Special Issue "Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hanne Ingmer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: quorum sensing; antimicrobial resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage; phage; transduction; anti-virulence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem for an increasing number of human bacterial pathogens. Although antibiotics are still the solution to an enormous number of human infections every day, we can see that, for some, their efficacy is not optimal, or their time is limited. For others, resistance is already a problem. This Issue addresses new solutions to the challenge of the reduced efficacy of antibiotics, with a focus on novel antimicrobial strategies. Such strategies can include anti-virulence or phage therapy, the reduction or dissemination of resistance, helper drugs to sensitize resistant organisms, or the targeting of intrinsic resistance, which may open up for the application of existing drugs. Other strategies may be directed to target bacteria that are either in a persister state or are part of biofilms, where they may be refractory to antimicrobials. The common ground of all the solutions is a need for a fundamental understanding of the biology of human bacterial pathogens.

Prof. Dr. Hanne Ingmer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Antibiotic tolerance
  • Antibiotic alternatives
  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Helper-drugs
  • Anti-virulence compounds
  • Phage therapy
  • Intrinsic resistance

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Optical DNA Mapping of Plasmids Reveals Clonal Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Large Thai Hospital
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10091029 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) in patients admitted to hospitals pose a great challenge to treatment. The genes causing resistance to carbapenems are mostly found in plasmids, mobile genetic elements that can spread easily to other bacterial strains, thus exacerbating the problem. Here, we [...] Read more.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) in patients admitted to hospitals pose a great challenge to treatment. The genes causing resistance to carbapenems are mostly found in plasmids, mobile genetic elements that can spread easily to other bacterial strains, thus exacerbating the problem. Here, we studied 27 CR-KP isolates collected from different types of samples from 16 patients admitted to the medical ward at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, using next generation sequencing (NGS) and optical DNA mapping (ODM). The majority of the isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 16 and are described in detail herein. Using ODM, we identified the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in the ST16 isolates and the plasmids were very similar, highlighting the possibility of using ODM of plasmids as a surrogate marker of nosocomial spread of bacteria. We also demonstrated that ODM could identify that the blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-232 genes in the ST16 isolates were encoded on separate plasmids from the blaNDM-1 gene and from each other. The other three isolates belonged to ST147 and each of them had distinct plasmids encoding blaNDM-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Targeting the ATP Synthase in Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pathogenic Fungi
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10040376 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
The ATP synthase has been validated as a druggable target with the approval of the ATP synthase inhibitor, bedaquiline, for treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterial species in which the ATP synthase is essential for viability. Gene inactivation studies have also [...] Read more.
The ATP synthase has been validated as a druggable target with the approval of the ATP synthase inhibitor, bedaquiline, for treatment of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterial species in which the ATP synthase is essential for viability. Gene inactivation studies have also shown that the ATP synthase is essential among Streptococci, and some studies even suggest that inhibition of the ATP synthase is a strategy for the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants with deficiencies in the electron transport chain, as well as pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans. Here we investigated five structurally diverse ATP synthase inhibitors, namely N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), oligomycin A, tomatidine, resveratrol and piceatannol, for their growth inhibitory activity against the bacterial strains Streptococcus pyogenes, S. aureus and two isogenic small colony variants, as well as the pathogenic fungal species, C. albicans and Aspergillus niger. DCCD showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against all the strains (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 2–16 µg/mL), except for S. aureus, where the ATP synthase is dispensable for growth. Contrarily, oligomycin A selectively inhibited the fungal strains (MIC 1–8 µg/mL), while tomatidine showed very potent, but selective, activity against small colony variants of S. aureus with compromised electron transport chain activity (MIC 0.0625 µg/mL). Small colony variants of S. aureus were also more sensitive to resveratrol and piceatannol than the wild-type strain, and piceatannol inhibited S. pyogenes at 16–32 µg/mL. We previously showed that transposon inactivation of the ATP synthase sensitizes S. aureus towards polymyxin B and colistin, and here we demonstrate that treatment with structurally diverse ATP synthase inhibitors sensitized S. aureus towards polymyxin B. Collectively, our data show that ATP synthase inhibitors can have selective inhibitory activity against pathogenic microorganisms in which the ATP synthase is essential. The data also show that the inhibition of the ATP synthase in Streptococcus pyogenes may be a new strategy for development of a narrow-spectrum antibiotic class. In other major bacterial pathogens, such as S. aureus and potentially Escherichia coli, where the ATP synthase is dispensable, the ATP synthase inhibitors may be applied in combination with antimicrobial peptides to provide new therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genome-Wide Identification of Resveratrol Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010082 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Resveratrol has been extensively studied due to its potential health benefits in multiple diseases, for example, cancer, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Besides these properties, resveratrol displays inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species; however, the cellular effects of resveratrol in bacteria [...] Read more.
Resveratrol has been extensively studied due to its potential health benefits in multiple diseases, for example, cancer, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Besides these properties, resveratrol displays inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species; however, the cellular effects of resveratrol in bacteria remain incompletely understood, especially in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we aimed to identify intrinsic resistance genes that aid S. aureus in tolerating the activity of resveratrol. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library, consisting of 1920 mutants with inactivation of non-essential genes in S. aureus JE2, for increased susceptibly to resveratrol. On agar plates containing 0.5× the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 17 transposon mutants failed to grow. Of these, four mutants showed a two-fold reduction in MIC, being the clpP protease mutant and three mutants with deficiencies in the electron transport chain (menD, hemB, aroC). The remaining 13 mutants did not show a reduction in MIC, but were confirmed by spot-assays to have increased susceptibility to resveratrol. Several genes were associated with DNA damage repair (recJ, xerC and xseA). Treatment of S. aureus JE2 with sub-inhibitory concentrations of resveratrol did not affect the expression of recJ, xerC and xseA, but increased expression of the SOS–stress response genes lexA and recA, suggesting that resveratrol interferes with DNA integrity in S. aureus. Expression of error-prone DNA polymerases are part of the SOS–stress response and we could show that sub-inhibitory concentrations of resveratrol increased overall mutation frequency as measured by formation of rifampicin resistant mutants. Our data show that DNA repair systems are important determinants aiding S. aureus to overcome the inhibitory activity of resveratrol. Activation of the SOS response by resveratrol could potentially facilitate the development of resistance towards conventional antibiotics in S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Perspective
Sorting out the Superbugs: Potential of Sortase A Inhibitors among Other Antimicrobial Strategies to Tackle the Problem of Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10020164 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Rapid spread of antibiotic resistance throughout the kingdom bacteria is inevitably bringing humanity towards the “post-antibiotic” era. The emergence of so-called “superbugs”—pathogen strains that develop resistance to multiple conventional antibiotics—is urging researchers around the globe to work on the development or perfecting of [...] Read more.
Rapid spread of antibiotic resistance throughout the kingdom bacteria is inevitably bringing humanity towards the “post-antibiotic” era. The emergence of so-called “superbugs”—pathogen strains that develop resistance to multiple conventional antibiotics—is urging researchers around the globe to work on the development or perfecting of alternative means of tackling the pathogenic bacteria infections. Although various conceptually different approaches are being considered, each comes with its advantages and drawbacks. While drug-resistant pathogens are undoubtedly represented by both Gram(+) and Gram(−) bacteria, possible target spectrum across the proposed alternative approaches of tackling them is variable. Numerous anti-virulence strategies aimed at reducing the pathogenicity of target bacteria rather than eliminating them are being considered among such alternative approaches. Sortase A (SrtA) is a membrane-associated cysteine protease that catalyzes a cell wall sorting reaction by which surface proteins, including virulence factors, are anchored to the bacterial cell wall of Gram(+) bacteria. Although SrtA inhibition seems perspective among the Gram-positive pathogen-targeted antivirulence strategies, it still remains less popular than other alternatives. A decrease in virulence due to inactivation of SrtA activity has been extensively studied in Staphylococcus aureus, but it has also been demonstrated in other Gram(+) species. In this manuscript, results of past studies on the discovery of novel SrtA inhibitory compounds and evaluation of their potency were summarized and commented on. Here, we discussed the rationale behind the inhibition of SrtA, raised some concerns on the comparability of the results from different studies, and touched upon the possible resistance mechanisms as a response to implementation of such therapy in practice. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies of SrtA inhibitory compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solutions to Antimicrobial Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop