Special Issue "Hospital Acquired Infections, Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria, Alternative Approaches to Antibiotic Therapy"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 April 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pavel Bostik
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Guest Editor
Charles University Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech republic
Interests: antibiotic resistance;molecular biology; hospital infections;natural compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Milan Kolar
Website
Guest Editor
Palacky University, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry and University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: bacterial infections; antibiotic therapy;antibiotic resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance to known and currently used antibiotics represents a growing issue worldwide. It poses a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases in general and hospital-acquired infections in particular. This is in part due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in past decades, which led to the selection of highly resistant bacteria and even so-called superbugs – multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Nosocomial infections, particularly, are often caused by MDR bacterial pathogens and the treatment of such infections is very complicated and extensive, often leading to various side effects. Even though MDR bacteria are widespread globally, their epidemiology varies by region. Hospital-acquired infections caused by MDR bacteria remain an unresolved problem in the healthcare system. A very important part of the overall therapeutic approach is the microbiological examination of adequate clinical materials, in particular blood culture tests. The obtained results allow targeted antibiotic therapy based on the identification of bacterial pathogens and the determination of their susceptibility/resistance to antibiotics. Molecular genetic methods are an integral part of solving the problem of bacterial resistance. Only adequately selected molecular typing methods may confirm or rule out epidemiologically related cases. If a new outbreak or merely increased rate of MDR bacteria is reasonably suspected, the clonal relationship of strains needs to be analyzed to reveal the source or route of transmission.

At the same time, the development of novel antibiotics is lagging with very few new ones in the pipeline. Finding viable alternatives to treat such infections may help to overcome these therapeutic issues.

This Special Issue will publish papers exploring developments in the field of bacterial resistance, mainly in the hospital settings, adequate antibiotic therapy, and identification of compounds useful to battle this growing issue.

Prof. Dr. Pavel Bostik
Prof. Dr. Milan Kolar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multidrug resistant bacteria
  • Molecular typing
  • Hospital acquired infections
  • Antibiotic therapy
  • Antibiotic compounds

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Spread of Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus spp. in Human Clinical Isolates in the Czech Republic
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020219 - 22 Feb 2021
Abstract
The aim of this study was to map and investigate linezolid resistance mechanisms in linezolid-resistant enterococci in the Czech Republic from 2009 to 2019. Altogether, 1442 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Antibiotics. Among [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to map and investigate linezolid resistance mechanisms in linezolid-resistant enterococci in the Czech Republic from 2009 to 2019. Altogether, 1442 isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Antibiotics. Among them, 8% of isolates (n = 115) were resistant to linezolid (E. faecium/n = 106, E. faecalis/n = 9). Only three strains of E. faecium were resistant to tigecycline, 72.6% of isolates were resistant to vancomycin. One isolate of E. faecium harbored the cfr gene. The majority (87%, n = 11) of E. faecium strains were resistant to linezolid because of the mutation G2576T in the domain V of the 23S rRNA. This mutation was detected also in two strains of E. faecalis. The presence of the optrA gene was the dominant mechanism of linezolid resistance in E. faecalis isolates. None of enterococci contained cfrB, poxtA genes, or any amino acid mutation in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. No mechanism of resistance was identified in 4 out of 106 E. faecium linezolid resistant isolates in this study. Seventeen sequence types (STs) including four novel STs were identified in this work. Clonal complex CC17 was found in all E. faecium isolates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Antibiotic Stewardship in a University Hospital Setting
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010093 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The article describes activities of an antibiotic center at a university hospital in the Czech Republic and presents the results of antibiotic stewardship program implementation over a period of 10 years. It provides data on the development of resistance of Escherichia coli, [...] Read more.
The article describes activities of an antibiotic center at a university hospital in the Czech Republic and presents the results of antibiotic stewardship program implementation over a period of 10 years. It provides data on the development of resistance of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to selected antibiotic agents as well as consumption data for various antibiotic classes. The genetic basis of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and its clonal spread were also assessed. The study showed significant correlations between aminoglycoside consumption and resistance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to gentamicin (r = 0.712, r = 0.869), fluoroquinolone consumption and resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin (r = 0.896), aminoglycoside consumption and resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to amikacin (r = 0.716), as well as carbapenem consumption and resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem (r = 0.855). Genotyping of ESBL- positive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli showed a predominance of CTX-M-type; in AmpC-positive strains, DHA, EBC and CIT enzymes prevailed. Of 19 meropenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, two were identified as NDM-positive. Clonal spread of these strains was not detected. The results suggest that comprehensive antibiotic stewardship implementation in a healthcare facility may help to maintain the effectiveness of antibiotics against bacterial pathogens. Particularly beneficial is the work of clinical microbiologists who, among other things, approve administration of antibiotics to patients with bacterial infections and directly participate in their antibiotic therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Hemato-Oncological Patients
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 785; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110785 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Enterococci are important bacterial pathogens, and their significance is even greater in the case of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The study analyzed the presence of VRE in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of hemato-oncological patients. Active screening using selective agars yielded VRE for phenotypic and [...] Read more.
Enterococci are important bacterial pathogens, and their significance is even greater in the case of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The study analyzed the presence of VRE in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of hemato-oncological patients. Active screening using selective agars yielded VRE for phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Isolated strains were identified with MALDI-TOF MS, (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry) their susceptibility to antibiotics was tested, and resistance genes (vanA, vanB, vanC-1, vanC2-C3) and genes encoding virulence factors (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, hyl) were detected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to assess the relationship of the isolated strains. Over a period of three years, 103 VanA-type VRE were identified in 1405 hemato-oncological patients. The most frequently detected virulence factor was extracellular surface protein (84%), followed by hyaluronidase (40%). Unique restriction profiles were observed in 33% of strains; clonality was detected in 67% of isolates. The study found that 7% of hemato-oncological patients carried VRE in their GIT. In all cases, the species identified was Enterococcus faecium. No clone persisted for the entire 3-year study period. However, genetically different clusters were observed for shorter periods of time, no longer than eight months, with identical VRE spreading among patients. Full article
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