Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Development and Characterization of Fenugreek Protein-Based Edible Film
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1976; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10091976 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
The present investigation studied the physicochemical, mechanical, structural, thermal, and morphological attributes of a novel edible film formed from fenugreek protein concentrate. Films were produced at different pH—9, 10, 11, and 12—and the effect of the pH on the films was studied. As [...] Read more.
The present investigation studied the physicochemical, mechanical, structural, thermal, and morphological attributes of a novel edible film formed from fenugreek protein concentrate. Films were produced at different pH—9, 10, 11, and 12—and the effect of the pH on the films was studied. As the pH increased, tensile strength increased while water vapor absorption decreased, which is interrelated to the surface morphological properties; as the pH increased, the surface became smoother and compact without any cavities. The films produced were darker in color. Fenugreek protein films exhibited good thermal stability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of strong bonding for the films made at alkaline pH. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) indicated the major structure of the film was amorphous. The study demonstrated that the fenugreek protein concentrate film has influential characteristics and can be used as an edible packaging film. Full article
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Article
Development and Characterization of Physical Modified Pearl Millet Starch-Based Films
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10071609 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Pearl millet is an underutilized and drought-resistant crop that is mainly used for animal feed and fodder. Starch (70%) is the main constituent of the pearl millet grain; this starch may be a good substitute for major sources of starch such as corn, [...] Read more.
Pearl millet is an underutilized and drought-resistant crop that is mainly used for animal feed and fodder. Starch (70%) is the main constituent of the pearl millet grain; this starch may be a good substitute for major sources of starch such as corn, rice, potatoes, etc. Starch was isolated from pearl millet grains and modified with different physical treatments (heat-moisture (HMT), microwave (MT), and sonication treatment (ST)). The amylose content and swelling capacity of the starches decreased after HMT and MT, while the reverse was observed for ST. Transition temperatures (onset (To), peak of gelatinization (Tp), and conclusion (Tc)) of the starches ranged from 62.92–76.16 °C, 67.95–81.05 °C, and 73.78–84.50 °C, respectively. After modification (HMT, MT, and ST), an increase in the transition temperatures was observed. Peak-viscosity of the native starch was observed to be 995 mPa.s., which was higher than the starch modified with HMT and MT. Rheological characteristics (storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G′′)) of the native and modified starches differed from 1039 to 1730 Pa and 83 to 94 Pa; the largest value was found for starch treated with ST and HMT. SEM showed cracks and holes on granule surfaces after HMT as well as MT starch granules. Films were prepared using both native and modified starches. The modification of the starches with different treatments had a significant impact on the moisture, transmittance, and solubility of films. The findings of this study will provide a better understanding of the functional properties of pearl millet starch for its possible utilization in film formation. Full article
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Article
Improving Hunted Wild Boar Carcass Hygiene: Roles of Different Factors Involved in the Harvest Phase
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10071548 - 04 Jul 2021
Abstract
Game meat production strongly differs from that of other meats, as peculiar factors present in the field and in the steps prior to transfer to a game-handling establishment can influence the hygiene of the carcasses and, therefore, of the meat. The effects of [...] Read more.
Game meat production strongly differs from that of other meats, as peculiar factors present in the field and in the steps prior to transfer to a game-handling establishment can influence the hygiene of the carcasses and, therefore, of the meat. The effects of such factors were considered in hunted wild boars based on the main hygienic criteria adopted in meat processing. Environmental, animal, and hunting conditions were studied during two selective hunting seasons in Central Italy. A total of 120 hunted wild boar carcasses were sampled after the skinning process and analyzed for aerobic colony count, Enterobacteriaceae count, and Salmonella spp. isolation. The calculated mean values for aerobic colony and Enterobacteriaceae counts were 3.66 and 2.05 CFU/cm2, respectively, in line with the limits set for the meat of other ungulates by EU legislation. Salmonella spp. showed a prevalence of 2.5% (IC 95%: 1.72–3.27%). Statistical analysis of the data performed with the AIC criterion showed that the main parameter to consider for improving the hygienic level of carcasses is to reduce the time in the refrigerator before skinning, followed by hunting on cold days (<10 °C) without rain, hunting animals <60 kg, and reducing the time between shooting and evisceration. Full article
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Article
Blockchain-Based Traceability System That Ensures Food Safety Measures to Protect Consumer Safety and COVID-19 Free Supply Chains
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10061289 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The virus is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability [...] Read more.
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The virus is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to overseeing environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on a centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents a blockchain-enabled supply chain architecture to ensure the availability of a tamper-proof audit trail. This tamper-proof audit trail helps to make sure that all safety measures are undertaken to minimize the risk of COVID-19 and other bacteria, fungi, and parasites being present in the frozen meat supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Concepts in Food Safety Strategy)
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Article
Assessed versus Perceived Risks: Innovative Communications in Agri-Food Supply Chains
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1001; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10051001 - 03 May 2021
Abstract
Food preparations, especially those based on animal products, are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections, contributing to increased pressure on healthcare systems. The risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and [...] Read more.
Food preparations, especially those based on animal products, are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections, contributing to increased pressure on healthcare systems. The risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and for policymakers. A wrong perception of risks may alter the functioning of supply chains; thus, efforts should be devoted to communicating risks in an efficient way. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to investigate how consumers perceive different food risks. Our analysis shows that planning effective communication strategies is very much important for efficiently informing consumers on food risks. We also comment on potential innovative ways to better organise the supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Highly-Efficient Release of Ferulic Acid from Agro-Industrial By-Products via Enzymatic Hydrolysis with Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes: Part I–The Superiority of Hydrolytic Enzymes Versus Conventional Hydrolysis
Foods 2021, 10(4), 782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10040782 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. [...] Read more.
Historically Triticum aestívum L. and Secale cereále L. are widely used in the production of bakery products. From the total volume of grain cultivated, roughly 85% is used for the manufacturing of flour, while the remaining part is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. The limited value attached to bran is associated with their structural complexity, i.e., the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which makes this material suitable mostly as a feed supplement, while in food production its use presents a challenge. To valorize these materials to food and pharmaceutical applications, additional pre-treatment is required. In the present study, an effective, sustainable, and eco-friendly approach to ferulic acid (FA) production was demonstrated through the biorefining process accomplished by non-starch polysaccharides degrading enzymes. Up to 11.3 and 8.6 g kg−1 of FA was released from rye and wheat bran upon 24 h enzymatic hydrolysis with multi-enzyme complex Viscozyme® L, respectively. Full article
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Article
Chitosan Films Functionalized with Different Hydroxycinnamic Acids: Preparation, Characterization and Application for Pork Preservation
Foods 2021, 10(3), 536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10030536 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 10
Abstract
Hydroxycinnamic acids are one category of bioactive phenolic acids that are widely distributed in plants. In this study, chitosan (CS) was functionalized with three kinds of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) through the carbodiimide-mediated grafting method. The [...] Read more.
Hydroxycinnamic acids are one category of bioactive phenolic acids that are widely distributed in plants. In this study, chitosan (CS) was functionalized with three kinds of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid) through the carbodiimide-mediated grafting method. The obtained hydroxycinnamic-acid-grafted CSs (hydroxycinnamic acid-g-CSs) were further fabricated into food packaging films through solvent casting. For the first time, the functionalities of the different hydroxycinnamic acid-g-CS films were compared. Results showed the grafting ratio of p-coumaric acid-g-CS, caffeic acid-g-CS and ferulic acid-g-CS was 73.68, 129.42 and 91.75 mg/g, respectively. Instrumental analyses confirmed hydroxycinnamic acids conjugated with CS through amide and ester bonds. The functionalization of CS film with hydroxycinnamic acids produced a more compact microstructure and higher UV light barrier ability, mechanical strength, water vapor barrier ability, thermal stability and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Among the different hydroxycinnamic acid-g-CS films, caffeic acid-g-CS film presented the strongest barrier, mechanical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, caffeic acid-g-CS film packaging effectively extended the shelf life of pork to 10 days at 4 °C. Our results suggest caffeic acid-g-CS film can be used in the active food packaging field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds in Foods and Food Packages)
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Article
Using Einkorn and Tritordeum Brewers’ Spent Grain to Increase the Nutritional Potential of Durum Wheat Pasta
Foods 2021, 10(3), 502; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10030502 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to [...] Read more.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to produce four macaroni pasta formulations enriched with BSG at ratios of 5 g and 10 g/100 g of semolina. Einkorn BSG showed the highest values for all the parameters analyzed—proteins, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—except for β-glucan. TDF increased up to 42 and 68% in pasta samples enriched with 10% of BSG from tritordeum and einkorn, respectively. The replacement of 10% of semolina with BSG from both cereals significantly increased the β-glucan content and TAC values. Finally, the addition of BSG from einkorn and tritordeum affected to a minimal extent the sensory properties of cooked pasta, which showed higher values of optimal cooking time and cooking loss, but lower total organic matter compared to semolina pasta. Results from the sensorial judgment fell in the good quality ranges for durum wheat pasta; the incorporation of 10% of einkorn BSG resulted in the best compromise in terms of technological, nutritional and sensorial aspects of enriched pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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Article
Food Choice Determinants and Perceptions of a Healthy Diet among Italian Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(2), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10020318 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 11
Abstract
Healthy food choices are crucial for a healthy lifestyle. However, food choices are complex and affected by various factors. Understanding the determinant factors affecting food choices could aid policy-makers in designing better strategies to promote healthy food choices in the general public. This [...] Read more.
Healthy food choices are crucial for a healthy lifestyle. However, food choices are complex and affected by various factors. Understanding the determinant factors affecting food choices could aid policy-makers in designing better strategies to promote healthy food choices in the general public. This study aims to evaluate the food choice motivations and to segment consumer groups, according to their food choice motivations, in a sample of 531 Italian consumers (collected by convenience sampling), through offline and online survey platforms. K-means cluster analysis was applied to identify consumer groups using six food choice motivation categories (health, emotional, economic and availability, social and cultural, environmental and political, and marketing and commercial). The results suggest that the strongest determinants for the food choices of Italian consumers are Environmental factors and Health. Two consumer profiles were identified through the segmentation analysis: Emotional eating and Health-driven consumers. The respondents were found to have a good awareness of what comprises a healthy diet. There is a potential market for healthy and sustainable food products, especially products with minimal or environmentally friendly packages. Food labels and information strategies could be promoted as tools to assist consumers to make healthy food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivations Associated with Food Choices and Eating Practices)
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Article
Monitoring the Interaction between Thermally Induced Whey Protein and Anthocyanin by Fluorescence Quenching Spectroscopy
Foods 2021, 10(2), 310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10020310 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 9
Abstract
The color stability of anthocyanins was shown to improve with addition of whey proteins (WP). The goal of this study was to investigate the binding mechanisms of purple corn, grape and black carrot anthocyanin extracts to native and preheated WP (40–80 °C, 3.6 [...] Read more.
The color stability of anthocyanins was shown to improve with addition of whey proteins (WP). The goal of this study was to investigate the binding mechanisms of purple corn, grape and black carrot anthocyanin extracts to native and preheated WP (40–80 °C, 3.6 μM) at a pH of 3 using fluorescence quenching spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra were collected with an excitation wavelength of 280 nm at 25 °C, 35 °C and 45 °C. The quenching data were analyzed by using the Stern–Volmer equation. The fluorescence intensity of WP decreased (up to 73%) and its λmax increased (by ~5 nm) with increasing anthocyanin concentration (0–100 μM). The quenching data showed that the interaction between anthocyanin extracts and WP was a static quenching process. Thermodynamic analysis showed their binding was mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Their binding affinity was higher for preheated WP than native WP and decreased gradually with increasing preheating temperature. Black carrot anthocyanin extract had the lowest binding affinity with WP, likely due to the larger molecular structure. These results help better understand the protection mechanism of native and preheated WP on anthocyanin color stability, expanding the application of anthocyanins as food colorants that better withstand processing and storage. Full article
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Article
COVID-19 Lockdown and Self-Perceived Changes of Food Choice, Waste, Impulse Buying and Their Determinants in Italy: QuarantEat, a Cross-Sectional Study
Foods 2021, 10(2), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10020306 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 19
Abstract
Data about self-perceived food choice (FC) changes and their determinants during COVID-19 lockdowns are limited. This study investigated how the Italian lockdown affected self-perceived food purchases (FP), occurrence of impulse buying (IB), household food waste production (HFWP) and their determinants. A web-based cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Data about self-perceived food choice (FC) changes and their determinants during COVID-19 lockdowns are limited. This study investigated how the Italian lockdown affected self-perceived food purchases (FP), occurrence of impulse buying (IB), household food waste production (HFWP) and their determinants. A web-based cross-sectional survey was distributed in May 2020, collecting an opportunistic sample of the Italian population. A total of 1865 (70% females) people were enrolled, the median age was 29 (IQR 16.0). Most of the sample increased overall FP (53.4%), food consumption (43.4%), reduced HFWP (53.7%) and halved the prevalence of IB (20.9%) compared to the period before the lockdown (42.5%). Baking ingredients, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit and chocolate had the largest sales increase by individuals, while bakery products, fresh fish and salted snacks purchases highly decreased. Increased FP was associated with the occurrence of IB (adjOR 2.48, p < 0.001) and inversely associated with not having worked during lockdown (adjOR 0.71, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regressions revealed occurrence of IB was associated with low perceived dietary quality (adjOR 2.22, p < 0.001), resulting at risk, according to the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ, adjOR 1.68, p < 0.001), and inversely associated with decreased HFWP (adjOR 0.73, p < 0.012). Reduced HFWP was associated with higher perceived dietary quality (adjOR 2.27, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with low score at WHO-5 Well-Being Index (adjOR 0.72, p = 0.002). The Italian lockdown highly affected FC behaviours, leading to positive and sustainable habits towards food purchase and consumption. Public health interventions are needed to keep these new positive effects and avoid negative consequences in case of future lockdowns. Full article
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Article
Genotype and Successive Harvests Interaction Affects Phenolic Acids and Aroma Profile of Genovese Basil for Pesto Sauce Production
Foods 2021, 10(2), 278; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10020278 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean cuisine due to its distinctive aroma. Genovese basil leaves are used to prepare “pesto”, a condiment that has always caught the interest of consumers and producers. Usually, basil for industrial processing [...] Read more.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential ingredient of the Mediterranean cuisine due to its distinctive aroma. Genovese basil leaves are used to prepare “pesto”, a condiment that has always caught the interest of consumers and producers. Usually, basil for industrial processing is harvested more than once to extract a higher yield. However, successive cuts can affect quality traits that play a crucial role in defining the product’s final sensory profile. This research was aimed to evaluate the impact of cut on the quantitative and qualitative properties of three Genovese basil cultivars (Aroma 2, Eleonora and Italiano Classico) grown in an open field. Nitrate content, phenolic acids and aromatic profile were determined by ion chromatography (IC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis, respectively. The second harvest increased fresh biomass and total phenolic acids content by 172% and 413%, respectively, with Italiano Classico recording the highest values. The combination of second-cut Aroma 2 yielded the lowest nitrate (473.8 mg kg−1 of fresh weight) and Eugenol (2.4%) levels. In the second harvest, Eleonora showed an increase in eugenol and trans-α-bergamotene of 75.3% and 48.2%, respectively; whereas, eucalyptol and β-cis-ocimene decreased by 34.4% and 51.6%, respectively. Although successive harvests may increase basil yield and quality overall, the cultivar-dependent response to successive cuts needs to be accounted for in order to accomplish standardization of industrial “pesto” sauce. Full article
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Article
The Quality of Red Bell Pepper Subjected to Freeze-Drying Preceded by Traditional and Novel Pretreatment
Foods 2021, 10(2), 226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10020226 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
It has been demonstrated previously in the literature that utilization of PEF or a combination of a pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultrasounds (US) can facilitate dehydration processes and improve the quality of dried products even better than the application of thermal methods [...] Read more.
It has been demonstrated previously in the literature that utilization of PEF or a combination of a pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultrasounds (US) can facilitate dehydration processes and improve the quality of dried products even better than the application of thermal methods such as blanching. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of red bell pepper subjected to freeze-drying preceded by blanching or PEF or US treatment applied in a single and combined mode. Furthermore, the freeze-drying was preceded by shock freezing or vacuum freezing performed inside the freeze-dryer as a result of pressure drop during the first stage of freeze-drying. All of the analyzed technological variants enhanced the drying kinetics when compared to the intact material. Freeze-dried bell pepper subjected to non-thermal pretreatment exhibited higher vitamin C, total phenolic and carotenoids content than blanched material despite the fact that blanching reduced drying time the most compared to all other analyzed methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology Application in Food Processing)
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Article
Changes in the Food-Related Behaviour of Italian Consumers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2021, 10(1), 169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010169 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 14
Abstract
The principal aim of this study is to explore the effects of the first lockdown of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on changes in food consumption and food-related behaviour on a diverse sample of Italian consumers aged ≥18 years. To achieve this [...] Read more.
The principal aim of this study is to explore the effects of the first lockdown of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on changes in food consumption and food-related behaviour on a diverse sample of Italian consumers aged ≥18 years. To achieve this aim, the research path starts with an investigation of some of the first few studies conducted on Italian consumers. It then reports the findings of a pilot survey carried out on a small sample of Italian consumes who live in Molise. The studies chosen for investigation were published as articles or research reports. In total, six relevant studies were chosen, each involving a different sized sample of Italian consumers. The average number of respondents is 2142, with a standard deviation of 1260.56. A distinction is made between the results of the articles, the research reports, and the pilot survey. The latter was conducted to develop and validate the components of a new questionnaire and, furthermore, to assess changes in the eating habits of individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that the effects of the pandemic on consumer behaviour can, above all, be grouped into changes related to shopping for food, eating habits, and food-related behaviour. This article can serve as the basis for future research in this area as it identifies and highlights key changes, in addition to comparing the earliest evidence available, using a critical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Basil Essential Oil: Composition, Antimicrobial Properties, and Microencapsulation to Produce Active Chitosan Films for Food Packaging
Foods 2021, 10(1), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010121 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 18
Abstract
The essential oil (EO) from basil—Ocimum basilicum—was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, [...] Read more.
The essential oil (EO) from basil—Ocimum basilicum—was characterized, microencapsulated by vibration technology, and used to prepare a new type of packaging system designed to extend the food shelf life. The basil essential oil (BEO) chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were analyzed, as well as the morphological and biological properties of the derived BEO microcapsules (BEOMC). Analysis of BEO by gas chromatography demonstrated that the main component was linalool, whereas the study of its antimicrobial activity showed a significant inhibitory effect against all the microorganisms tested, mostly Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the prepared BEOMC showed a spheroidal shape and retained the EO antimicrobial activity. Finally, chitosan-based edible films were produced, grafted with BEOMC, and characterized for their physicochemical and biological properties. Since their effective antimicrobial activity was demonstrated, these films were tested as packaging system by wrapping cooked ham samples during 10 days of storage, with the aim of their possible use to extend the shelf life of the product. It was demonstrated that the obtained active film can both control the bacterial growth of the cooked ham and markedly inhibit the pH increase of the packaged food. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Bioactive Compounds Found in Tomato Seed Oil and Tomato Peels Influenced by Industrial Heat Treatments
Foods 2021, 10(1), 110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010110 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 13
Abstract
The circular economy action plan involves principles related to food waste reduction and integration of recovered nutrients to the market. In this context, the present study aims to highlight the valuable bioactive components found in tomato processing by-products (carotenoids, phenolic compounds and fatty [...] Read more.
The circular economy action plan involves principles related to food waste reduction and integration of recovered nutrients to the market. In this context, the present study aims to highlight the valuable bioactive components found in tomato processing by-products (carotenoids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids) influenced by industrial pre-treatments, particularly cold break (CB) process at 65–75 °C and hot break (HB) process at 85–95 °C. The fatty acid profile of the tomato seed oil was examined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), individual carotenoid and phenolic compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the viscoelastic properties were evaluated by rheological measurements. The physicochemical properties revealed appropriate characteristics of the tomato seed oil to fit the standards of generally accepted edible oils, for both CB and HB derived samples, however, significant qualitative and quantitative differences were detected in their phenolic composition and carotenoids content. Lycopene (37.43 ± 1.01 mg/100 mL) was a major carotenoid in the examined samples, linoleic acid was the main fatty acid (61.73%) detected in the tomato seed oil and syringic acid appeared to be one of two major phenolic acids detected in the samples of CB process. Our findings extend the boundaries of tomato processing industry by validating that tomato seed oil is a bioactive rich edible oil with additional health benefits, which can be integrated in functional food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Presence of Parabens and Bisphenols in Food Commonly Consumed in Spain
Foods 2021, 10(1), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10010092 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 12
Abstract
Given the widespread use of bisphenols and parabens in consumer products, the assessment of their intake is crucial and represents the first step towards the assessment of the potential risks that these compounds may pose to human health. In the present study, a [...] Read more.
Given the widespread use of bisphenols and parabens in consumer products, the assessment of their intake is crucial and represents the first step towards the assessment of the potential risks that these compounds may pose to human health. In the present study, a total of 98 samples of food items commonly consumed by the Spanish population were collected from different national supermarkets and grocery stores for the determination of parabens and bisphenols. Our analysis demonstrated that 56 of the 98 food samples contained detectable levels of parabens with limits of quantification (LOQ) between 0.4 and 0.9 ng g−1. The total concentration of parabens (sum of four parabens: ∑parabens) ranged from below the LOQ to 281.7 ng g−1, with a mean value of 73.86 ng g−1. A total of 52% of the samples showed detectable concentrations of bisphenols. Bisphenol A (BPA) was the most frequently detected bisphenol in the food samples analysed, followed by bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol E (BPE). Bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB) and bisphenol P (BPP) were not found in any of the analysed samples. LOQ for these bisphenols were between 0.4 and 4.0 ng g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Screening and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Their Antioxidant Capacity in Different Fruit Peels
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9091206 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 35
Abstract
Fruit peels have a diverse range of phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamins, dietary fibres, and phenolic compounds, some with remarkable antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the comprehensive screening and characterization of the complex array of phenolic compounds in different fruit peels is limited. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Fruit peels have a diverse range of phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamins, dietary fibres, and phenolic compounds, some with remarkable antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the comprehensive screening and characterization of the complex array of phenolic compounds in different fruit peels is limited. This study aimed to determine the polyphenol content and their antioxidant potential in twenty different fruit peel samples in an ethanolic extraction, including their comprehensive characterization and quantification using the LC-MS/MS and HPLC. The obtained results showed that the mango peel exhibited the highest phenolic content for TPC (27.51 ± 0.63 mg GAE/g) and TFC (1.75 ± 0.08 mg QE/g), while the TTC (9.01 ± 0.20 mg CE/g) was slightly higher in the avocado peel than mango peel (8.99 ± 0.13 mg CE/g). In terms of antioxidant potential, the grapefruit peel had the highest radical scavenging capacities for the DPPH (9.17 ± 0.19 mg AAE/g), ABTS (10.79 ± 0.56 mg AAE/g), ferric reducing capacity in FRAP (9.22 ± 0.25 mg AA/g), and total antioxidant capacity, TAC (8.77 ± 0.34 mg AAE/g) compared to other fruit peel samples. The application of LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS tentatively identified and characterized a total of 176 phenolics, including phenolic acids (49), flavonoids (86), lignans (11), stilbene (5) and other polyphenols (25) in all twenty peel samples. From HPLC-PDA quantification, the mango peel sample showed significantly higher phenolic content, particularly for phenolic acids (gallic acid, 14.5 ± 0.4 mg/g) and flavonoids (quercetin, 11.9 ± 0.4 mg/g), as compared to other fruit peel samples. These results highlight the importance of fruit peels as a potential source of polyphenols. This study provides supportive information for the utilization of different phenolic rich fruit peels as ingredients in food, feed, and nutraceutical products. Full article
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Article
European Markets for Cultured Meat: A Comparison of Germany and France
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9091152 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 26
Abstract
The negative impacts of meat consumption for animals, the environment, and human health are more pressing than ever. Although some evidence points to an ongoing reduction in meat consumption in Europe, consumers are overall unwilling to cut their meat consumption in a substantial [...] Read more.
The negative impacts of meat consumption for animals, the environment, and human health are more pressing than ever. Although some evidence points to an ongoing reduction in meat consumption in Europe, consumers are overall unwilling to cut their meat consumption in a substantial way. The present study investigates dietary identities and perceptions of cultured meat in nationally representative samples from Germany (n = 1000) and France (n = 1000). Participants were recruited through an Ipsos panel to answer an online survey, which included questions about their current and intended consumption of conventional meat, as well as questions about their opinions of cultured meat. We find that, whilst rates of vegetarianism were relatively low in France, unrestricted meat-eaters were a minority in Germany, and concern for animal welfare was the most common reason given for meat reduction. Substantial markets for cultured meat exist in both countries, although German consumers are significantly more open to the concept than the French. Strikingly, cultured meat acceptance is significantly higher amongst agricultural and meat workers, indicating that those who are closest to existing meat production methods are most likely to prefer alternatives. We found some evidence that pro-cultured meat messages, which focus on antibiotic resistance and food safety, are significantly more persuasive than those that focus on animals or the environment. Furthermore, consumers project that they would be significantly more likely to consume cultured meat that does not contain genetically modified ingredients. Overall, we find substantially large markets for cultured meat in Germany and France, and identify some potential ways to further increase acceptance in these markets. We conclude by highlighting the most promising markets for cultured meat, and highlighting a lack of antibiotics as a potentially persuasive message about cultured meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered and Cell-Based Meat and Seafood)
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Article
Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Biodegradable Active Packaging Enriched with Clove and Thyme Essential Oil for Food Packaging Application
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9081117 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
Bioactive packaging contains natural antimicrobial agents, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms and increase the food shelf life. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the Poly (lactide)-Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) film incorporated with the thyme oil and clove oil in various concentrations [...] Read more.
Bioactive packaging contains natural antimicrobial agents, which inhibit the growth of microorganisms and increase the food shelf life. Solvent casting method was used to prepare the Poly (lactide)-Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PLA-PBAT) film incorporated with the thyme oil and clove oil in various concentrations (1 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt%). The clove oil composite films depicted less green and more yellow as compared to thyme oil composite films. Clove oil composite film has shown an 80% increase in the UV blocking efficiency. The tensile strength (TS) of thyme oil and clove oil composite film decreases from 1.35 MPs (control film) to 0.96 MPa and 0.79, respectively. A complete killing of S. aureus that is a reduction from 6.5 log CFU/mL to 0 log CFU/mL was observed on the 10 wt% clove oil incorporated composite film. Clove oil and thyme oil composite film had inhibited E. coli biofilm by 93.43% and 82.30%, respectively. Clove oil composite film had exhibited UV blocking properties, strong antimicrobial activity and has high potential to be used as an active food packaging. Full article
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Article
Sourdough Fermentation Degrades Wheat Alpha-Amylase/Trypsin Inhibitor (ATI) and Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activity
Foods 2020, 9(7), 943; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9070943 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease [...] Read more.
The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity. ATI are involved in plant self-defense against insects and possibly in grain development. Notably, they are largely resistant to gastrointestinal proteases and heat, and their inflammatory activity affects not only the intestine, but also peripheral organs. The aim of this study was to understand the changes of ATI throughout the sourdough and yeast-fermented bread-making processes. ATI tetramers were isolated, fluorescein-labelled, and added to a mini-dough bread-making system. When the pH decreased below 4.0 in sourdough fermentation, the ATI tetramers were degraded due to the activation of aspartic proteases, whilst in yeast fermentation, ATI tetramers remained intact. The amylase inhibitory activity after sourdough fermentation decreased significantly, while the concentration of free thiol groups increased. The glutathione reductase activity of Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis did not contribute to the reduction of ATI tetramers. Compared to the unfermented wheat, sourdough fermentation was able to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in quantitative ATI extracts added to the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The current data suggest that sourdough fermentation can degrade ATI structure and bioactivity, and point to strategies to improve product development for wheat sensitivity patients. Full article
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Article
Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of High Concentration of Bioactive Compounds Fragments from Euphorbia hirta L. Extract and Their Effect on Diabetes Mellitus
Foods 2020, 9(7), 881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9070881 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract [...] Read more.
The present study was performed to spray-dry the high concentration of bioactive compounds from Euphorbia hirta L. extracts that have antidiabetic activity. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of four different extracts (crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract) from the dried powder of Euphorbia hirta L. were determined using a spectrophotometer. After that, the fragment containing a high number of bioactive compounds underwent spray-dried microencapsulation to produce powder which had antidiabetic potential. The total phenolic content values of the crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract were 194.55 ± 0.82, 51.85 ± 3.12, 81.56 ± 1.72 and 214.21 ± 2.53 mg/g extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Crude extract, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extracts showed total flavonoids 40.56 ± 7.27, 29.49 ± 1.66, 64.99 ± 2.60 and 91.69 ± 1.67 mg/g extract, as rutin equivalents. Ethyl acetate extract was mixed with 20% maltodextrin in a ratio of 1:10 to spray-dry microencapsulation. The results revealed that the moisture content, bulk density, color characteristic, solubility and hygroscopicity of the samples were 4.9567 ± 0.00577%, 0.3715 ± 0.01286 g/mL, 3.7367 ± 0.1424 Hue, 95.83 ± 1.44% and 9.9890 ± 1.4538 g H2O/100 g, respectively. The spray powder was inhibited 51.19% α-amylase at 10 mg/mL and reduced 51% in fast blood glucose (FBG) after 4 h treatment. Furthermore, the administration of spray powder for 15 days significantly lowered the fast blood glucose level in streptozotocin-diabetic mice by 23.32%, whereas, acarbose—a standard antidiabetic drug—and distilled water reduced the fast blood glucose level by 30.87% and 16.89%. Our results show that obtained Euphorbia hirta L. powder has potential antidiabetic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Plant Extracts for Human Health)
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Article
Development of High-Moisture Meat Analogues with Hemp and Soy Protein Using Extrusion Cooking
Foods 2020, 9(6), 772; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9060772 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 25
Abstract
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating [...] Read more.
The interest in plant-based products is growing in Western countries, mostly due to health and environmental issues that arise from the consumption and production of animal-based food products. Many vegan products today are made from soy, but drawbacks include the challenges of cultivating soy in colder climates such as northern Europe. Therefore, the present study investigates whether industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) could substitute soy in the production of high moisture meat analogues (HMMA). A twin screw co-rotating extruder was used to investigate to what extent hemp protein concentrate (HPC) could replace soy protein isolate (SPI) in HMMAs. The substitution levels of HPC were 20 wt%, 40 wt% and 60 wt%. Pasting properties and melting temperature of the protein powders were characterized by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), respectively and the produced HMMA was analysed by determining the texture and colour attributes. The results showed that it is possible to extrude a mixture with up to 60% HPC. HPC absorbed less water and needed a higher denaturing temperature compared to SPI. Increasing the moisture content by 5% would have resulted in a reduction of hardness and chewiness. The lightness (L* value) was found to be significantly higher in SPI product and decreased in the mixture with higher HPC (p < 0.05). Full article
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Article
Effects of Chemical and Natural Additives on Cucumber Juice’s Quality, Shelf Life, and Safety
Foods 2020, 9(5), 639; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9050639 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 25
Abstract
Microbial contamination affects beverages’ lifetime, quality, and safety. Cucumber crops are seasonally spoiled because of the overproduction. The current study aimed to maximize the importance of natural preservatives and reduce the usage of artificial ones to prolong the cucumber juice’s storage life, enhance [...] Read more.
Microbial contamination affects beverages’ lifetime, quality, and safety. Cucumber crops are seasonally spoiled because of the overproduction. The current study aimed to maximize the importance of natural preservatives and reduce the usage of artificial ones to prolong the cucumber juice’s storage life, enhance flavor, and control the microorganisms after protein isolate and organic acids supplementation. The additions included control (no addition), citric, benzoic acid, sodium salts, kidney bean pepsin hydrolysate (KPH), chicken egg protein isolate (CEPI), duck egg protein isolate (DEPI), and quail egg protein isolate (QEPI) as J-Control, J-Citric, J-Benzoic, J-sod. Citrate, J-sod. Benzoate, J-KPH, J-CEPI, J-DEPI, and J-QEPI, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these additives and juices was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The antimicrobial activity, including antibacterial and antifungal activities, was evaluated by using disc assay and the radial growth of fungal mycelium, respectively. The phenolic compounds and flavonoids were estimated by a spectrophotometer as Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE), respectively. Moreover, chemical parameters such as pH, total soluble solids (TSS), Titratable acidity (TTA), and Vitamin C were evaluated by AOAC. Finally, the color properties were estimated by a spectrophotometer, using the Hunter method. KPH had higher significant (p ≤ 0.05) antioxidant activity (88%), along with antimicrobial activity. It significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the growth of G+ and G− bacteria by 71–97% and 58–66% respectively. Furthermore, it significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited the tested fungi growth by 70–88% and the other additives less than that. During the storage of cucumber juice for an interval of zero, two, four, and six months, the phenolic compounds and flavonoids were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased. Consequently, the potential activity of the juice was reduced; in addition, pH and vitamin C were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased during the storage period. Meanwhile, the TSS and Titratable acidity were significantly raised. As for color and sensory properties, J-sod. Benzoate, J-KPH, J-CEPI, and J-DEPI had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high scores in color, taste, and flavor against the control. Generally, the usage of natural additives extends the cucumber juice’s lifetime and increased the manufacture of high-quality and valuable juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Small Berries
Foods 2020, 9(5), 623; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9050623 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
The popularity of small berries has rapidly increased in Western countries given their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities and health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) profile, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of extracts of 11 [...] Read more.
The popularity of small berries has rapidly increased in Western countries given their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities and health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) profile, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of extracts of 11 berries cultivated in the North West of Italy. Berry samples were extracted and evaluated for FA profile and total anthocyanin (TAC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and for their radical scavenging activities against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The main polyphenols of berry extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-UV-ESI HRMS in positive ion mode. Results showed that the highest TAC and TFC contents were recorded in black currants, blackberries, and blueberries. Maximum and minimum DPPH radical scavenging activities, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP measurements confirmed the same trend recorded for TAC and TFC values. HPLC-HRMS analyses highlight how blueberries and blackberries have the highest concentration in polyphenols. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and γ-linolenic acids significantly differ between berries, with oleic and α-linolenic acid representing the most abundant FAs in raspberries. Among the berries investigated, results of phytochemical characterization suggest choosing black currants and blueberries as an excellent source of natural antioxidants for food and health purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Natural Products in Foods)
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Article
Physicochemical Composition and Nutritional Properties of Deer Burger Enhanced with Healthier Oils
Foods 2020, 9(5), 571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9050571 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 22
Abstract
Deer meat is characterized by low fat and cholesterol contents and high amounts of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this regard, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of pork backfat substitution by healthier oils on chemical composition, fatty [...] Read more.
Deer meat is characterized by low fat and cholesterol contents and high amounts of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this regard, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of pork backfat substitution by healthier oils on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, texture profile and sensory analysis of deer burger. In addition, pH, color parameters and lipid oxidation were evaluated at 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of storage. For this study, four different treatments of deer burgers—100% pork backfat, 100% tiger nut oil, 100% chia oil, and 100% linseed oil—were elaborated. The fat replacement reduced fat and protein contents and increased moisture amounts, whereas ashes and texture parameters of deer burgers were not affected. Fatty acid profile was significantly improved with the animal fat replacement. In this regard, a significant decrease in saturated fatty acids was found in all reformulated batches, whereas in chia and linseed burger samples a dramatic increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 content and a reduction of n-3/n-6 ratio was observed. In the deer burger prepared with tiger nut oil a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids was found. Another important aspect is that the replacement of animal fat by tiger nut or linseed oil emulsion did not affect the global acceptance of deer burgers. Regarding color parameters, redness was the most affected during the whole display presenting a reduction around 50% after 18 days of storage. On the other hand, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were also affected by fat replacement and storage time, observing the highest values (2.43 mg MDA/kg) in deer burgers prepared with chia at the end of refrigerated period. Finally, from a commercial point of view, the possibility of making claims such as “low fat burgers”, “reduced saturated fat” or “high content of omega-3” makes the reformulated burgers more attractive to the consumer. Full article
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Article
Effects of Traditional Processing Techniques on the Nutritional and Microbiological Quality of Four Edible Insect Species Used for Food and Feed in East Africa
Foods 2020, 9(5), 574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9050574 - 04 May 2020
Cited by 25
Abstract
Edible insects are increasingly being considered as food and feed ingredients because of their rich nutrient content. Already, edible insect farming has taken-off in Africa, but quality and safety concerns call for simple, actionable hazard control mechanisms. We examined the effects of traditional [...] Read more.
Edible insects are increasingly being considered as food and feed ingredients because of their rich nutrient content. Already, edible insect farming has taken-off in Africa, but quality and safety concerns call for simple, actionable hazard control mechanisms. We examined the effects of traditional processing techniques—boiling, toasting, solar-drying, oven-drying, boiling + oven-drying, boiling + solar-drying, toasting + oven-drying, toasting + solar-drying—on the proximate composition and microbiological quality of adult Acheta domesticus and Ruspolia differens, the prepupae of Hermetia illucens and 5th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Boiling, toasting, and drying decreased the dry matter crude fat by 0.8–51% in the order: toasting > boiling > oven-drying > solar-drying, whereas the protein contents increased by 1.2–22% following the same order. Boiling and toasting decreased aerobic mesophilic bacterial populations, lowered Staphylococcus aureus, and eliminated the yeasts and moulds, Lac+ enteric bacteria, and Salmonella. Oven-drying alone marginally lowered bacterial populations as well as yeast and moulds, whereas solar-drying alone had no effect on these parameters. Oven-drying of the boiled or toasted products increased the aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts but the products remained negative on Lac+ enteric bacteria and Salmonella. Traditional processing improves microbial safety but alters the nutritional value. Species- and treatment-specific patterns exist. Full article
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Coating Based on Protein Nanofibers and Polyphenol and Application for Salted Duck Egg Yolks
Foods 2020, 9(4), 449; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9040449 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 28
Abstract
Salted duck egg yolk (SDEY) is one of the traditional pickled egg products in Asian countries, which suffers from the weight loss and deterioration of texture characteristics during storage. To better maintain the texture of SDEY, an edible coating based on whey protein [...] Read more.
Salted duck egg yolk (SDEY) is one of the traditional pickled egg products in Asian countries, which suffers from the weight loss and deterioration of texture characteristics during storage. To better maintain the texture of SDEY, an edible coating based on whey protein isolate nanofibers (WPNFs) with glycerol (Gly) as a plasticizer and incorporating carvacrol (CA) as an antimicrobial agent was developed. Whey protein isolate (WPI, 5%) was used to self-assemble into WPNFs at 80 °C for 10 h. The particle size, zeta-potential and microstructure of WPNFs–CA emulsion were investigated to evaluate the distribution. Results proved that WPNFs–CA emulsion had smaller particle size and better distribution than WPI–CA emulsion. WPNFs–CA/Gly edible coating was then prepared based on WPNFs–CA emulsion. The WPNFs–CA/Gly edible coating exhibited higher antibacterial activity while the WPNFs–CA/Gly film had smooth and continuous surfaces and better transmittance compared with other samples. Furthermore, weight losses and textural properties changes of SDEYs with WPNFs–CA/Gly coating were evaluated. Results proved that salted duck egg yolks with WPNFs–CA/Gly coating exhibited lower weight losses. Textural properties were significantly improved by the WPNFs–CA/Gly coating on SDEYs than those uncoated samples. It was noted that the egg yolks coated with the WPNFs–CA/Gly coating had the lowest hardness increase rate (18.22%). Hence, WPNF-based coatings may have a good development prospect in the food industry. Full article
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Physicochemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Compounds of Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Fruits Species for Potential Use in Food Applications
Foods 2020, 9(4), 436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9040436 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
Hawthorn belongs to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and [...] Read more.
Hawthorn belongs to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family and is an important medicinal plant. Due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity hawthorn has recently become quite a popular herbal medicine in phytotherapy and food applications. In this study, physicochemical characterization (color parameters, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, soluble carbohydrate, total carotenoid, total phenols, and flavonoid contents), antioxidant activity (by ferric-reducing antioxidant power, FRAP assay), and quantification of some individual phenolic compounds of fruits of 15 samples of different hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) collected from different regions of Iran were investigated. According to findings, the total phenols, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were in the range of 21.19–69.12 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (dw), 2.44–6.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QUE)/g dw and 0.32–1.84 mmol Fe++/g dw, respectively. Hyperoside (0.87–2.94 mg/g dw), chlorogenic acid (0.06–1.16 mg/g dw), and isoquercetin (0.24–1.59 mg/g dw) were found to be the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts of hawthorn fruits. The considerable variations in the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of hawthorn species were demonstrated by our results. Hence, the evaluation of hawthorn genetic resources could supply precious data for screening genotypes with high bioactive contents for producing natural antioxidants and other phytochemical compounds valuable for food and pharma industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Natural Products in Foods)
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Article
Insects as Novel Food: A Consumer Attitude Analysis through the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach
Foods 2020, 9(4), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9040387 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
In Western societies, the unfamiliarity with insect-based food is a hindrance for consumption and market development. This may depend on neophobia and reactions of disgust, individual characteristics and socio-cultural background, and risk-perceptions for health and production technologies. In addition, in many European countries, [...] Read more.
In Western societies, the unfamiliarity with insect-based food is a hindrance for consumption and market development. This may depend on neophobia and reactions of disgust, individual characteristics and socio-cultural background, and risk-perceptions for health and production technologies. In addition, in many European countries, the sale of insects for human consumption is still illegal, although European Union (EU) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are developing regulatory frameworks and environmental and quality standards. This research aims to advance the knowledge on entomophagy, providing insights to improve consumer acceptance in Italy. This is done by carrying out the characterization of a sample of consumers according to their willingness to taste several types of insect-based food and taking into account the connections among the consumers’ features. Thus, the dominance-based rough set approach is applied using the data collected from 310 Italian consumers. This approach provided 206 certain decision rules characterizing the consumers into five groups, showing the consumers’ features determining their specific classification. Although many Italian consumers are willing to accept only insects in the form of feed stuffs or supplements, this choice is a first step towards entomophagy. Conversely, young Italian people are a niche market, but they can play a role in changing trends. Full article
Article
Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Edible Films, Based on κ- and ι-Carrageenans with the Addition of Lapacho Tea Extract
Foods 2020, 9(3), 357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030357 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to characterize antioxidant and textural property differences of edible films prepared with the addition of lapacho extract (LE). The experimentally produced edible films also contained different carrageenans (ι- and κ-carrageenan). The κ- and ι-carrageenan, glycerol and the different addition of LE (5%, 10%, 20%) were used as ingredients for forming films. The pH and viscosity were measured for film forming solutions (before drying). The following analyses were performed on films: the total polyphenol content (TPC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2-Diphenyl–1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Optical parameters were analyzed by the determination of UV-Vis spectra. The structure of films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The gained results indicated that the use of different gelling agents (ι- and κ-carrageenan) resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in textural properties (strength and breaking strain) of produced edible films. The highest antioxidant properties and TPC had a κ film with 20% LE (DPPH: 87.63 ± 0.03%; TPC: 233.75 ± 0.104 mg gallic acid/g). According to these results, it can be concluded that edible films with the highest concentrations of added lapacho extract can serve as a good source of antioxidant compounds. Certainly, these properties can be usefully incorporated into the wrapped food commodity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Novel Packaging Technology on Food Safety and Quality)
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Article
Effect of Grape Pomace Addition on the Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Pasta
Foods 2020, 9(3), 354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030354 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 21
Abstract
In this study, fortified pasta was prepared by replacing semolina with 0, 5, and 10 g/100 g of grape pomace (GP), a food industry by-product, rich in fiber and phenols. GP inclusion in pasta significantly reduced its optimum cooking time and the swelling [...] Read more.
In this study, fortified pasta was prepared by replacing semolina with 0, 5, and 10 g/100 g of grape pomace (GP), a food industry by-product, rich in fiber and phenols. GP inclusion in pasta significantly reduced its optimum cooking time and the swelling index, while also increasing the cooking loss (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pasta firmness and adhesiveness were enhanced by the GP addition, as well as the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity, evaluated through ABTS and FRAP assays (p < 0.05). From a nutritional point of view, increasing amounts of GP resulted in a significative decrease in the rapidly digestible starch and an increase in the slowly digestible starch, while the predicted in vitro glycemic index was also reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that fortified spaghetti had good overall acceptability, and the results suggest that GP-fortified pasta could represent a healthy product with good technological and sensory properties. Full article
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Comparison of Faba Bean Protein Ingredients Produced Using Dry Fractionation and Isoelectric Precipitation: Techno-Functional, Nutritional and Environmental Performance
Foods 2020, 9(3), 322; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030322 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 27
Abstract
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry [...] Read more.
Dry fractionated faba bean protein-rich flour (FPR) produced by milling/air classification, and faba bean protein isolate (FPI) produced by acid extraction/isoelectric precipitation were compared in terms of composition, techno-functional properties, nutritional properties and environmental impacts. FPR had a lower protein content (64.1%, dry matter (DM)) compared to FPI (90.1%, DM), due to the inherent limitations of air classification. Of the two ingredients, FPR demonstrated superior functionality, including higher protein solubility (85%), compared to FPI (32%) at pH 7. Foaming capacity was higher for FPR, although foam stability was similar for both ingredients. FPR had greater gelling ability compared to FPI. The higher carbohydrate content of FPR may have contributed to this difference. An amino acid (AA) analysis revealed that both ingredients were low in sulfur-containing AAs, with FPR having a slightly higher level than FPI. The potential nutritional benefits of the aqueous process compared to the dry process used in this study were apparent in the higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and lower trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) in FPI compared to FPR. Additionally, vicine/convicine were detected in FPR, but not in FPI. Furthermore, much lower levels of fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) were found in FPI compared to FPR. The life cycle assessment (LCA) revealed a lower environmental impact for FPR, partly due to the extra water and energy required for aqueous processing. However, in a comparison with cow’s milk protein, both FPR and FPI were shown to have considerably lower environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Individual Phenolics and Physicochemical Parameters Suitability for Romanian Honey Authentication
Foods 2020, 9(3), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030306 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 35
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of honey (raspberry, mint, rape, sunflower, thyme and polyfloral) produced in Romania. The honey samples were from the 2017 to 2018 harvest and were subjected to melissopalynological analysis, alongside the determination of the following [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of honey (raspberry, mint, rape, sunflower, thyme and polyfloral) produced in Romania. The honey samples were from the 2017 to 2018 harvest and were subjected to melissopalynological analysis, alongside the determination of the following physicochemical parameters: moisture content, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content, color, total polyphenols content (TPC), flavonoids content (FC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, phenolic acids, flavonols, sugars and organic acids in order to evaluate the usefulness of this parameters for the classification of honey according to botanical origin. The results of the melissopalynological analysis revealed that five types of honey samples had a percentage of pollen grains above the minimum of 45%, which was required in order to classify the samples as monofloral honey. The total polyphenols content reached the maximum value in the case of dark honey such as mint honey, followed by raspberry, thyme and polifloral honey. Fructose, glucose, maltose, sucrose, turanose, trehalose, melesitose, and raffinose were identified and quantified in all samples. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid in the composition of all honey samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility of the botanical authentication of honey based on these physicochemical parameters. Full article
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Article
Sprouted Barley Flour as a Nutritious and Functional Ingredient
Foods 2020, 9(3), 296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030296 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 24
Abstract
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated seeds to produce functional flours. In this study, germination conditions were optimized in barley grains with the aim to produce flours with high nutritional and biofunctional potential using response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of germination time (0.8–6 days) and temperature (12–20 °C) on barley quality was studied. Non-germinated barley was used as the control. The content of vitamins B1, B2 and C, and proteins increased notably after germination, especially at longer times, while levels of fat, carbohydrates, fibre, and β-glucan were reduced. Total phenolic compounds, γ-aminobutyric acid and antioxidant activity determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity increased between 2-fold and 4-fold during sprouting, depending on germination conditions and this increase was more pronounced at higher temperatures (16–20 °C) and longer times (5–6 days). Procyanidin B and ferulic acid were the main phenolics in the soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively. Procyanidin B levels decreased while bound ferulic acid content increased during germination. Germinated barley flours exhibited lower brightness and a higher glycemic index than the control ones. This study shows that germination at 16 °C for 3.5 days was the optimum process to obtain nutritious and functional barley flours. Under these conditions, sprouts retained 87% of the initial β-glucan content, and exhibited levels of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, phenolic compounds and GABA between 1.4-fold and 2.5-fold higher than the non-sprouted grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Production, Properties and Applications of Sprouted Seeds)
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Article
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) Essential Oil for Its Application in Foods
Foods 2020, 9(3), 282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030282 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 30
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the Coriandrum sativum essential oil. Changes in the biofilm profile of Stenotropomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis were studied using MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper on glass and wooden [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the Coriandrum sativum essential oil. Changes in the biofilm profile of Stenotropomonas maltophilia and Bacillus subtilis were studied using MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper on glass and wooden surfaces. The molecular differences of biofilms in different days were observed as well. The major volatile compounds of the coriander essential oil in the present study were β-linalool 66.07%. Coriander essential oil radical scavenging activity was 51.05% of inhibition. Coriander essential oil expressed the strongest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis followed by S. maltophilia and Penicillium expansum. The strongest antibiofilm activity of the coriander essential oil was found against S. maltophilia. A clearly differentiated branch was obtained for early growth variants of S. maltophilia in case of planktonic cells and all experimental groups and time span can be reported for the grouping pattern of B. subtilis preferentially when comparing to the media matrix, but without clear differences among variants. The results indicate that coriander was effective against the tested Penicillium expansum in the vapor phase after 14 days with MID50 367.19 and MID90 445.92 µL/L of air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Natural Compounds)
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Article
Composition, Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Commercial Plant-Based Yogurts
Foods 2020, 9(3), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9030252 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 30
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the key physicochemical, sensory and quality attributes of plant-based yogurts made from soy, coconut, cashew, almond and hemp, including a dairy benchmark yogurt. The soy, coconut and cashew-based yogurts showed textural parameters comparable to the dairy yogurt, with firmness values of 0.46, 0.44, 0.51 and 0.36 N, respectively. Rheological analysis showed that one of the soy-based yogurts was similar to the dairy yogurt in terms of apparent viscosity, in addition to water-holding capacity (82.8% and 75.7%, respectively). Other plant-based yogurts, e.g., hemp, showed different rheological and textural parameters to the other plant-based products, relating this to the agar and rice starch components of the hemp formulation. The sensory analysis demonstrated that some plant-based yogurts were similarly appreciated to dairy-based products. This was due mainly to the presence of specific hydrocolloids, sweeteners and flavours in the formulations; for example, the acceptability of the soy- and dairy-based yogurts were identical (5.95). The results obtained in this study allowed identification of key quality attributes of plant-based yogurt products and highlighted relationships between such attributes and formulation, which can be exploited in future product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk Alternatives and Non-Dairy Fermented Products)
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Article
Rapid Identification and Visualization of Jowl Meat Adulteration in Pork Using Hyperspectral Imaging
Foods 2020, 9(2), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9020154 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 26
Abstract
Minced pork jowl meat, also called the sticking-piece, is commonly used to be adulterated in minced pork, which influences the overall product quality and safety. In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methodology was proposed to identify and visualize this kind of meat adulteration. [...] Read more.
Minced pork jowl meat, also called the sticking-piece, is commonly used to be adulterated in minced pork, which influences the overall product quality and safety. In this study, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methodology was proposed to identify and visualize this kind of meat adulteration. A total of 176 hyperspectral images were acquired from adulterated meat samples in the range of 0%–100% (w/w) at 10% increments using a visible and near-infrared (400–1000 nm) HSI system in reflectance mode. Mean spectra were extracted from the regions of interests (ROIs) and represented each sample accordingly. The performance comparison of established partial least square regression (PLSR) models showed that spectra pretreated by standard normal variate (SNV) performed best with Rp2 = 0.9549 and residual predictive deviation (RPD) = 4.54. Furthermore, functional wavelengths related to adulteration identification were individually selected using methods of principal component (PC) loadings, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS), and regression coefficients (RC). After that, the multispectral RC-PLSR model exhibited the most satisfactory results in prediction set that Rp2 was 0.9063, RPD was 2.30, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 6.50%. Spatial distribution was visualized based on the preferred model, and adulteration levels were clearly discernible. Lastly, the visualization was further verified that prediction results well matched the known distribution in samples. Overall, HSI was tested to be a promising methodology for detecting and visualizing minced jowl meat in pork. Full article
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Article
Growth Performance and Nutrient Composition of Mealworms (Tenebrio Molitor) Fed on Fresh Plant Materials-Supplemented Diets
Foods 2020, 9(2), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9020151 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 23
Abstract
Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) have a great potential to serve as a sustainable food source for humans due to their favorable nutrient profile and low environmental impact. Feed formulation and optimization are important for mealworm production. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) have a great potential to serve as a sustainable food source for humans due to their favorable nutrient profile and low environmental impact. Feed formulation and optimization are important for mealworm production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh plant materials-supplemented diets on the growth performance and nutritional value of mealworms. Mealworm larvae were grown on wheat bran or wheat bran enriched with carrot, orange, or red cabbage for four weeks. Larval and pupal survival, growth rate, pupating rate, duration of pupal stage, proximate composition, reducing power, metal chelating activity, and radical scavenging activity of the mealworms were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with fresh plant materials did not result in significant changes in mealworm survival, development, proximate composition, or antioxidant activities. However, mealworm larvae fed on carrot-, orange-, and red cabbage-supplemented diets had improved growth rates, and were 40%–46% heavier in week four than those fed on wheat bran only, indicating the supplementation resulted in an increased production efficiency of mealworm larvae. Our findings may help optimize the diet formulation for mealworm mass production. Full article
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Article
Screening and Spontaneous Mutation of Pickle-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum with Overproduction of Riboflavin, Related Mechanism, and Food Application
Foods 2020, 9(1), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010088 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin [...] Read more.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, plays an important role in human cell metabolism and participates in various redox reactions and in energy utilization. In this study, 90 riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were screened out from pickle juices. The yields of riboflavin in these LAB were about 0.096–0.700 mg/L, and one strain, Lactobacillus plantarum RYG-YYG-9049, was found to produce the highest riboflavin content. Next, roseoflavin was used to induce the spontaneous mutation of RYG-YYG-9049, and selected roseoflavin-resistant colonies generally produced higher riboflavin contents, ranging from 1.013 to 2.332 mg/L. The No. 10 mutant, L. plantarum RYG-YYG-9049-M10, had the highest riboflavin content. Next, the molecular mechanism of enhancing riboflavin production in RYG-YYG-9049-M10 was explored, leading to the finding that roseoflavin treatment did not change the rib operons including the ribA, ribB, ribC, ribH, and ribG genes. Unexpectedly, however, this mechanism did induce an insertion of a 1059-bp DNA fragment in the upstream regulatory region of the rib operon, as compared to the wild-type RYG-YYG-9049. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that roseoflavin could induce an insertion of DNA fragment in LAB to increase riboflavin content, representing a new mutation type that is induced by roseoflavin. Finally, in order to fortify riboflavin content in soymilk, RYG-YYG-9049 and RYG-YYG-9049-M10 were used to ferment soymilk, and several fermentation parameters were optimized to obtain the fermented soymilk with riboflavin contents of up to 2.920 mg/L. In general, roseoflavin induction is an economical and feasible biotechnological strategy to induce riboflavin-overproducing LAB, and this strategy can be used to develop LAB-fermented functional foods that are rich in riboflavin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties)
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Article
Integral Valorization of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) By-Products through a Green Chemistry Approach towards Added Value Ingredients
Foods 2020, 9(1), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010060 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 30
Abstract
Industrial by-products are produced every day through fruit processing industries. Pineapple is not an exception; when processed, around 60% (w/w) of its weight are peels, stem, trimmings, and crown, the only used fruit part for human consumption. Due to high concerns [...] Read more.
Industrial by-products are produced every day through fruit processing industries. Pineapple is not an exception; when processed, around 60% (w/w) of its weight are peels, stem, trimmings, and crown, the only used fruit part for human consumption. Due to high concerns of sustainability in the food system and negative high impact of human practice in the environment, a strategy has to be developed. Therefore, a green chemistry approach was applied to pineapple by-products to make an integrated valorization by the extraction of bioactive molecules. Two pineapple by-products (peels and stems) were studied, applying a green chemistry approach, which means the non-use of organic solvents or extreme methodologies. A subdivision of each by-product was done by the application of a juice machine. The peels and stems in the fresh state were ground separately, creating two fractions for each by-product—a juice and a wet pulp (press cake). The press cake was characterized, dried, and ground to create a fine powder flour. To the juice, a precipitation methodology with polysaccharides was applied, which allowed the bromelain separation (developing of an enzymatic fraction) from the fruit juice. The enzymatic extract was freeze-dried, and the juice was spray-dried, developing two more fine powders. Thus, three new ingredients were produced from each by-product, creating a total of six new ingredients. Overall, the enzymatic fractions represented around 0.26% (w/w) of pineapple weight. Pineapple stem juice represented 4.8% (w/w), and peel juice represented 17.3% (w/w). Pineapple stem flour represented 3.1% (w/w), and peel flour represented 11.4% (w/w) of the total pineapple weight. To valorize the by-products juices, a full characterization was performed of bioactive molecules and biological activities. When comparing the two juices, the peel juice showed lower content of total phenolic compounds, lower antioxidant capacity, and lower content of vitamin C. The different phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC analysis in the two pineapple by-products juices. However, the same compounds in both juices were quantified (chlorogenic, caffeic, and ferulic acids). On the other hand, the by-products flours had a high content of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), mainly cellulose and hemicellulose. Therefore, the approach applied in this work opens the door to the production of green products, as a result of by-products valorization. This could be applied not only in the food industry but also in the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Functionality of Plant Foods)
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Article
Validation of a Quantitative Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Screening Method for Coffee Quality and Authenticity (NMR Coffee Screener)
Foods 2020, 9(1), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010047 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 17
Abstract
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Monitoring coffee quality as a means of detecting and preventing economically motivated fraud is an important aspect of international commerce today. Therefore, there is a compelling need for rapid high throughput validated analytical techniques such as quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for screening and authenticity testing. For this reason, we sought to validate an 1H NMR spectroscopic method for the routine screening of coffee for quality and authenticity. A factorial experimental design was used to investigate the influence of the NMR device, extraction time, and nature of coffee on the content of caffeine, 16-O-methylcafestol (OMC), kahweol, furfuryl alcohol, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in coffee. The method was successfully validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, and linearity of detector response. The proposed method produced satisfactory precision for all analytes in roasted coffee, except for kahweol in canephora (robusta) coffee. The proposed validated method may be used for routine screening of roasted coffee for quality and authenticity control (i.e., arabica/robusta discrimination), as its applicability was demonstrated during the recent OPSON VIII Europol-Interpol operation on coffee fraud control. Full article
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Article
Use of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Oil Emulsion as Animal Fat Replacement in Beef Burgers
Foods 2020, 9(1), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010044 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 51
Abstract
The present study evaluated the replacement of beef fat in beef burgers using a tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil emulsion, in order to reduce total fat and saturated fatty acids in the studied samples. Three formulations were processed: Control—100% beef fat; [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the replacement of beef fat in beef burgers using a tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil emulsion, in order to reduce total fat and saturated fatty acids in the studied samples. Three formulations were processed: Control—100% beef fat; tiger nut 50% (TN50)—50% of beef fat replaced using tiger nut oil emulsion and tiger nut 100% (TN100)—100% of beef fat replaced by tiger nut oil emulsion. The physicochemical parameters were affected after fat replacement. Moreover, the protein and fat contents decreased in those sample with tiger nut oil emulsion, thus the formulation TN100 can be considered as “reduced fat content”. Regarding color, an increased L* and b* value parameters was observed after TN100 while the values of a* remained similar to the Control samples. The hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were similar in all formulations. The addition of tiger nut oil emulsion as a substitute for beef fat reduced saturated fat and increased the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was found to be in highest proportions in burgers. The TN100 samples were considered as acceptable by consumers. Therefore, total replacement of beef fat using tiger nut oil emulsions in beef burger resulted in a well-accepted and healthier meat product with reduced total and saturated fat contents, as well as increased unsaturated fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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Article
Could Defatted Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) and Mealworm Oil Be Used as Food Ingredients?
Foods 2020, 9(1), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010040 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 29
Abstract
Before edible insects may be used as an alternative food, it is necessary to develop basic product forms and evaluate their characteristics. We made two basic commercial products (defatted powder and oil) from mealworm, a popular edible insect. The defatted mealworm powder possessed [...] Read more.
Before edible insects may be used as an alternative food, it is necessary to develop basic product forms and evaluate their characteristics. We made two basic commercial products (defatted powder and oil) from mealworm, a popular edible insect. The defatted mealworm powder possessed a sufficient amount of protein, and it had a savory taste due to plentiful free amino acids. Additionally, it had abundant minor nutrients and bioactive compounds. The physicochemical properties of mealworm oil were very similar to vegetable oil, and mealworm oil was also abundant in bioactive nutrients, especially γ-tocopherol. In addition, the predicted shelf life of mealworm oil was suitable for commercial use. Moreover, mealworm had high antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities, which may arise from functional peptides and glucosamine derivatives such as chitin and chitosan. In short, the defatted mealworm powder and mealworm oil could be successfully used as novel food ingredients. Full article
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Article
The Essential Oil and Hydrolats from Myristica fragrans Seeds with Magnesium Aluminometasilicate as Excipient: Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anti-inflammatory Activity
Foods 2020, 9(1), 37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010037 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 19
Abstract
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil has antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We have recently demonstrated that hydrodistillation of nutmeg essential oil by applying magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient significantly increases both the content and amount of bioactive substances in [...] Read more.
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) essential oil has antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. We have recently demonstrated that hydrodistillation of nutmeg essential oil by applying magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient significantly increases both the content and amount of bioactive substances in the oil and hydrolats. In this study, we aimed to compare the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity of hydrolats and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the presence and absence of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method revealed that magnesium aluminometasilicate did not significantly improved antioxidant activity of both essential oil and hydrolat. Antibacterial efficiency was evaluated by monitoring growth of 15 bacterial strains treated by a range of dilutions of the essential oil and the hydrolats. Essential oil with an excipient completely inhibited the growth of E. faecalis, S. mutans (referent), and P. multocida, whereas the pure oil was only efficient against the latter strain. Finally, the anti-inflammatory properties of the substances were assessed in a fibroblast cell culture treated with viral dsRNR mimetic Poly I:C. The essential oil with an excipient protected cells against Poly I:C-induced necrosis more efficiently compared to pure essential oil. Also, both the oil and the hydrolats with aluminometasilicate were more efficient in preventing IL-6 release in the presence of Poly I:C. Our results show that the use of magnesium aluminometasilicate as an excipient might change and in some cases improve the biological activities of nutmeg essential oil and hydrolats. Full article
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Article
The Impact of Freeze-Drying Conditions on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds of a Freeze-Dried Orange Puree
Foods 2020, 9(1), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010032 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 26
Abstract
Fruits are essential for a healthy diet, as they contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some cancers, which is attributed to their high bioactive compound content contributing to their antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, fruits have a short shelf life due to their [...] Read more.
Fruits are essential for a healthy diet, as they contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some cancers, which is attributed to their high bioactive compound content contributing to their antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, fruits have a short shelf life due to their high-water content, and freeze-drying is a well-known technique to preserve their nutritive quality. However, it is an expensive technology, both due to the use of low pressure and long processing time. Therefore, an optimisation of variables such as the freezing rate, working pressure and shelf temperature during freeze-drying may preserve fruit quality while reducing the time and costs. The impact of these variables on colour, porosity, mechanical properties, water content, vitamin C, total phenols, β-carotene, and antioxidant activity of a freeze-dried orange puree was evaluated. The results showed a great impact of pressure and shelf temperature on luminosity, chroma and water content. Vitamin C and β-carotene were more preserved with higher shelf temperatures (shorter times of processing) and lower pressure, respectively. The optimum freeze-drying conditions preserving the nutrients, and with an interesting structural property, perceived as a crunchy product by consumers, are low pressure (5 Pa) and high shelf temperature (50 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freeze-Drying Technology in Foods)
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Article
Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Combined with Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food
Foods 2020, 9(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010027 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 20
Abstract
Salmonella can cause serious foodborne diseases. We have developed a lateral flow immunoassay combined with recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) for detection of Salmonella in food. The conserved fragment (fimY) was selected as the target gene. Under an optimal condition (37 °C, [...] Read more.
Salmonella can cause serious foodborne diseases. We have developed a lateral flow immunoassay combined with recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) for detection of Salmonella in food. The conserved fragment (fimY) was selected as the target gene. Under an optimal condition (37 °C, 10 min), the sensitivity was 12 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL in a pure culture. Testing with 16 non-Salmonella strains as controls revealed that LFD-RPA was specific to the fimY gene of Salmonella. The established assay could detect Salmonella at concentrations as low as 1.29 × 102 CFU/mL in artificially contaminated samples. This detection was at a slightly higher level than that for a pure bacterial culture. Combined with the test strip reader, the LFD-RPA is a feasible method for quantitative detection of Salmonella based on the test line intensity, which was the ratio for the test line and control line of the reflected light. The method could be a potential point-of-care test in limited resource areas and provides a new approach and technical support for the diagnosis of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Foodborne Pathogen Analysis)
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Communication
Grape Seeds: Chromatographic Profile of Fatty Acids and Phenolic Compounds and Qualitative Analysis by FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy
Foods 2020, 9(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010010 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 45
Abstract
The primary product of the oenological sector is wine. Nonetheless, the grape processing produces large amounts of by-products and wastes, e.g., the grape seeds. In the context of a sustainable production, there is a strong push towards reutilizing these by-products and waste for [...] Read more.
The primary product of the oenological sector is wine. Nonetheless, the grape processing produces large amounts of by-products and wastes, e.g., the grape seeds. In the context of a sustainable production, there is a strong push towards reutilizing these by-products and waste for making useful derivatives since they are rich of bioactive substances with high additional value. As it is true for the wine itself, bringing these by-products derivatives to the market calls for quality measures and analytical tools to assess quality itself. One of the main objectives is to collect analytical data regarding bioactive compounds using potentially green techniques. In the present work, the profile of fatty acids and the main phenolic compounds were investigated by conventional methods. The qualitative analysis of the main functional groups was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, the successful use of FTIR technique in combination with chemometric data analysis is shown to be a suitable analytical tool for discriminating the grape seeds. Grape seeds of different origin have different content of bioactive substances, making this technique useful when planning to recover a certain substance with specific potential application in health area as food supplement or nutraceutical. For example, Cesanese d’Affile seeds were found to have a rather high fat content with a significant fraction of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, the seeds of Nero d’Avola exhibit the highest amount of phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health)
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Article
LC-ESI-QTOF/MS Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Medicinal Plants (Hops and Juniper Berries) and Their Antioxidant Activity
Foods 2020, 9(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods9010007 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 45
Abstract
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study [...] Read more.
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and juniper berries (Juniperus communis L.) are two important medicinal plants widely used in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries due to their strong antioxidant capacity, which is attributed to the presence of polyphenols. The present study is conducted to comprehensively characterize polyphenols from hops and juniper berries using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF/MS) to assess their antioxidant capacity. For polyphenol estimation, total phenolic content, flavonoids and tannins were measured, while for antioxidant capacity, three different antioxidant assays including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Hops presented the higher phenolic content (23.11 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) which corresponded to its strong antioxidant activity as compared to the juniper berries. Using LC-ESI-QTOF/MS, a total of 148 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in juniper and hops, among which phenolic acids (including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids) and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavonoids) were the main polyphenols, which may contribute to their antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the HPLC quantitative analysis showed that both samples had a high concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the HPLC quantification, the predominant phenolic acids in hops and juniper berries were chlorogenic acid (16.48 ± 0.03 mg/g dw) and protocatechuic acid (11.46 ± 0.03 mg/g dw), respectively. The obtained results highlight the importance of hops and juniper berries as a rich source of functional ingredients in different food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Characterization of Polyphenols from Food Matrix)
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Article
Food-Grade Gelatin Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Preliminary Application for Stabilizing Pickering Emulsions
Foods 2019, 8(10), 479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods8100479 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 24
Abstract
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage [...] Read more.
In this paper, the food-grade gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method and using genipin as a cross-linker. The GNPs with narrow size distribution and good dispersion could be obtained only at pH 12. The effect of the genipin dosage (8–12 wt%) on the GNPs was systematically investigated. The results showed that the cross-linking degree of the GNPs increased with the increasing dosage of genipin, thus leading to a more obvious cross-linking morphology observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM). The obtained GNPs showed a good dispersibility with a size range of 386–438 nm. However, the GNPs cross-linked by 8 wt% genipin dosage revealed a relatively higher size because of the aggregation induced by hydrogen bond. The 10 wt% group had good thermal stability and storage stability. The optical microscopy results showed that the Pickering emulsions (30–50 vol% internal phase) stabilized by the GNPs had good uniformity and stability, even after 30 days of storage time, suggesting that the stable GNPs had great potential in food-grade Pickering emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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