Special Issue "Plants, Algae and Fungi Extracts: Promising Resources in the Fight against Pathogens"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant-Derived Antibiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emanuela Roscetto
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
Interests: antibiotic resistance;antibiofilm activity;unconventional antimicrobial strategies;confocal laser scanning microscopy;genotyping and study of virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria
Prof. Dr. Claudia Ciniglia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental, Biological, and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy
Interests: physiology and evolution of microalgae from extreme environments; potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic microalgae; remediation of wastewater and recovery of rare and precious metals from waste

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, many pathogens involved in human infection have rapidly increased their antibiotic resistance, reducing the effectiveness of therapies. Most of them can form biofilms, and effective drugs are not available to treat these formations. Natural products could represent an efficient solution in discovering and developing new drugs to overcome antimicrobial resistance and treat biofilm-related infections. Extracts from plants, algae, and fungi attract the attention of many researchers for their biological and therapeutic properties. Indeed, the production of secondary metabolites that act as bioactive molecules is part of the evolutionary adaptations of these organisms to improve their survival and reproduction. This Special Issue aims to publish high-quality manuscripts concerning the study of the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of these compounds together with their chemical characterization. Particular interest will be reserved for the studies on the use of natural substances to prevent microbial growth and biofilm formation also through antimicrobial-loaded medical devices and innovative food packaging.

Dr. Emanuela Roscetto
Prof. Dr. Claudia Ciniglia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial activity
  • Anti-biofilm activity
  • Antimicrobial plant, algal, and fungal extracts
  • Bioactive secondary metabolites
  • Natural and synthetic analogues
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Synergic interactions
  • Biofilms
  • Functional films
  • Antimicrobial food packaging

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Elucidation of Phytochemical Content of Cupressus macrocarpa Leaves: In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Effect against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates
Antibiotics 2021, 10(8), 890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10080890 - 22 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes various infections. The increasing resistance of MRSA to different antibiotics is widely spreading; therefore, plant extracts may be novel therapeutic alternatives. The phytochemical profiling of Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw. ex Gordon leaves in [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that causes various infections. The increasing resistance of MRSA to different antibiotics is widely spreading; therefore, plant extracts may be novel therapeutic alternatives. The phytochemical profiling of Cupressus macrocarpa Hartw. ex Gordon leaves in vitro, and in vivo, antimicrobial potential of its extracts against MRSA clinical isolates were explored. A phytochemical tentative identification of 49 compounds was performed in the leaves using LC-ESI-MS/MS; in addition, isolation, and structure elucidation of hesperidin and eriocitrin were achieved for the first time. The diethyl ether extract (DEEL) exhibited the best antibacterial effect with MIC values ranging from 2 to 8 µg/mL, which significantly reduced the growth and efflux activity in 48.78% and 29.26% of isolates, respectively. qRT-PCR showed a significant down expression of norA and norB genes, which significantly affected the bacterial cell morphology and had a non-significant effect on membrane depolarization (using flow cytometry). In a rat model, four groups were wounded and treated with normal saline or DEEL, or infected with MRSA, or infected and treated with DEEL. The regeneration of the epidermis, maturation of granulation tissue, and reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration were observed after treatment with DEEL. Thus, C. macrocarpa leaves may be a promising source for new antimicrobials against MRSA. Full article
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Article
Tackling Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the Natural Furanone Sotolon
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 871; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070871 - 17 Jul 2021
Viewed by 198
Abstract
The bacterial resistance development due to the incessant administration of antibiotics has led to difficulty in their treatment. Natural adjuvant compounds can be co-administered to hinder the pathogenesis of resistant bacteria. Sotolon is the prevailing aromatic compound that gives fenugreek its typical smell. [...] Read more.
The bacterial resistance development due to the incessant administration of antibiotics has led to difficulty in their treatment. Natural adjuvant compounds can be co-administered to hinder the pathogenesis of resistant bacteria. Sotolon is the prevailing aromatic compound that gives fenugreek its typical smell. In the current work, the anti-virulence activities of sotolon on Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been evaluated. P. aeruginosa has been treated with sotolon at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and production of biofilm and other virulence factors were assessed. Moreover, the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of sotolon was in-silico evaluated by evaluating the affinity of sotolon to bind to QS receptors, and the expression of QS genes was measured in the presence of sotolon sub-MIC. Furthermore, the sotolon in-vivo capability to protect mice against P. aeruginosa was assessed. Significantly, sotolon decreased the production of bacterial biofilm and virulence factors, the expression of QS genes, and protected mice from P. aeruginosa. Conclusively, the plant natural substance sotolon attenuated the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, locating it as a plausible potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of its infections. Sotolon can be used in the treatment of bacterial infections as an alternative or adjuvant to antibiotics to combat their high resistance to antibiotics. Full article
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Article
Bioguided Isolation of Antibiofilm and Antibacterial Pregnane Glycosides from Caralluma quadrangula: Disarming Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 811; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070811 - 03 Jul 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) present a serious challenge because of their capability to cause biofilm resistance to commonly used antibiotics producing chronic infections and hindering the process of wound healing. In the current study, we investigated the antibacterial [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) present a serious challenge because of their capability to cause biofilm resistance to commonly used antibiotics producing chronic infections and hindering the process of wound healing. In the current study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of Caralluma quadrangula extracts (MeOH, and its fractions CH2Cl2 and n-butanol) against multidrug-resistant MRSA USA300 and A. baumannii AB5057. In vitro, the MeOH extract and both fractions of C. quadrangula significantly inhibited biofilm formation and disrupted previously established biofilm by MRSA and MDRAB at all the tested concentrations (0.625, 0.313, and 0.156 mg/mL). In vivo, C. quadrangula extracts successfully decreased bacterial loads in MRSA-infected skin lesions in mice. Four pregnane glycosides and one flavone glycoside were isolated from the bioactive n-butanol fraction. The isolated compounds (Rus AE) were tested for their biofilm inhibition and biofilm detachment activities. The results revealed that Rus C was the most active compound (IC50 = 0.139 mmole), while Rus E was the least active (IC50 = 0.818 mmole). These results support the potential use of C. quadrangula extracts or their isolated compounds for hindering the biofilm attachment and the virulence of MRSA and MDRAB and their application as a topical antimicrobial preparation for MRSA skin infections. Full article
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Article
Farnesane-Type Sesquiterpenoids with Antibiotic Activity from Chiliadenus lopadusanus
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020148 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 475
Abstract
Chiliadenus lopadusanus Brullo is an Asteraceae plant species endemic to Lampedusa island, the largest island of the Pelage archipelago, Italy. The organic extract of its whole aerial parts, showing antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, wasfractionated employing bioguided purification procedures [...] Read more.
Chiliadenus lopadusanus Brullo is an Asteraceae plant species endemic to Lampedusa island, the largest island of the Pelage archipelago, Italy. The organic extract of its whole aerial parts, showing antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, wasfractionated employing bioguided purification procedures affording three main farnesane-type sesquiterpenoids. They were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR and ESIMS data) as the (E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-1,6,10-triene-3,9-diol, (E)-10-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethyldodeca-2,6,11- trien-4-one and (E)-10-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethyl-dodeca-6,11-dien-4-one, commonly named 9-hydroxynerolidol, 9-oxonerolidol, and chiliadenol B, respectively. These three sesquiterpenes, isolated for the first time from C. lopadusanus, were tested on methicillin-resistant S. aureus and A. baumannii showing antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. This plant could be used as a source to isolate secondary metabolites as potential new antibiotics. Full article
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Review

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Review
Evaluation of Microalgae Antiviral Activity and Their Bioactive Compounds
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 746; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060746 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
During the last year, science has been focusing on the research of antivirally active compounds overall after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused a great amount of deaths and the downfall of the economy in 2020. Photosynthetic organisms such as microalgae are known to [...] Read more.
During the last year, science has been focusing on the research of antivirally active compounds overall after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which caused a great amount of deaths and the downfall of the economy in 2020. Photosynthetic organisms such as microalgae are known to be a reservoir of bioactive secondary metabolites; this feature, coupled with the possibility of achieving very high biomass levels without excessive energetic expenses, make microalgae worthy of attention in the search for new molecules with antiviral effects. In this work, the antiviral effects of microalgae against some common human or animal viruses were considered, focusing our attention on some possible effects against SARS-CoV-2. We summed up the data from the literature on microalgae antiviral compounds, from the most common ones, such as lectins, polysaccharides and photosynthetic pigments, to the less known ones, such as unidentified proteins. We have discussed the effects of a microalgae-based genetic engineering approach against some viral diseases. We have illustrated the potential antiviral benefits of a diet enriched in microalgae. Full article
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