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Fishes, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Studies on Pacific Northwest forestry–stream interactions have often focused on coastal cutthroat trout ignoring associations with coexisting fishes. Using data from coastal Washington state and Oregon, we explored species occurrence and potential interactions between stream-living fishes. Coastal cutthroat trout and juvenile coho salmon were the most commonly coexisting species and exhibited positive associations for both presence and density. Associations between species were weak relative to their associations with abiotic stream conditions. Although much remains to be learned regarding the numerous ways in which fishes interact, evidence points to the importance of abiotic stream conditions influencing species presence and abundance. View this paper
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Article
Upwelling Impact on Sardinella lemuru during the Indian Ocean Dipole in the Bali Strait, Indonesia
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010008 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Understanding the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on fishery around Indonesia is important as the fishery resources are small compared to the demand. In this study, we analyzed the effect of positive and negative phases of IOD on chlorophyll-a concentration and the [...] Read more.
Understanding the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on fishery around Indonesia is important as the fishery resources are small compared to the demand. In this study, we analyzed the effect of positive and negative phases of IOD on chlorophyll-a concentration and the catch of Sardinella lemuru in the Bali Strait. Data are based on field surveys in the Bali Strait during the positive and negative phase of IOD and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Chlorophyll (SSC) obtained from the analysis of satellite images. The results suggest that SSC concentration in the strait significantly correlates with the positive and negative phase of IOD, possibly through a change of upwelling and downwelling there. It is suggested that the change of phytoplankton biomass due to positive IOD would result in an increase of Sardinella lemuru in the Bali Strait. This research has direct implications as important information for the government in planning lemuru fisheries management in the Bali Strait based on oceanographic studies and climate phenomena. Full article
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Article
Slight Increases in Salinity Improve Muscle Quality of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010007 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Fish muscle quality is an important parameter in the aquaculture industry. In this study, we analyzed and compared the muscle quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) cultured at salinities of 0‰, 3‰, and 6‰ (GC0, GC3, GC6). There was no significant [...] Read more.
Fish muscle quality is an important parameter in the aquaculture industry. In this study, we analyzed and compared the muscle quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) cultured at salinities of 0‰, 3‰, and 6‰ (GC0, GC3, GC6). There was no significant difference in crude protein and crude fat content of muscle between GC0 and GC3. Crude fat was significantly lower in GC6 compared to the other groups. GC3 and GC6 had higher hydroxyproline content, which suggested that these groups had higher collagen content. GC3 and GC6 had higher contents of free amino acids and umami amino acids than GC0, but there was no significant difference in sweet or sour amino-acid content among groups. GC3 and GC6 had better texture properties, including hardness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience, and springiness, than GC0. GC3 had the highest water-holding capacity among the groups. As the salinity increased, the diameter of muscle fibers decreased and the sarcolemma showed a thickening trend. These results suggest that a slight increase in salinity (i.e., 3‰) can effectively improve the muscle quality of grass carp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impacts of Land-Based Aquaculture)
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Review
Eradication of the Invasive Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio from a Large Lake: Lessons and Insights from the Tasmanian Experience
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010006 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. 1758) are the most abundant pest fish species in Australia, detrimental to ecosystem integrity and values, and in need of suitable management solutions. In January 1995, this destructive pest was discovered in two large, connected Tasmanian [...] Read more.
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. 1758) are the most abundant pest fish species in Australia, detrimental to ecosystem integrity and values, and in need of suitable management solutions. In January 1995, this destructive pest was discovered in two large, connected Tasmanian lakes—Lakes Crescent (23 km2) and Sorell (54 km2). After an initial assessment, carp were immediately contained to these waters using screens to prevent their escape down-stream, followed by swift legislation to enforce closure of the lakes to the public. Assessment and evaluation of carp numbers occurred throughout the eradication program, with effort focused on Lake Crescent. Beginning with undirected removal, techniques progressively evolved to more sophisticated targeted removal with assistance from biotelemetry, in conjunction with gill netting and electro-fishing. Real-time population estimates and in situ observations resulted in a detailed cumulative understanding of carp population dynamics, behaviour and seasonal habitat choice. This allowed strategic deployment of fences to block access to marshes, and the installation of steel traps within the fences. These gears specifically prevented spawning opportunities, while concurrently capturing mature fish. Following 12 years of adaptive and integrated effort, 7797 carp (fry, juvenile and adult) were captured from Lake Crescent, with the last carp being caught in December 2007. The subsequent 14 years of monitoring has not resulted in the capture of any carp, confirming the successful eradication of carp from Lake Crescent. These management practices have been successfully replicated in the larger Lake Sorell, where 41,499 carp (fry, juvenile and adult) have been removed. It is now estimated that there are few, if any carp remaining. Collectively, the techniques and strategies described here were reliable, and can be applied as a model to control or eradicate pest populations of carp in freshwater lakes elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Control of Invasive Fishes)
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Article
Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages of the Tropical Gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental Critical Windows and the Influence of Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010005 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Alterations in fish developmental trajectories occur in response to genetic and environmental changes, especially during sensitive periods of development (critical windows). Embryos and larvae of Atractosteus tropicus were used as a model to study fish survival, growth, and development as a function of [...] Read more.
Alterations in fish developmental trajectories occur in response to genetic and environmental changes, especially during sensitive periods of development (critical windows). Embryos and larvae of Atractosteus tropicus were used as a model to study fish survival, growth, and development as a function of temperature (28 °C control, 33 °C, and 36 °C), salinity (0.0 ppt control, 4.0 ppt, and 6.0 ppt), and air saturation (control ~95% air saturation, hypoxia ~30% air saturation, and hyperoxia ~117% air saturation) during three developmental periods: (1) fertilization to hatch, (2) day 1 to day 6 post hatch (dph), and (3) 7 to 12 dph. Elevated temperature, hypoxia, and hyperoxia decreased survival during incubation, and salinity at 2 and 3 dph. Growth increased in embryos incubated at elevated temperature, at higher salinity, and in hyperoxia but decreased in hypoxia. Changes in development occurred as alterations in the timing of hatching, yolk depletion, acceptance of exogenous feeding, free swimming, and snout shape change, especially at high temperature and hypoxia. Our results suggest identifiable critical windows of development in the early ontogeny of A. tropicus and contribute to the knowledge of fish larval ecology and the interactions of individuals × stressors × time of exposure. Full article
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Article
Evaluating Coexistence of Fish Species with Coastal Cutthroat Trout in Low Order Streams of Western Oregon and Washington, USA
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010004 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
When multiple species of fish coexist there are a host of potential ways through which they may interact, yet there is often a strong focus on studies of single species without considering these interactions. For example, many studies of forestry–stream interactions in the [...] Read more.
When multiple species of fish coexist there are a host of potential ways through which they may interact, yet there is often a strong focus on studies of single species without considering these interactions. For example, many studies of forestry–stream interactions in the Pacific Northwest have focused solely on the most prevalent species: Coastal cutthroat trout. To examine the potential for interactions of other fishes with coastal cutthroat trout, we conducted an analysis of 281 sites in low order streams located on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula and along the central Oregon coast. Coastal cutthroat trout and juvenile coho salmon were the most commonly found salmonid species within these streams and exhibited positive associations with each other for both presence and density. Steelhead were negatively associated with the presence of coastal cutthroat trout as well as with coho salmon and sculpins (Cottidae). Coastal cutthroat trout most frequently shared streams with juvenile coho salmon. For densities of these co-occurring species, associations between these two species were relatively weak compared to the strong influences of physical stream conditions (size and gradient), suggesting that physical conditions may have more of an influence on density than species interactions. Collectively, our analysis, along with a review of findings from prior field and laboratory studies, suggests that the net effect of interactions between coastal cutthroat trout and coho salmon do not appear to inhibit their presence or densities in small streams along the Pacific Northwest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of Nutrition and Physiology in Aquatic Animals)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Fishes in 2020
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010003 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Fishes maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Review
Achieving Sea Lamprey Control in Lake Champlain
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010002 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The control of parasitic sea lamprey in Lake Champlain has been a necessary component of its fishery restoration and recovery goals for 30 years. While adopting the approach of the larger and established sea lamprey control program of the Laurentian Great Lakes, local [...] Read more.
The control of parasitic sea lamprey in Lake Champlain has been a necessary component of its fishery restoration and recovery goals for 30 years. While adopting the approach of the larger and established sea lamprey control program of the Laurentian Great Lakes, local differences emerged that shifted management focus and effort as the program evolved. Increased investment in lamprey assessment and monitoring revealed under-estimations of population density and distribution in the basin, where insufficient control efforts went unnoticed. As control efforts improved in response to a better understanding of the population, the effects of lamprey on the fishery lessened. A long-term evaluation of fishery responses when lamprey control was started, interrupted, delayed, and enhanced provided evidence of a recurring relationship between the level of control effort applied and the measured suppression of the parasitic sea lamprey population. Changes in levels of control efforts over time showed repeatedly that measurable suppression of the parasitic population required effective control of 80% of the known larval population. Understanding the importance of assessment and monitoring and the relationship between control effort and population suppression has led to recognition that a comprehensive, not incremental, approach is needed to achieve effective control of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Control of Invasive Fishes)
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Review
Trends in Growth Modeling in Fisheries Science
Fishes 2021, 6(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6010001 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Growth models estimate life history parameters (e.g., growth rates and asymptotic size) that are used in the management of fisheries stocks. Traditionally in fisheries science, it was common to fit one growth model—the von Bertalanffy growth model—to size-at-age data. However, in recent years, [...] Read more.
Growth models estimate life history parameters (e.g., growth rates and asymptotic size) that are used in the management of fisheries stocks. Traditionally in fisheries science, it was common to fit one growth model—the von Bertalanffy growth model—to size-at-age data. However, in recent years, fisheries science has seen an increase in the number of growth models available and the evaluation of multiple growth models for a given species or study. We reviewed n = 196 peer-reviewed age and growth studies and n = 50 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) regional stock assessments to examine trends in the use of growth models and model selection in fisheries over time. Our results indicate that the total number of age and growth studies increased annually since 1988 with a slight proportional increase in the use of multi-model frameworks. Information theoretic approaches are replacing goodness-of-fit and a priori model selection in fisheries studies; however, this trend is not reflected in NOAA stock assessments, which almost exclusively rely on the von Bertalanffy growth model. Covariates such as system (e.g., marine or fresh), location of study, diet, family, maximum age, and range of age data used in model fitting did not contribute to which model was ultimately the best fitting, suggesting that there are no large-scale patterns of specific growth models being applied to species with common life histories or other attributes. Given the importance and ubiquity of growth modeling to fisheries science, a historical and contemporary understanding of the practice is critical to evaluate improvements that have been made and future challenges. Full article
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