Special Issue "Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Susana Ferreira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CICS-UBI Health Sciences Research Center, University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial resistance;pathogenicity;foodborne pathogens;Aliarcobacter

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne diseases are a public health concern aggravated by the global phenomenon and major threat that is antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The high prevalence of AMR in the food chain has been attributed to various factors, such as the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials to fight infections in animals and plants, but also in humans. Additionally, the routine use of antibiotics as growth promotors and for preventing disease in healthy animals is likewise undermining the efficacy of these molecules. AMR is in fact widespread along the animal–human–environment interface, where the role of the food chain is highlighted. AMR can be associated with acquired resistance by horizontal gene transfer and mutation, or even with a response to environmental and physiological changes (persisters, biofilms or others). These environments can act as reservoirs of AMR genes, which could be acquired by pathogens, food-related beneficial microorganisms or others. In fact, the food chain can be recognized as a large source of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, which may easily disperse at each stage of food production.

The potential transmission of AMR via the food chain is a food safety concern, and more information is needed to efficiently reduce and prevent it from farm to fork.

Authors are invited to submit articles covering AMR throughout the food chain, its mechanisms, drivers, spread, and new approaches to study, control, and overcome it. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • AMR surveillance in the food chain;
  • Hotspots and routes of transmission of AMR across the food chain;
  • Contribution of the food chain to global burden of infections by antimicrobial resistant microorganisms;
  • Mechanisms leading to AMR in the food chain;
  • Potential of omics technology for food microbial communities’ analysis and its application in surveillance;
  • Non-antibiotic resistance and cross-resistance in the food chain;
  • Prevention of emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms through the food chain.

Dr. Susana Ferreira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food chain
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Surveillance
  • Emergence and dissemination
  • Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Profiling of Biofilm Forming Non Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Isolates from Poultry and Its Associated Food Products from Pakistan
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 785; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070785 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Salmonellosis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica from poultry products is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed at estimating the pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance in S. enterica isolates obtained from poultry birds and their food products from different areas of Pakistan. [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica from poultry products is a major public health concern worldwide. This study aimed at estimating the pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance in S. enterica isolates obtained from poultry birds and their food products from different areas of Pakistan. In total, 95/370 (25.67%) samples from poultry droppings, organs, eggs, and meat were positive for Salmonella. The isolates were further identified through multiplex PCR (mPCR) as Salmonella Typhimurium 14 (14.7%), Salmonella Enteritidis 12 (12.6%), and other Salmonella spp. 69 (72.6%). The phenotypic virulence properties of 95 Salmonella isolates exhibited swimming and/or swarming motility 95 (100%), DNA degrading activity 93 (97.8%), hemolytic activity 92 (96.8%), lipase activity 87 (91.6%), and protease activity 86 (90.5%). The sopE virulence gene known for conferring zoonotic potential was detected in S. Typhimurium (92.8%), S. Enteritidis (100%), and other Salmonella spp. (69.5%). The isolates were further tested against 23 antibiotics (from 10 different antimicrobial groups) and were found resistant against fifteen to twenty-one antibiotics. All isolates showed multiple drug resistance and were found to exhibit a high multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) index of 0.62 to 0.91. The strong biofilm formation at 37 °C reflected their potential adherence to intestinal surfaces. There was a significant correlation between antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm formation potential of isolates. The resistance determinant genes found among the isolated strains were blaTEM-1 (59.3%), blaOxA-1 (18%), blaPSE-1 (9.5%), blaCMY-2 (43%), and ampC (8.3%). The detection of zoonotic potential MDR Salmonella in poultry and its associated food products carrying cephalosporin and quinolone resistance genes presents a major threat to the poultry industry and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices on Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commercial Poultry Farmers in Bangladesh
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10070784 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become an emerging health issue globally, posing a threat to zoonotic pathogens and foodborne diseases. In Bangladesh, the poultry sector supplies the majority of the demand for animal-source protein. The irrational and excessive use of antimicrobials (AMU) has been [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become an emerging health issue globally, posing a threat to zoonotic pathogens and foodborne diseases. In Bangladesh, the poultry sector supplies the majority of the demand for animal-source protein. The irrational and excessive use of antimicrobials (AMU) has been observed in the poultry sector. The development of AMR is associated with many factors, including the knowledge and attitudes of poultry farmers. Therefore, AMR reduction requires intervention from all the stockholders, including the farmers who are considered as end users of antimicrobials. This current research conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of poultry farmers on AMU and AMR in Bangladesh. We determined the KAP of poultry farmers (broiler and layer farmers) of some selected districts of the country using a tested and paper-based questionnaire. The results demonstrated that most of the respondents have insufficient KAP regarding AMU and AMR. The respondents used a variety of antimicrobials primarily in the treatment of various diseases in poultry. One-third of the farmers did not seek antimicrobials from registered vets. Instead, they depended on others or themselves. The factor score analysis further revealed that the farmers’ demographic and socioeconomic variables were significant factors influencing the KAP. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that older farmers with 9–12 years of farming experience and graduate-level education, engaging in medium-sized layer farming, were more likely to have correct KAP on AMU and AMR. Further, farmers from the Cox’s Bazar region showed correct knowledge, whereas farmers of the Chattogram region showed a correct attitude towards AMU and AMR. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation revealed a positive association between knowledge–attitudes and knowledge–practices. The findings of the current investigation provide baseline evidence about the KAP of poultry farmers from low-income resources and offer insights into designing interventions and policies for the use of AMU and AMR in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Does an Antibiotic Stewardship Applied in a Pig Farm Lead to Low ESBL Prevalence?
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050574 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Background. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of intestinal carriage of colistin-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales among pigs from a Swiss farm attending an animal health and antibiotic stewardship program and to determine the associated mechanisms [...] Read more.
Background. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of intestinal carriage of colistin-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales among pigs from a Swiss farm attending an animal health and antibiotic stewardship program and to determine the associated mechanisms of resistance. Materials/Methods. Eighty-one fecal samples were recovered and screened for either β-lactam-resistant, colistin-resistant, or aminoglycoside-resistant Enterobacterales, using respective screening media. All recovered isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and their clonal relationship (PFGE and MLST). Plasmid typing was performed by plasmid-based replicon typing (PBRT). Resistance genes were searched by PCR and sequencing. Results. A total of 38 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and a single ESBL-producing Enterobacter cloacae were recovered from 81 pigs, corresponding to a prevalence of 50%, no other β-lactamase producer being identified. Among the 38 ESBL-producing E. coli, all belonged to sequence type (ST) ST10, except two ST34 and ST744 isolates. Among the ST10-blaCTX-M-1 isolates, three subclones (n = 22, n = 13, and n = 1, respectively) were identified according to the PFGE analysis. The most commonly identified IncI1 plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-1 gene was 143 kb in size and coharbored other resistance genes. Only three colistin-resistant Enterobacterales isolates were recovered, namely two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and a single E. cloacae isolate. Screening for the plasmid-borne mcr-1 to mcr-9 genes in these three isolates gave negative results. The two K. pneumoniae isolates were clonally related, belonged to ST76, and harbored a truncated mgrB chromosomal gene being the source of colistin resistance. Conclusion. A high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was found, being mainly caused by the spread of a clonal lineage within the farm. By contrast, a low prevalence of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Wastewater of Abattoirs
Antibiotics 2021, 10(5), 568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050568 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are regularly detected in livestock. As pathogens, they cause difficult-to-treat infections and, as commensals, they may serve as a source of resistance genes for other bacteria. Slaughterhouses produce significant amounts of wastewater containing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), which are released into the [...] Read more.
Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are regularly detected in livestock. As pathogens, they cause difficult-to-treat infections and, as commensals, they may serve as a source of resistance genes for other bacteria. Slaughterhouses produce significant amounts of wastewater containing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), which are released into the environment. We analyzed the wastewater from seven slaughterhouses (pig and poultry) for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-carrying and colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. AMRB were regularly detected in pig and poultry slaughterhouse wastewaters monitored here. All 25 ESBL-producing bacterial strains (19 E. coli and six K. pneumoniae) isolated from poultry slaughterhouses were multidrug-resistant. In pig slaughterhouses 64% (12 of 21 E. coli [57%] and all four detected K. pneumoniae [100%]) were multidrug-resistant. Regarding colistin, resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 54% of poultry and 21% of pig water samples. Carbapenem resistance was not detected. Resistant bacteria were found directly during discharge of wastewaters from abattoirs into water bodies highlighting the role of slaughterhouses for environmental surface water contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and ExPEC Virulence Potential in Commensal Escherichia coli of Multiple Sources
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040351 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 564
Abstract
We recently described the genetic antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of a collection of 279 commensal E. coli of food-producing animal (FPA), pet, wildlife and human origin. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the role of commensal E. coli as reservoir of extra-intestinal pathogenic [...] Read more.
We recently described the genetic antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of a collection of 279 commensal E. coli of food-producing animal (FPA), pet, wildlife and human origin. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the role of commensal E. coli as reservoir of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence-associated genes (VAGs) or as potential ExPEC pathogens were evaluated. The most common phenotypic resistance was to tetracycline (76/279, 27.24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (73/279, 26.16%), streptomycin and sulfisoxazole (71/279, 25.45% both) among the overall collection. Poultry and rabbit were the sources mostly associated to AMR, with a significant resistance rate (p > 0.01) to quinolones, streptomycin, sulphonamides, tetracycline and, only for poultry, to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Finally, rabbit was the source mostly associated to colistin resistance. Different pandemic (ST69/69*, ST95, ST131) and emerging (ST10/ST10*, ST23, ST58, ST117, ST405, ST648) ExPEC sequence types (STs) were identified among the collection, especially in poultry source. Both ST groups carried high number of ExPEC VAGs (pandemic ExPEC STs, mean = 8.92; emerging ExPEC STs, mean = 6.43) and showed phenotypic resistance to different antimicrobials (pandemic ExPEC STs, mean = 2.23; emerging ExPEC STs, mean = 2.43), suggesting their role as potential ExPEC pathogens. Variable phenotypic resistance and ExPEC VAG distribution was also observed in uncommon ExPEC lineages, suggesting commensal flora as a potential reservoir of virulence (mean = 3.80) and antimicrobial resistance (mean = 1.69) determinants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of On-Farm Interventions against CTX-Resistant Escherichia coli on the Contamination of Carcasses before and during an Experimental Slaughter
Antibiotics 2021, 10(3), 228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10030228 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are still an ongoing challenge in human and veterinary health. High prevalence of these resistant bacteria is detected in broiler chickens and the prevention of their dissemination along the production pyramid is of major concern. The impact of certain on-farm [...] Read more.
Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are still an ongoing challenge in human and veterinary health. High prevalence of these resistant bacteria is detected in broiler chickens and the prevention of their dissemination along the production pyramid is of major concern. The impact of certain on-farm interventions on the external bacterial contamination of broiler chickens, as well as their influence on single processing steps and (cross-) contamination, have not yet been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast skin swab samples of broiler chickens before and during slaughter at an experimental slaughter facility. Broiler chickens were previously challenged with CTX-resistant Escherichia coli strains in a seeder-bird model and subjected to none (control group (CG)) or four different on-farm interventions: drinking water supplementation based on organic acids (DW), slow growing breed Rowan × Ranger (RR), reduced stocking density (25 kg/sqm) and competitive exclusion with Enterobacteriales strain IHIT36098(CE). Chickens of RR, 25 kg/sqm, and CE showed significant reductions of the external contamination compared to CG. The evaluation of a visual scoring system indicated that wet and dirty broiler chickens are more likely a vehicle for the dissemination of CTX-resistant and total Enterobacteriaceae into the slaughterhouses and contribute to higher rates of (cross-) contamination during processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence and Characterization of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci from Food Products and Human Specimens in Egypt
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010075 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have veterinary and public health importance as they are responsible for a wide range of difficult to treat infections and food poisoning. Two hundred samples (50 samples each of minced meat, beef luncheon, Karish cheese, and human samples [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have veterinary and public health importance as they are responsible for a wide range of difficult to treat infections and food poisoning. Two hundred samples (50 samples each of minced meat, beef luncheon, Karish cheese, and human samples (pus swab from open wounds)) were cultured, and MRSA strains were identified using disk diffusion tests and mecA gene-based PCR. A total of 35% (70/200) of the examined samples were confirmed as coagulase-positive S. aureus in minced meat (46%), beef luncheon (44%), Karish cheese (44%), and human samples (22%). The MRSA strains showed resistance to amoxicillin (91.4%), penicillin (97.1%), cefoxitin (85.7%), cephradine (82.9%), tetracycline (57.2%), and erythromycin (52.8%). More than half of the tested S. aureus isolates harbored the mecA gene. The sequence analysis of the mecA gene from the minced meat, Karish cheese, and human samples revealed high genetic similarities between the S. aureus isolates from these sources. In conclusion, our findings indicate a risk for the transmission of the mecA gene of S. aureus across the food chain between humans and animal food products. Further studies should focus on finding additional epidemiological aspects of the MRSA strains in food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Molecular Epidemiology of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli from Farm-to-Fork in Intensive Poultry Production in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 850; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9120850 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
The increased use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in the selection of drug-resistant bacteria across the farm-to-fork continuum. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from intensively produced poultry in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. [...] Read more.
The increased use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in the selection of drug-resistant bacteria across the farm-to-fork continuum. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from intensively produced poultry in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected weekly between August and September 2017 from hatching to final retail products. E. coli was isolated on eosin methylene blue agar, identified biochemically, and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 19 antibiotics was ascertained by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. PCR was used to test for resistance genes. The clonal similarity was investigated using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). In total, 266 E. coli isolates were obtained from all the samples, with 67.3% being non-susceptible to at least one antibiotic tested and 6.7% multidrug resistant. The highest non-susceptibility was to ampicillin (48.1%) and the lowest non-susceptibility to ceftriaxone and azithromycin (0.8%). Significant non-susceptibility was observed to tetracycline (27.4%), nalidixic acid (20.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13.9%), and chloramphenicol (11.7%) which have homologues used in the poultry industry. The most frequently observed resistance genes were blaCTX-M (100%), sul1 (80%), tetA (77%), and tetB (71%). ERIC-PCR grouped isolates into 27 clusters suggesting the spread of diverse clones across the farm-to-fork continuum. This reiterates the role of intensive poultry farming as a reservoir and a potential vehicle for the transmission of antibiotic resistance, with potentially severe public health implications, thus, requiring prompt and careful mitigation measures to protect human and environmental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Antimicrobials and Food-Related Stresses as Selective Factors for Antibiotic Resistance along the Farm to Fork Continuum
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10060671 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem and there has been growing concern associated with its widespread along the animal–human–environment interface. The farm-to-fork continuum was highlighted as a possible reservoir of AMR, and a hotspot for the emergence and spread of AMR. However, [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem and there has been growing concern associated with its widespread along the animal–human–environment interface. The farm-to-fork continuum was highlighted as a possible reservoir of AMR, and a hotspot for the emergence and spread of AMR. However, the extent of the role of non-antibiotic antimicrobials and other food-related stresses as selective factors is still in need of clarification. This review addresses the use of non-antibiotic stressors, such as antimicrobials, food-processing treatments, or even novel approaches to ensure food safety, as potential drivers for resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. The co-selection and cross-adaptation events are covered, which may induce a decreased susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to antibiotics. Although the available studies address the complexity involved in these phenomena, further studies are needed to help better understand the real risk of using food-chain-related stressors, and possibly to allow the establishment of early warnings of potential resistance mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop