voltage gains in some applications for electric vehicles, high-voltage level charging systems and fuel cell electric vehicles. Therefore, it is greatly important to carry out research on high voltage gain DC/DC [...] Read more.
Direct current to direct current (DC/DC) converters are required to have higher voltage gains in some applications for electric vehicles, high-voltage level charging systems and fuel cell electric vehicles. Therefore, it is greatly important to carry out research on high voltage gain DC/DC converters. To improve the efficiency of high voltage gain DC/DC converters and solve the problems of output voltage ripple and robustness, this paper proposes a double-boost DC/DC converter. Based on the small-signal model of the proposed converter, a double closed-loop controller with voltage–current feedback and input voltage feedforward is designed. The experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the proposed converter exceeds 95%, and the output voltage ripple factor is 0.01. Compared with the traditional boost converter and multi-phase interleaved DC/DC converter, the proposed topology has certain advantages in terms of voltage gain, device stress, number of devices, and application of control algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Modeling of Mass and Volume Effects for Battery Electric Vehicles, with Focus on the Wheel Components
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040063 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Defining a vehicle concept during the early development phase is a challenging task, since only a limited number of design parameters are known. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), vehicle weight is a design parameter, which needs to be estimated by using an iterative [...] Read more.
Defining a vehicle concept during the early development phase is a challenging task, since only a limited number of design parameters are known. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), vehicle weight is a design parameter, which needs to be estimated by using an iterative approach, thus causing weight fluctuations during the early development phase. These weight fluctuations, in turn, require other vehicle components to be redesigned and can lead to a change in their size (secondary volume change) and weight (secondary weight change). Furthermore, a change in component size can impact the available installation space and can lead to collision between components. In this paper, we focus on a component that has a high influence on the available installation space: the wheels. We model the essential components of the wheels and further quantify their secondary volume and weight changes caused by a vehicle weight fluctuation. Subsequently, we model the influence of the secondary volume changes on the available installation space at the front axle. The hereby presented approach enables an estimation of the impact of weight fluctuations on the wheels and on the available installation space, which enables a reduction in time-consuming iterations during the development process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Blockchain-Based Configuration for Balancing the Electricity Grid with Distributed Assets
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040062 - 30 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
This paper explores a future perspective to foster the provision of balancing services to the electricity grid by distributed assets. One recent test case, initiated by the Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO), was to operate an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet on the automatic [...] Read more.
This paper explores a future perspective to foster the provision of balancing services to the electricity grid by distributed assets. One recent test case, initiated by the Dutch Transmission System Operator (TSO), was to operate an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet on the automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR) market, which entails fast and automated reserves. To achieve that in a decentralised, automated and transparent manner, the role of blockchain technology for this specific application is explored. We propose a novel configuration that can serve as a basis for deploying distributed assets for aFRR markets using blockchain or any alternative Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). Automation can be achieved via the deployment of smart contracts, which also results in transparency in the system. The blockchain configurations are designed for three phases in the aFRR market, namely: (i) Operational planning and scheduling by a balancing service provider (i.e., formulation and submission of aFRR bid), (ii) Real-time operations (i.e., activation and measurements), and (iii) Verification and settlement (i.e., imbalance correction and financial settlement). The paper concludes that the scalability of distributed assets that can participate in the system, combined with the large transaction times and energy consumption of some consensus mechanisms, could put limitations on the proposed architecture. Future research should address benchmarking studies of other alternatives (e.g., DLTs, such as the ones based on directed acyclic graphs, and non-DLT solutions) with the proposed blockchain solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid Integrated Electric Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle
Location and Routing Planning Considering Electric Vehicles with Restricted Distance in Agriculture
World Electr. Veh. J. 2020, 11(4), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/wevj11040061 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are anticipated to play a critical role in the green transportation of the future. Logistics companies have started several projects operating with EVs in road transportation. However, routing decisions for EVs must take limited driving ranges into account. Previous related [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are anticipated to play a critical role in the green transportation of the future. Logistics companies have started several projects operating with EVs in road transportation. However, routing decisions for EVs must take limited driving ranges into account. Previous related research on electric vehicle location routing problems (EVLRP) has investigated intra route facilities that support the energy supply network. Contrarily, this paper studies a new type of EVLRP with a restricted distance, where EVs are used for route planning in reverse flow logistics. The model is formulated from a real case problem in agriculture that combines both locating multiple depots and determining routing paths with a limited distance constraint. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS) algorithm has been extended into four combinations and is proposed here for solving the problem. The computational results indicate that the ALNS algorithm can obtain quality solutions in short processing time when compared with software using exact methods. Furthermore, the proposed ALNS algorithm is applied to a case study problem to provide suitable locations and vehicle routes with a minimized total cost. Full article
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