We discuss mathematical and physical arguments contrasting continuous and discrete, limitless discretization as arbitrary granularity. In this regard, we focus on Incomputable (lacking an algorithm that computes in finite time) Real Numbers (IRNs). We consider how, for measurements, the usual approach to dealing
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We discuss mathematical and physical arguments contrasting continuous and discrete, limitless discretization as arbitrary granularity. In this regard, we focus on Incomputable (lacking an algorithm that computes in finite time) Real Numbers (IRNs). We consider how, for measurements, the usual approach to dealing with IRNs is to approximate to avoid the need for more detailed, unrealistic surveys. In this regard, we contrast effective computation and emergent computation. Furthermore, we consider the alternative option of taking into account the properties of the decimal part of IRNs, such as the occurrence, distribution, combinations, quasi-periodicities, and other contextual properties, e.g., topological. For instance, in correspondence with chaotic behaviors, quasi-periodic solutions, quasi-systems, uniqueness, and singularities, non-computability represents and corresponds to theoretically incomplete properties of the processes of complexity, such as emergence and quantum-like properties. We elaborate upon cases of equivalences and symmetries, characterizing complexity and infiniteness as corresponding to the usage of multiple non-equivalent models that are constructively and theoretically incomplete due to the non-exhaustive nature of the multiplicity of complexity. Finally, we detail alternative computational approaches, such as hypercomputation, natural computing, quantum computing, and analog and hybrid computing. The reality of IRNs is considered to represent the theoretical incompleteness of complex phenomena taking place through collapse from equivalences and symmetries. A world of precise finite values, even if approximated, is assumed to have dynamics that are zippable in analytical formulae and to be computable and symbolically representable in the way it functions. A world of arbitrary precise infinite values with dynamics that are non-zippable in analytical formulae, non-computable, and, for instance, sub-symbolically representable, is assumed to be almost compatible with the coherence of emergence. The real world is assumed to be a continuous combination of the two—functioning and emergent—where the second dominates and is the norm, and the first is the locus of primarily epistemic extracts. Research on IRNs should focus on properties representing and corresponding to those that are detectable in real, even if extreme, phenomena, such as emergence and quantum phenomena.