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Special Issue "Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ľubica Argalášová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: public health; community noise and health; social and voluntary noise; adolescent health; maternal and child health; environmental tobacco smoke
Prof. Dr. Jana Jurkovičová
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: public health; human nutrition, non-communicable diseases; community noise and health; adolescent health; maternal and child health
Prof. Dr. Michael Weitzman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine; New York University College of Global Public Health, New York, NY, USA
Interests: e-cigarette and hookah use: their epidemiology and the cardiopulmonary and inflammatory effects on users and those passively exposed; the role of inflammation in mediating the relationship between mental health problems and smoking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adolescence is the phase of life stretching between childhood and adulthood which encompasses elements of biological growth and major social role transitions. It is a phase of life which holds great potential for healthy development and in which future patterns of adult health are established. In these developmental stages, profound physical, intellectual, emotional, psychological, and sexual changes occur. As in any age group, economic and social conditions influence adolescent health. Adolescence represents a good opportunity to promote a healthy lifestyle, but also to improve poor health.

Many high school students engage in health-risk behaviors. These risk behaviors are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The majority of chronic non communicable diseases (NCD) have multifactorial etiologies. It is important to identify the most prevalent risk factors, but also to identify preventative factors at a younger age so as to decrease the chance of developing an NCD later in life. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on both individuals and society.

Young adults, as compared with other age groups, have the highest rate of death and injury from motor vehicles, homicides, mental health problems, sexually transmitted infections, and substance abuse. Most of the leading causes of illness and death among young adults are preventable.

The most important public health interventions are informing or educating the target population about risks, persuading them to reduce those risks, encouraging them to adopt healthy or safe behaviors, and modifying the environment to reduce exposure to risks or to promote or facilitate safe or healthy behaviors.

The aim of this Special Issue is to identify persons at risk and target the attention of researchers, teachers, policy makers, and the general public on these issues.

We welcome papers that address adolescent and young people’s health from different perspectives and research fields, such as Public health, Clinical medicine, Psychology, Sociology, etc. Multidisciplinary papers are also welcome, as are papers which bring novel approaches to public health interventions. We are looking forward to receiving your contribution and creating a Special Issue that will provide readers with new information on adolescents’ and young people’s health.

Prof. Dr. Ľubica Argalášová
Prof. Dr. Jana Jurkovičová
Prof. Dr. Michael Weitzman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adolescent health
  • young people’s health
  • health-risk behaviors
  • non communicable diseases

Published Papers (45 papers)

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Research

Article
Prevalence of Unmet Healthcare Needs in Adolescents and Associated Factors: Data from the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12781; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182312781 - 03 Dec 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Adolescent health is considered the basis of adult health, and the unmet healthcare needs in adolescents are an important issue to be solved. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs, and examine its associated factors among adolescents in [...] Read more.
Adolescent health is considered the basis of adult health, and the unmet healthcare needs in adolescents are an important issue to be solved. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs, and examine its associated factors among adolescents in Korea based on Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services, using data from the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016 to 2018). This survey’s data source comprised 12- to 18-year-old adolescents, of which 1425 provided information on their unmet healthcare needs, as well as their predisposing, enabling, and need factors. For statistical analysis, SPSS version 25.0 was used. Descriptive analyses were performed to assess each variable, whereas multiple logistic regression was used to determine the associated factors. The overall prevalence of unmet healthcare needs was 5.5%. The factors that had statistically significant relationships with adolescents’ unmet healthcare needs were: age; stress perceptions; housing types; and perceived health status. Unlike previous studies that presented related factors on vulnerable groups, this study’s results presented unmet healthcare needs and related factors for all Korean adolescents using a national survey dataset. Hence, its findings could provide feedback on current policies, and guide future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Clinical Presentations of Adolescents Aged 16–18 Years in the Adult Emergency Department
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189578 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Background: In many large hospitals in Switzerland, adolescents 16 years and older are treated in adult emergency departments (ED). There have been few publications about this specific patient population, especially in Switzerland. This study aims to provide an overview of emergency presentations of [...] Read more.
Background: In many large hospitals in Switzerland, adolescents 16 years and older are treated in adult emergency departments (ED). There have been few publications about this specific patient population, especially in Switzerland. This study aims to provide an overview of emergency presentations of adolescents between 16–18 years of age when compared to adults and focuses on their principle complaints. Methods: We conducted a single-centre, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all patients aged 16 years and older presenting to the adult ED at the University Hospital (Inselspital) in Bern, Switzerland, from 2013 to 2017. This analysis gives an overview of emergency presentations of adolescents between 16–18 years of age in this time period and compares their consultation characteristics to those of adult patients. Results: Data of a total of 203,817 patients who presented to our adult ED between 2013 and 2017 were analysed. Adolescents account for 2.5% of all emergency presentations. The number of ED presentations in the reviewed time period rose for adults (+2368, 95% CI: 1695, 3041, p = 0.002 consultations more per year; +25% comparing 2013 with 2017), while adolescent presentations did not significantly increase (p = 0.420). In comparison to adult patients, adolescents presented significantly more often during the night (39.1% vs. 31.5%, p < 0.001), as walk-ins (54.2% vs. 44.9%, p < 0.001), or with less highly acute complaints at triage (21% vs. 31%, p < 0.001). They were more likely to be discharged (70.8% vs. 52.2%, p < 0.001). We found a significant association between the two age groups and principle complaints. In comparison to adults, trauma and psychiatric problems were significantly more common among adolescents. Conclusions: Our data showed that complaints in adolescent patients under 18 years of age significantly differ from those in older patients. The artificial age cut-off therefore puts this vulnerable population at risk of receiving inadequate diagnostic testing and treatment adapted only for adults. Additional studies are needed on the reasons adolescents and young adults seek ED care, as this could lead to improvements in the care processes for this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome and Depression: No Mediation by Parental Depression and Parenting Style
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147716 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 937
Abstract
We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch [...] Read more.
We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. Our sample consisted of 1217 adolescents with an average follow-up of 33.3 (SD = 7.33) months and a median baseline age of 13 (IQR:13–14) years. We used structural equation models to assess the direct and indirect effects of SES on baseline and changes at follow-up in both depression and MetS, and to assess moderation by sex. For each additional year of education, continuous MetS scores were 0.098 (95%CI: 0.020; 0.184) units lower at baseline and decreased 0.079 (95%CI: 0.004; 0.158) units at follow-up. No other direct or indirect effects of SES were found, and there was no moderation by sex. Additionally, warmer parenting style was generally associated with more favorable outcome scores. Therefore, improving parenting style may improve health for all adolescents. However, in this study parental depression and parenting style did not account for adolescent socioeconomic health inequalities. This may be partly due to good access to social services within the Netherlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Evaluation of a Pediatric Obesity Management Toolkit for Health Care Professionals: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147568 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in helping to address weight-related issues with pediatric patients, yet often feel ill-equipped to discuss/manage this complex and sensitive health issue. Using the five As (“Ask, Assess, Advise, Agree, and Assist”) of Pediatric Obesity Management, [...] Read more.
Health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in helping to address weight-related issues with pediatric patients, yet often feel ill-equipped to discuss/manage this complex and sensitive health issue. Using the five As (“Ask, Assess, Advise, Agree, and Assist”) of Pediatric Obesity Management, we created a series of educational videos and evaluated the content, quality (acceptability, engagement), and impact of these videos on HCPs’ self-efficacy, knowledge, and change in practice when addressing weight-related issues with pediatric patients and their families using questionnaires. HCPs (n = 65) participated in a baseline assessment and 4–6 month follow-up (n = 54). Knowledge and self-efficacy increased post-video for the majority of participants. At follow-up, most HCPs reported a change in their practice attributable to viewing the videos, and their self-efficacy ratings improved over time for the majority of questions asked. Most participants rated aspects of each of the videos highly. Preliminary findings suggest that an evidence-based educational toolkit of videos, based on the 5As framework, may lead to changes in self-reported behaviors among HCPs, and sustained improvements in their self-efficacy in addressing weight-related topics with children and their families. (Clinical Trial Number NCT04126291). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Are Perceptions of Health Dependant on Social Class? Studying Soft Power and Symbolic Violence in a Health Promotion Program among Young Men at Vocational Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7517; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147517 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Health behaviour among young people has a social gradient, and tends to be skewed in terms of gender as well. Young men in vocational educational settings are an example where the inequality in health is apparent. Addressing this problem requires an understanding of [...] Read more.
Health behaviour among young people has a social gradient, and tends to be skewed in terms of gender as well. Young men in vocational educational settings are an example where the inequality in health is apparent. Addressing this problem requires an understanding of health behaviour and its determinants in the target group in order to be able to develop interventions that can address the problem. The aim of the paper is to investigate to what extent a multicomponent intervention based on the Whole School Approach, targeting the risk behaviours, smoking, eating and physical activity that have an impact on health behaviour among male students in a disadvantaged educational setting. The paper uses self-reported longitudinal data on risk behaviours from the “Gearing up the Body” 1-year intervention program that was implemented among students at a Danish vocational school. For the analysis, we created a score model to categorise students and behaviour. Analyses suggest that interventions had only a modest impact and what evidence there is shows that the interventions reduced the health behaviour scores by 0.03 points. More specifically, we find that symbolic violence reduces the health behaviour score of the healthy types by 0.20 points, whereas soft power increases the health behaviour of the unhealthy type by 0.05 points. An explanation for the disappointing results of the “Gearing up the Body” program is tension between different understanding of what is “right” and “wrong” health behaviour. We find that the ideas of soft power and symbolic violence can contribute to a better understanding of why health and health behaviour is understood differently among vocational students. Thus, the finding demonstrates that one needs to apply a participatory approach rather than a normative approach addressing the health behaviour of disadvantaged individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
A Cross-Sectional Study of Foot Growth and Its Correlation with Anthropometric Parameters in a Representative Cohort of Schoolchildren from Southern Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4031; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084031 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Background: The relationship between growth of the foot and other anthropometric parameters during body development until puberty has been scarcely studied. Some studies propose that growth of the foot in length may be an early index of puberty. The objective of this [...] Read more.
Background: The relationship between growth of the foot and other anthropometric parameters during body development until puberty has been scarcely studied. Some studies propose that growth of the foot in length may be an early index of puberty. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relationship between the growth of the foot in length and width with other anthropometric parameters, in prepubertal and early pubertal schoolchildren (Tanner stage II). Methods: Using an instrument that was designed and calibrated for this purpose, maximum foot length, width and height were obtained in 1005 schoolchildren. Results: The findings indicate that the age of onset of pubertal foot growth spur was 7–8 years in girls, and 8–9 years in boys. Growth in foot length stabilized in both sexes after 12 years of age. In boys, a strong correlation was found between height and foot length (r = 0.884; p < 0.047), and between body mass index (BMI) and forefoot width at 12 years of age (r = 0.935; p < 0.020). A strong correlation was found between height and forefoot width at 6 years in girls (r = 0.719; p < 0.001), as well as between BMI and metatarsal width in 10 years-old girls (r = 0.812; p <0.001). Conclusions: The average increase in foot length and width that precedes the onset of Tanner’s stage II in both girls and boys can be considered as a useful biological indicator of the onset of puberty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Epidemiology of Obesity and Hypertension in School Adolescents Aged 15–17 from the Region of Central Poland—A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052394 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal weight and anthropometric parameters along with abnormal blood pressure values in adolescents in Poland. Anthropometric measurements were taken in the studied age group and the correlation between these values and [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal weight and anthropometric parameters along with abnormal blood pressure values in adolescents in Poland. Anthropometric measurements were taken in the studied age group and the correlation between these values and blood pressure values and the diagnosis of hypertension was analyzed. The main aim of the study was to characterize the particular age group in the selected population: 690 students aged 15–17 years were examined. Blood pressure and anthropometric values including height, weight, circumferences of the hips, abdomen and arms, as well as skinfolds on the back of the arm, below the scapula and the stomach, were taken. The following indexes were calculated: WHR (waist to hip ratio), WHtR (waist to height ratio), BAI (body adiposity index-hip to height ratio) and BMI (body mass index). Mean SBP (systolic blood pressure) was 112.3 (standard deviation (SD) 12.2) mmHg, and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) was 66.9 (SD 6.9) mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension in the studied group was 5.8% (3.2% boys, 2.6% girls) and prehypertension was present in 4.4% (1.6% boys, 2.8% girls). The prevalence of excess body weight was 23.6%-obesity 11.3% (40 girls, 27 boys) and overweight 12.3% (50 girls, 34 boys). Correlations between BMI and waist, hip and arm circumference, subscapular and abdominal skinfold thickness, WHtR and BAI were r = 0.86, r = 0.84, r = 0.88, r = 0.81, r = 0.75, r = 0.88 and r = 0.81, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) of SBP and DBP values, depending on weight category, as defined by BMI, were observed. Abnormal blood pressure values occur in one tenth and abnormal body weight in almost a quarter of the studied population. Obese and overweight children have higher SBP and DBP values compared to children with normal body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Is Alcohol Consumption Related to Lifestyle Factors in Romanian University Students?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1835; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041835 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Poor eating habits and substance abuse are major public health concerns among young adults transitioning into university life. This study’s objective was to assess Romanian students’ alcohol consumption and correlate it with other lifestyle factors. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1212 students [...] Read more.
Poor eating habits and substance abuse are major public health concerns among young adults transitioning into university life. This study’s objective was to assess Romanian students’ alcohol consumption and correlate it with other lifestyle factors. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1212 students with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.4 years. We applied a valid online questionnaire to evaluate and statistically analyze the interrelation between alcohol consumption and lifestyle factors by multivariate statistical analysis. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among the student population enrolled in the study was 79.9%. Multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was positively associated with gender (p < 0.001), level of physical activity (p = 0.009), number of cigarettes (p < 0.001), and fast-food consumption (p < 0.001), and negatively associated with sleep (p = 0.012) and study hours (p < 0.001). The study revealed a high prevalence (18%) of binge drinking among males. The frequent use of illicit drugs is associated with alcohol consumption (p < 0.001) but present at low levels (1.6%). The study evidenced a high prevalence of alcohol consumption in students, especially in males, and poor food behavior related to the intake of vegetables and fruits. Health promotion campaigns regarding the harmful effects of alcohol, smoking, poor nutrition, and ongoing illicit drug prevention campaigns are needed to improve students’ performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Understanding Vocational Students’ Motivation for Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041381 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Unhealthy eating behaviors and low levels of physical activity are major problems in adolescents and young adults in vocational education. To develop effective intervention programs, more research is needed to understand how different types of motivation contribute to health behaviors. In the present [...] Read more.
Unhealthy eating behaviors and low levels of physical activity are major problems in adolescents and young adults in vocational education. To develop effective intervention programs, more research is needed to understand how different types of motivation contribute to health behaviors. In the present study, Self-Determination Theory is used to examine how motivation contributes to dietary and physical activity behaviors in vocational students. This cross-sectional study included 809 students (mean age 17.8 ± 1.9 years) attending vocational education in the Netherlands. Linear multilevel regression analyses were used to investigate the association between types of motivation and dietary and physical activity behaviors. Amotivation was negatively associated with breakfast frequency and positively associated with diet soda consumption and high-calorie between-meal snacks. A positive association was found between autonomous motivation and water intake, breakfast frequency, fruit intake, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Autonomous motivation was negatively associated with the consumption of unhealthy products. Controlled motivation was not associated with physical activity or dietary behaviors. Different types of motivation seem to explain either healthy or unhealthy dietary behaviors in vocational students. Autonomous motivation, in particular, was shown to be associated with healthy behaviors and could therefore be a valuable intervention target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Food Safety and Sanitation Implementation Impasse on Adolescents in Kenyan High Schools
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031304 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The ability to combat food-borne illnesses in food facilities and institutional catering units require sufficient knowledge on food safety and sanitation standards by food producers and consumers. The aim of the study was to investigate the food safety and sanitation knowledge of food [...] Read more.
The ability to combat food-borne illnesses in food facilities and institutional catering units require sufficient knowledge on food safety and sanitation standards by food producers and consumers. The aim of the study was to investigate the food safety and sanitation knowledge of food handlers in Kenyan high schools. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 204 food handlers in 50 schools. Questions about knowledge and practice toward food safety and sanitation were asked. Respondents were the most knowledgeable on food contamination (93%), while participants were the least knowledgeable on the importance of protective attire when distributing foods to learners (50%). One-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference between gender and food handlers’ behavior and practice (F = 19.886, ρ = 0.00 < 0.05) as well as between job tenure and practice of food safety and sanitation (F = 17.874, ρ = 0.00 < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis established that knowledge contributed to 44.1% of the behavior and practice of the food handlers. It is concluded that food handlers have a fair knowledge despite lack of training, motivation, and facilities to maintain quality standards. It is recommended that the Kenyan Government develop and implement guidelines through school feeding policy that would ensure that food safety and sanitation practices are implemented and utilized by Kenyan high schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Factors Associated with Non-Attendance at Dental Preventive Care in Slovak High School Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031295 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in high school students and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia, the ongoing cross-sectional school-based survey of students [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the avoidance of dental preventive care in high school students and their parents in the framework of The Youth and Parents Risk Factor Behavior Survey in Slovakia, the ongoing cross-sectional school-based survey of students and their parents or legal representatives. The data were collected using two separate standardized questionnaires: (i) the questionnaire for students (n = 515) and (ii) the questionnaire for parents (n = 681). The study group included 57 high school students (54.4% males) who did not visit the dentist for preventive care in the previous year. The control group included 458 students (35.8% males) who visited a dentist for preventive care at least once in the previous year. A significantly higher number of males (54.4%), older adolescents, and young adults (21.8%; 20.0%) were not visiting dental preventive care regularly. Incomplete family (56.1%), stressful situations at home (17.5%), and feeling unwell were the factors contributing to the avoidance of dental preventive care. More than 34.5% of adolescents and young adults were not visiting either dental preventive care or pediatric preventive care (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 5.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.40, 10.99). Children of divorced mothers and mothers with household income lower than EUR 900 had significantly higher dental care avoidance in bivariate analysis. A significantly higher percentage of fathers from the exposed group were not visiting dental preventive care regularly (47.8%, p < 0.05). The results of the study can be used as an educational intervention step focusing on the parental influence on adolescent and young adults’ behavior and as a challenge for the improvement of dental preventive care in older adolescents and young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
The Prevalence of Insulin Resistance and the Associated Risk Factors in a Sample of 14–18-Year-Old Slovak Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 909; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18030909 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 952
Abstract
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample [...] Read more.
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), and resting heart rate were measured; fasting venous blood samples were analyzed; and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) was calculated. For statistical data processing, the methods of descriptive and analytical statistics for normal and skewed distribution of variables were used. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45 ± 1.91, without a significant sex differences. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR = 3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for total cholesterol (TC) and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
The Need for Nurse Interventions in Sex Education in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020492 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Background: Developmentally appropriate evidence-based sexual health education should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students. The registered school nurse is a valuable resource to parents and educators in this area and supports the [...] Read more.
Background: Developmentally appropriate evidence-based sexual health education should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students. The registered school nurse is a valuable resource to parents and educators in this area and supports the implementation of evidence-based sexual health education programs that promote healthy sexual development for adolescents. Methods: The research group consisted of 438 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years in a selected region in Slovakia, 186 boys and 252 girls. Average age of the girls was 13.2 and the boys 13.3 years. A nurse—a specialist in community nursing—collected the data using a self-designed questionnaire. The questions evaluated by the five-point Likert scale focused on finding out the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents to the role of school nurses regarding sexuality and reproductive health. Results were analyzed using parametric comparison tests with significance value 0.05: Student t-test for independent samples. Results: The girls and the boys most often drew information on sexuality and reproductive health from their parents and friends. The evaluation of the adolescents’ views on who should be a competent professional in the field of sexual education at schools found statistically significant differences between the boys and girls. For the boys and girls, a sexologist received the most significant assessment of competence. The interest in a school nurse in a school environment would be statistically significantly more appreciated by the girls compared to the boys, not just for solving problems related to healthy lifestyle, but also regarding sexuality, parenting and marriage. The adolescents consider the education for marriage and parenthood as the least discussed issue at present. In evaluating topics the adolescents would discuss, there were statistically significant differences between the boys and girls. Conclusions: A community or school nurse would also be able to successfully perform sexual education at schools. In Slovakia, this applied nursing discipline is lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Testing Interdependent Self-Construal as a Moderator between Mindfulness, Emotion Regulation, and Psychological Health among Emerging Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020444 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
This study examines the moderating role of interdependent self-construal between mindfulness, emotion regulation, and psychological health, with emotion regulation as a mediator. A total of 187 Chinese emerging adults completed self-reported measures, including mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and [...] Read more.
This study examines the moderating role of interdependent self-construal between mindfulness, emotion regulation, and psychological health, with emotion regulation as a mediator. A total of 187 Chinese emerging adults completed self-reported measures, including mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and interdependent self-construal. Our findings indicate moderation effects of interdependent self-construal between (i) mindfulness and cognitive reappraisal, (ii) cognitive reappraisal and life satisfaction, (iii) expressive suppression and life satisfaction, and (iv) expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. Based on bootstrapping and path analyses, cognitive reappraisal mediated the relation between mindfulness and psychological health, including depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, regardless of the level of interdependent self-construal. In addition, mindfulness was not related to expressive suppression, regardless of the level of interdependent self-construal. Based on these findings, researchers and practitioners should pay attention to the differential associations between mindfulness, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological outcomes as a function of interdependent self-construal during emerging adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Association of Internet Addiction with Adolescents’ Lifestyle: A National School-Based Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010168 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is an issue of growing concern with adverse effects on adolescents’ health and social functioning. This study aims to determine the prevalence of IA among school-going adolescents in Malaysia and its associated factors—specifically, lifestyle factors. A nationwide cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is an issue of growing concern with adverse effects on adolescents’ health and social functioning. This study aims to determine the prevalence of IA among school-going adolescents in Malaysia and its associated factors—specifically, lifestyle factors. A nationwide cross-sectional school-based health survey was conducted in 2017 among 27,497 students from 212 randomly selected secondary schools. Information regarding sociodemography, lifestyle, and internet use was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. IA was measured using the Malay Version of Internet Addiction Test (MVIAT). The prevalence of internet addiction was 29.0%. A multivariable logistic analysis revealed that inadequate fruit and vegetable intakes, consumed carbonated soft drinks at least once a day, consumed fast food at least three days/week, sedentary behavior, current E-cigarette users, and ever/current alcohol drinkers were lifestyle factors significantly associated with IA. Adolescents from urban schools, of higher school grade, and those whose parents are married but living apart were also found to have a greater risk for internet addiction. A positive association was found between IA with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents. The modification of lifestyle factors needs to be considered while developing strategies and interventions for awareness-raising and prevention of IA among adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Relationships between Extra-School Tutoring Time, Somatic Symptoms, and Sleep Duration of Adolescent Students: A Panel Analysis Using Data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey
by , , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17218037 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
As private tutoring has expanded worldwide, it has been noted that private tutoring and associated emotional distress can affect sleep duration and the health of adolescent students. However, the relationships between extra-school tutoring time, somatic symptoms, defined as physical symptoms of emotional distress, [...] Read more.
As private tutoring has expanded worldwide, it has been noted that private tutoring and associated emotional distress can affect sleep duration and the health of adolescent students. However, the relationships between extra-school tutoring time, somatic symptoms, defined as physical symptoms of emotional distress, and sleep duration in adolescents has rarely been determined. The aim of this study was to identify these relationships in adolescent students. Data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey were analyzed to address the research questions. Weekday sleep duration, extra-school tutoring time, and somatic symptoms were measured using adolescents’ self-report questionnaires. A multilevel, structural equation model was utilized to test the relationships between these variables and was deemed appropriate considering the repeated measure of the panel data. After controlling for respondent sex, parent working status and education level, and family structure, adolescents’ extra-school tutoring time and level of somatic symptoms were associated with sleep duration during weekdays. Furthermore, the association between extra-school tutoring time and sleep duration was partially mediated by somatic symptoms. Korean adolescent students slept less than the recommended duration. Intervention programs that increase parental interest and attention in adolescent students’ lives, not only focused on academic achievement but also emotional distress is needed. Researchers and policymakers should understand recommended age-appropriate sleep duration and the educational culture and provide balanced strategies between the consideration of the effect of private education on academic achievement and the need to guarantee physical and mental health in adolescent students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Knowledge Assessment of COVID-19 Symptoms: Gender Differences and Communication Routes for the Generation Z Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6964; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17196964 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
This paper explores the generation Z (Gen Z) cohort’s self-assessed knowledge regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms as well as their interest in acquiring information and learning more about the transmission and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2 [...] Read more.
This paper explores the generation Z (Gen Z) cohort’s self-assessed knowledge regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms as well as their interest in acquiring information and learning more about the transmission and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2 virus) and the COVID-19 symptoms. Additionally, it investigates gender differences in self-assessed knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms. Field research employing a nonprobability sampling method with an online questionnaire resulted in collecting 762 valid questionnaires. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, factor and reliability analysis, and the independent sample t-test. Results reveal that overall symptom knowledge was assessed higher than the self-assessed knowledge of the 13 specific symptoms. No gender differences were detected regarding self-assessed knowledge of the following COVID-19 symptoms: cough, dyspnea, anorexia, productive cough with expectoration (phlegm), headache, and diarrhea. On the other hand, for self-assessed overall knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, as well as self-assessed knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms related to fever and fatigue, myalgia (muscle pain), pharyngodynia, nausea–vomitus, hemoptysis, and abdominal pain, the t-tests conducted showed that there are statistical differences in knowledge assessment between male and female subjects. Based on the outcomes, the paper provides marketing communication practices targeting this young generation cohort to raise awareness so that Gen Z’ers may react effectively if these symptoms are observed and, thus, request medical assistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Medically Attended Injuries among Slovak Adolescents: Relationships with Socio-Economic Factors, Physical Fighting, and Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6721; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186721 - 15 Sep 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
There is a worrisome increase in the reporting of medically attended injuries in Slovak adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between socio-economic factors, physical fighting, and physical activity with frequency of medically attended injuries among this population group. [...] Read more.
There is a worrisome increase in the reporting of medically attended injuries in Slovak adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between socio-economic factors, physical fighting, and physical activity with frequency of medically attended injuries among this population group. Data from 8902 adolescents participating in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study were used (mean age 13.37; 50.9% boys). The effects of family affluence, registered unemployment rate, average nominal monthly earnings of employees, physical fighting, and physical activity on frequency of medically attended injury were explored using linear regression analysis. Pearson’s correlation was used to describe the associations between all selected variables. The selected model of linear regression explained 15.8% of the variance in the frequency of medically attended injuries. All variables except the registered unemployment rate showed linear positive relationships with medically attended injuries. The correlation analysis confirmed linear positive associations between medically attended injuries and physical fighting, family affluence, physical activity, and average nominal monthly earnings of employees. Further research on these variables is needed in the Slovak context. This may include analyses of the nature of the relationships between socio-economic factors and medically attended injuries, as well as systematic evaluation of applied physical fighting and physical-activity-related injury interventions to support evidence-based policy making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among Undergraduate Students in China—Implications for Sex Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186716 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Background: Despite rapid modernization and improving gender equity in China in recent decades, traditional values prevail in many areas of life, including sexual behavior. This study aimed to explore gender differences in sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors, as well as preferences [...] Read more.
Background: Despite rapid modernization and improving gender equity in China in recent decades, traditional values prevail in many areas of life, including sexual behavior. This study aimed to explore gender differences in sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors, as well as preferences for sex education among undergraduates in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study surveyed 5965 undergraduates (62.8% females), aged 15 to 24 years from nine universities in Zhejiang, Henan and Yunnan provinces, from September to November 2019. Results: Of the total sample, 158 (2.6%) self-identified as homosexual, 287 (4.8%) as bisexual and 324 (5.4%) stated they were unclear about their sexual identity. The mean sexual knowledge score out of 12 was 6.16 ± 2.54 points. Ever having sexual intercourse was reported by 18.7% (27.0% males, and 13.9% females). Students from urban backgrounds, and those with homosexual and bisexual orientation were more likely to have had sexual intercourse. Most students (72.5%) reported that they would prefer to receive sex education from on-line sources. Conclusions: Female students are significantly more conservative in sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors. Low levels of sexual knowledge contribute to risk behaviors among Chinese adolescents. China needs to develop and widely disseminate on-line sex education, with practical, age-appropriate content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
A Qualitative Study Exploring Menstruation Experiences and Practices among Adolescent Girls Living in the Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Uganda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6613; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186613 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
(1) Background: Girls in low- and lower-middle income countries face challenges in menstrual health management (MHM), which impact their health and schooling. This might be exacerbated by refugee conditions. This study aimed at describing menstruation practices and experiences of adolescent girls in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Girls in low- and lower-middle income countries face challenges in menstrual health management (MHM), which impact their health and schooling. This might be exacerbated by refugee conditions. This study aimed at describing menstruation practices and experiences of adolescent girls in Nakivale refugee settlement in Southwestern Uganda. (2) Methods: We conducted a qualitative study from March to May 2018 and we intentionally selected participants to broadly represent different age groups and countries of origin. We conducted 28 semistructured interviews and two focus group discussions. Data were transcribed and translated into English. Analysis included data familiarization, manual coding, generation and refining of themes. (3) Results: Main findings included: (a) challenging social context with negative experiences during migration, family separation and scarcity of resources for livelihood within the settlement; (b) unfavorable menstruation experiences, including unpreparedness for menarche and lack of knowledge, limitations in activity and leisure, pain, school absenteeism and psychosocial effects; (c) menstrual practices, including use of unsuitable alternatives for MHM and poor health-seeking behavior. (4) Conclusions: A multipronged approach to MHM management is crucial, including comprehensive sexual education, enhancement of parent–adolescent communication, health sector partnership and support from NGOs to meet the tailored needs of adolescent girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Insomnia in Relation to Academic Performance, Self-Reported Health, Physical Activity, and Substance Use Among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176433 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Purpose: Insomnia affects up to one in four adolescents and has been shown to have a negative impact on their mental and physical health. This study aimed to investigate the association between insomnia, academic performance, self-reported health, physical activity, school start time, and [...] Read more.
Purpose: Insomnia affects up to one in four adolescents and has been shown to have a negative impact on their mental and physical health. This study aimed to investigate the association between insomnia, academic performance, self-reported health, physical activity, school start time, and substance use among adolescents. Methods: A survey with a cross-sectional design was completed by adolescents (15–17 years old; n = 1504) in southern Sweden. The Minimal Insomnia Symptoms Scale (MISS) was used to operationalize insomnia. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between insomnia and self-reported health, failed school courses, substance use, school start time, family financial situation, screen time, and gender. Results: Insomnia (MISS ≥ 6) was associated with poor self-reported health (OR: 4.35), failed school courses (OR: 1.47), and use of alcohol and/or cigarettes (OR: 1.43). When the combined effect of self-reported health and physical activity were investigated, a combination of low physical activity (≤1 time/week) and poor self-reported health was strongly associated with insomnia (OR: 18.87). Conclusions: Insomnia was associated with other problems that in themselves are risk factors for poor health. This highlights the need for a holistic health-promoting approach to prevent insomnia, such as efforts to promote physical activity, school success, and the reduction of alcohol/cigarette use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
The Relationship between Positive Youth Development and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Early Adolescents: A Three-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176404 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Based on the development assets theory and the scar model, the present study examined the relationship between positive youth development (PYD) and depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents using a three-year longitudinal study design. Data from three waves were collected from 1301 students [...] Read more.
Based on the development assets theory and the scar model, the present study examined the relationship between positive youth development (PYD) and depressive symptoms among Chinese early adolescents using a three-year longitudinal study design. Data from three waves were collected from 1301 students (Mean age = 12.46, SD = 0.63 years and 51.2% boys at wave 1) across the junior high school period (Grades 7–9). All participants completed a questionnaire that included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYD) once a year over three years. After controlling for age and gender, this study found that PYD significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms did not significantly predict subsequent PYD. The results indicated a unidirectional relationship between PYD and depressive symptoms, where a reduction in PYD may increase subsequent depressive symptoms, though not vice versa. Besides, the negative cross-sectional correlation between PYD and depressive symptoms remains significant and stable from first year (T1) to third year (T3). These findings suggest that promoting PYD may be a promising approach to preventing/reducing adolescent depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Feeding Problems and Their Associations with Dietary Interventions, Food Supplement Use, and Behavioral Characteristics in a Sample of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176372 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, stereotyped behavior. Gastrointestinal (GI), nutritional, and feeding problems are often reported in ASD. We investigated the prevalence of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime difficulties, and their associations with [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, stereotyped behavior. Gastrointestinal (GI), nutritional, and feeding problems are often reported in ASD. We investigated the prevalence of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime difficulties, and their associations with dietary interventions, food supplement use, and behavioral characteristics in a sample involving 247 participants with ASD and 267 controls aged 2–18 years. Data were collected by a questionnaire. GI symptoms were observed in 88.9% of children and adolescents with ASD, more often in girls than in boys. High rates of food selectivity (69.1%) and mealtime problems (64.3%) were found. Food supplements were used by 66.7% of individuals, mainly vitamins/minerals, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. In the ASD sample, 21.2% of subjects followed a diet, mostly based on gluten and milk restriction, including individuals exhibiting food selectivity. Frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems correlated weakly, but significantly with behavioral characteristics in the ASD group, but not with food supplement use. The study demonstrated that higher frequency of GI symptoms, food selectivity, and mealtime problems are a common problem in pre-schoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents with ASD, and together with dietary modification, they are significantly associated with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Correlates of Physical Activity, Psychosocial Factors, and Home Environment Exposure among U.S. Adolescents: Insights for Cancer Risk Reduction from the FLASHE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5753; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165753 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Background and aims: Physical activity (PA) can bring numerous health benefits to adolescents and can largely aid in reducing the various types of cancer risks in their lifespans. However, few adolescents meet the physical activity guidelines recommended by the National Cancer Institute in [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Physical activity (PA) can bring numerous health benefits to adolescents and can largely aid in reducing the various types of cancer risks in their lifespans. However, few adolescents meet the physical activity guidelines recommended by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Our study aimed to examine the multilevel determinants potentially influencing adolescent’s PA participation. Methods: A secondary analysis of physical activity, home and school neighborhood, and other psychosocial data from 1504 dyads of adolescents and their parents who participated in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) study was performed. Analysis of variance and general linear model analyses were used to examine the correlates. Results: General linear modeling revealed that younger adolescents participated in greater levels of PA than older adolescents (p < 0.001). Adolescents whose parents reported meeting PA guidelines participated in greater amounts of PA (p < 0.001). Parental support of adolescent PA (p < 0.001) was also predictive of adolescent PA levels. Furthermore, parents who reported meeting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines were more likely to have teenagers that engaged in higher amounts of PA (p < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: Our findings imply a dynamic relationship between adolescent and parent MVPA levels. Interventions focused on increasing parental MVPA and encouraging parents to engage in promoting PA are merited in order to aid in increasing PA among adolescents while reducing the cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Gender-Based Violence Perpetration by Male High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155536 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Gender-based violence (GBV) perpetration is a global public health problem due to its detrimental effect on health and education. This study aims to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration by male students in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern [...] Read more.
Gender-based violence (GBV) perpetration is a global public health problem due to its detrimental effect on health and education. This study aims to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration by male students in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia in December 2018. A total of 1064 male students were involved in the study. Data were collected using an adaptation of the WHO Multi-Country Study self-administered questionnaire on the Women Health and Life Event. Descriptive statistics were calculated using STATA version 14. The prevalence of gender-based violence committed by a male in the last 12 months was 55.83% (95% CI: 52.84–58.82%). The prevalence of emotional abuse against an intimate or non-partner was 45.86% (95% CI: 42.87–48.86%), physical abuse was 45.77% (95% CI: 42.77–48.77%), and sexual abuse was 31.11% (95% CI: 28.32–33.90%). The perpetration of multiple types of gender-based violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) was 47.15% (95% CI: 43.15–51.25%), with 17.72% (95% CI: 14.75–21.03%) reporting emotionally and physically violent acts, 14.21% (95% CI: 11.51–17.27%) reporting emotionally violent acts only, and 12.88% (95% CI: 10.29–15.82%) reporting physically violent acts only. There were statistically significant differences between the age of participants who committed acts of all forms of GBV in the “ever” timeframe and the past 12 months (p < 0.001). Effective prevention and intervention strategies should be developed at the school level to reduce gender-based violence perpetration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Synergy between Acceptance of Violence and Sexist Attitudes as a Dating Violence Risk Factor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145209 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The normalization of aggressive behavior in teenage couples when they are dating is a phenomenon that is currently reaching very worrying proportions. The consequences are creating a serious public health problem and have hence aroused the interest of many researchers as to its [...] Read more.
The normalization of aggressive behavior in teenage couples when they are dating is a phenomenon that is currently reaching very worrying proportions. The consequences are creating a serious public health problem and have hence aroused the interest of many researchers as to its causes. Most have centered on the role of the aggressor. However, the processes of aggression and victimization are inseparable, and relegating the victims to the background only contributes to increasing the prevalence, severity, and perdurability of the problem. The objectives of this study were to: (i) identify the types and frequency of abuse that adolescents suffer in their relationships; (ii) analyze the relationship between sexist attitudes, acceptance of violence, and victimization; and (iii) determine predictors of the violence suffered in adolescent dating relationships. The sample comprised 2577 adolescents (55.2% girls) of 14 to 18 years in age (M = 15.9, SD = 1.2). The instruments used were the dating violence questionnaire (Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios, CUVINO) and the Scale of detection of sexism in adolescents (Escala de Detección de Sexismo en Adolescentes, DSA). The results indicate that victims showed high tolerance towards gender violence. Acceptance was greater the more frequent the abuse or aggressions suffered. Regarding sexist attitudes, only those belonging to the benevolent dimension had predictive value. The results also show that the interaction between acceptance of the abuse suffered and the manifestation of benevolent sexist attitudes predicted victimization involving specific forms of aggression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Handgrip Strength and Current Smoking Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145021 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 687
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the independent association of handgrip strength and current smoking with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. Data of 1806 adolescents (12–18 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed by complex samples logistic regression analyses. Handgrip [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the independent association of handgrip strength and current smoking with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. Data of 1806 adolescents (12–18 years) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed by complex samples logistic regression analyses. Handgrip strength was normalized by body weight into relative handgrip strength. A cardiometabolic risk index score was calculated from the z-scores of the following components: waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure. Relative handgrip strength showed an inverse association with high cardiometabolic risk, with an adjusted odds ratio of 8.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7–19.3) for boys and 5.7 (95% CI, 2.9–11.2) for girls on comparing the lowest and the highest age-and sex-specific quartiles of relative handgrip strength. The adjusted odds ratios for high cardiometabolic risk on comparing the second quartile and the highest quartile of relative handgrip strength were 3.9 (95% CI, 1.7–8.9) in boys and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3–5.3) in girls. Current smoking was independently associated with high cardiometabolic risk in boys aged 15–18 years. These findings suggest the need to increase muscle strength in adolescents and reduce smoking in older boys to promote cardiometabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Interaction of Socioeconomic Status with Risky Internet Use, Gambling and Substance Use in Adolescents from a Structurally Disadvantaged Region in Central Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4803; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17134803 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Background and aims: The current level of knowledge concerning the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on internet use, gambling, and substance use in structurally disadvantaged regions is scarce. The objective of this study was an investigation of the relationship between SES and risky [...] Read more.
Background and aims: The current level of knowledge concerning the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on internet use, gambling, and substance use in structurally disadvantaged regions is scarce. The objective of this study was an investigation of the relationship between SES and risky internet use, gambling and substance use in a structurally disadvantaged region in Central Europe. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among high school students (n = 1063) in a Czech structurally disadvantaged region in autumn 2017. Binary Logistic Regression models were applied to data from the modified Excessive Internet Use scale (mEIUS), a standard tool for measuring the risk of addictive behavior on the internet and the risk of excessive gaming. Other data were collected using the Lie/Bet (problematic gambling), CAGE (acronym of the key words: cut, angry, guilty and eye-opener), and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) (problematic alcohol/cannabis use) tools. Results: There were statistically significant differences between at-risk and not-at-risk groups in addictive behavior on the internet and gaming, while none were found in problematic gambling. Individual dimensions of SES showed significant effects on substance use. Regarding parenting styles, significant differences were found only in the risk of addictive behavior on the internet or gaming between the authoritarian and authoritative styles. Being engaged in behavioral addictions with one´s parents increased the odds of the behavioral addiction risk and decreased the odds of the substance addiction risk. Engagement with one´s parents in substance addictions decreased the odds of the behavioral addiction risk and increased the odds of the substance addiction risk. Discussion and Conclusions: The results point at specific relations between SES and the risk of addictive behaviors on the internet and gaming within structurally disadvantaged regions. The results of SES and/or structurally disadvantaged region measures obtained in research, policy-making, and care-provision may improve the focus of actions taken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Diagnostic Precision of Anthropometric Variables for the Detection of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4415; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124415 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Introduction: High blood pressure (HBP) is a health problem the prevalence of which has increased in young populations. Overweight and obesity in early ages have been directly related to its development. Due to the impact of HBP, it is necessary to provide [...] Read more.
Introduction: High blood pressure (HBP) is a health problem the prevalence of which has increased in young populations. Overweight and obesity in early ages have been directly related to its development. Due to the impact of HBP, it is necessary to provide tools that facilitate its early diagnosis, with useful anthropometric variables being those that assess obesity. The objective of this paper was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of anthropometric variables to detect HBP. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 students aged 6–16. The diagnosis of HBP was made following the criteria proposed by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics. Through different statistical methods, the association between anthropometric variables of general obesity with HBP was analyzed. Results: Waist circumference (WC) showed the best diagnostic capacity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.729), with a sensitivity and specificity of 72.2% and 76%, respectively, for a cut-off point of 73.5 cm. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, an association was found between HBP and anthropometric variables: WC (odds ratio (OR) = 10.7), body mass index (OR = 7.5), waist-to-height ratio (OR = 5.5) and body fat percentage (OR = 5.3) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The anthropometric variables studied showed a moderate predictive capacity for HBP, highlighting WC, which showed the strongest association with HBP in the infant and child population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Demographic and Socioeconomic Influences on Sleep Patterns among Adolescent Students
by , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124378 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Although proper sleep is an important topic in adolescent health, little is known about the sleep patterns of adolescents from a longitudinal and non-Western perspective. To fill this gap, the present research conducted a longitudinal study of the impact of demographic and socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Although proper sleep is an important topic in adolescent health, little is known about the sleep patterns of adolescents from a longitudinal and non-Western perspective. To fill this gap, the present research conducted a longitudinal study of the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on sleep patterns among Korean adolescent students. The relationship could positively or negatively affect sleep. Therefore, it is important to understand which demographic and socioeconomic factors are related to sleep patterns. This study used nationally representative panel data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A series of descriptive analyses were conducted to provide overall characteristics of the sample. Furthermore, mixed effect regression analysis techniques were employed to test the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and sleep patterns. Paternal employment status was associated with adolescent sleep patterns, while maternal employment status was not. Adolescents with both parents working compared to adolescents with one parent or none working showed different sleep patterns on weekdays but not on weekends. Both parents possessing college degrees, household income, living in an urban area, and family type were associated with adolescent sleep pattern indicators to varying degrees. Some of these associations varied according to adolescent sex. This study provides insight into the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on weekend and weekday sleep patterns among adolescent students by sex. These findings provide information for the promotion of healthy sleep in adolescents by addressing demographic and socioeconomic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Expectations and Prospects of Young Adult Caregivers Regarding the Support of Professionals: A Qualitative Focus Group Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124299 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
There is a lack of service provision for young adult caregivers (18–25 years of age). This study aims to describe the expectations and prospects of young adult caregivers regarding support from health and education professionals. A qualitative focus group design was used. Twenty-five [...] Read more.
There is a lack of service provision for young adult caregivers (18–25 years of age). This study aims to describe the expectations and prospects of young adult caregivers regarding support from health and education professionals. A qualitative focus group design was used. Twenty-five young Dutch adults (aged 18–25 years) who were growing up with a chronically ill family member participated in one of seven focus groups. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to identify codes and main themes. Two overarching themes with five sub-themes emerged from the focus group discussions. The overarching themes are: the ‘process of approaching young adults’ and the ‘types of support these young adults require’. The process of approaching young adults contains the sub-themes: ‘recognition, attention, and listening’, ‘open-minded attitude’, ‘reliability’, and ‘respecting autonomy’. The types of support this group requires contains the sub-themes: ‘information and emotional support’. Health and education professionals should first and foremost be aware and listen to young adult caregivers, pay attention to them, have an open-minded attitude, respect their autonomy, and have the knowledge to provide them with information and emotional support. Further research could yield comprehensive insights into how professionals can meet these requirements and whether these results apply to male young adult caregivers and young adult caregivers not enrolled in a healthcare-related study program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Sex Differences in Association of Elevated Blood Pressure with Variables Characterizing Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Subjects with or Without Metabolic Abnormalities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3612; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103612 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Males present higher blood pressure (BP) values, higher prevalence of elevated BP, and a different prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors when compared with females. We assumed that the trends of risk markers across BP categories (normotension, high normal BP, and hypertension) differ in [...] Read more.
Males present higher blood pressure (BP) values, higher prevalence of elevated BP, and a different prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors when compared with females. We assumed that the trends of risk markers across BP categories (normotension, high normal BP, and hypertension) differ in young males and females, and between subjects without metabolic abnormalities (without obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, or microinflammation) and those presenting them. Data from 2543 subjects (48% males) aged from 16 to 23 years were analyzed. The findings showed that 15% of males and 4% of females presented high normal BP while 9% and 1%, respectively, had hypertension. In males, variables characterizing obesity status, insulin sensitivity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, uric acid, adiponectin, a soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products, and leukocyte counts showed worsening trends across BP categories. Females presented significant trends only for obesity measures, LDL-cholesterol, and non-HDL-cholesterol. Across BP categories, trends of variables characterizing cardiometabolic risk differed among abnormalities-free and presenting males. The multivariate model selected measures of central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and uric acid as significant predictors of BP in both genders, and C-reactive protein in females. Sex differences in measures of cardiovascular health in juveniles may remain undiscovered unless two sexes are analyzed separately. These differences may have implications for sex-specific disease risk in adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Research on the Relationships between Psychological Problems and School Bullying and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury among Rural Primary and Middle School Students in Developing Areas of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103371 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
(1) Purpose: To analyze the role of psychological problems in connection with school bullying and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among rural primary and middle school students in developing areas of China. (2) Methods: A multi-stage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to select [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: To analyze the role of psychological problems in connection with school bullying and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among rural primary and middle school students in developing areas of China. (2) Methods: A multi-stage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to select 2284 rural primary and middle school students in Jiangxi Province for study. Questionnaires regarding the health risk behaviors of children in developing areas were left behind at primary and middle schools, and they were later collected and analyzed by using the mental health diagnostic monitoring scale for Chinese primary and middle school students. Pearson correlation, logistic regression, and bootstrap tests were conducted to analyze the association between psychological problems, school bullying, and NSSI. (3) Results: The incidence of NSSI in rural primary and middle school students in Jiangxi Province was 14.84%. Compared with other children with behavioral problems, those who had experienced school bullying and had mild/severe psychological problems were more likely to have engaged in NSSI behaviors (p < 0.001). Psychological problems have a mediating effect between school bullying and NSSI, which accounted for 12.96% of the total effect. (4) Conclusion: Psychological problems are likely an effect modifier in the connection between school bullying and NSSI behaviors. Therefore, effectively targeting psychological problems in rural primary and middle school students in Jiangxi Province may help prevent and control NSSI behaviors in students who have experienced school bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Physical Activity in 15–17-Year-Old Adolescents as Compensation for Sedentary Behavior in School
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3281; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093281 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
The traditional concept of education and school settings significantly contribute to the sedentary behavior of adolescents at secondary schools. The aim of this study is to identify the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA) that adolescent boys and girls engage in during [...] Read more.
The traditional concept of education and school settings significantly contribute to the sedentary behavior of adolescents at secondary schools. The aim of this study is to identify the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA) that adolescent boys and girls engage in during recesses, after school, and during the day to compensate for sedentary behavior in lessons. The study was conducted at 29 Czech and 9 Polish schools. The study involved 868 girls and 409 boys aged 15–17 years. An ActiTrainerTM accelerometer was used to monitor PA and heart rate. Participants were divided into four quartile groups. Most sedentary boys and girls had less PA and showed a worse ratio of physical inactivity (PI)/PA than non-sedentary participants during recesses. In the after-school period, there were no significant differences. On school days, most sedentary boys and girls showed lower PA, a worse ratio of PI/PA, fewer steps·hour−1, and lower energy expenditure than their non-sedentary counterparts. Vigorous PA of ≥8 METs was reached by 48% of most sedentary boys (75% non-sedentary) and 47% of most sedentary girls (54% non-sedentary). Most sedentary adolescents do not compensate for their sedentary behavior in lessons with higher PA intensity or volume during recesses, after-school, or in overall daily PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Cross-Sectional Analysis of University Students’ Health Using a Digitised Health Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3009; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093009 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
University student years are a particularly influential period, during which time students may adopt negative behaviours that set the precedent for health outcomes in later years. This study utilised a newly digitised health survey implemented during health screening at a university in Singapore [...] Read more.
University student years are a particularly influential period, during which time students may adopt negative behaviours that set the precedent for health outcomes in later years. This study utilised a newly digitised health survey implemented during health screening at a university in Singapore to capture student health data. The aim of this study was to analyze the health status of this Asian university student population. A total of 535 students were included in the cohort, and a cross-sectional analysis of student health was completed. Areas of concern were highlighted in student’s body weight, visual acuity, and binge drinking. A large proportion of students were underweight (body mass index (BMI) < 18.5)—18.9% of females and 10.6% of males—and 7% of males were obese (BMI > 30). Although the overall prevalence of alcohol use was low in this study population, 9% of females and 8% of males who consumed alcohol had hazardous drinking habits. Around 16% of these students (male and female combined) typically drank 3–4 alcoholic drinks each occasion. The prevalence of mental health conditions reported was very low (<1%). This study evaluated the results from a digitised health survey implemented into student health screening to capture a comprehensive health history. The results reveal potential student health concerns and offer the opportunity to provide more targeted student health campaigns to address these. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Late Chronotype is Associated with Adolescent Asthma: Assessment Using the Korean-Version MCTQ
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3000; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093000 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Objectives: In the study, we explored whether sleep chronotypes are associated with asthma in adolescents. Methods: We analyzed 24,655 physician-diagnosed adolescent asthmatic patients and 253,775 non-asthmatic adolescent patients from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors factors, psychological [...] Read more.
Objectives: In the study, we explored whether sleep chronotypes are associated with asthma in adolescents. Methods: We analyzed 24,655 physician-diagnosed adolescent asthmatic patients and 253,775 non-asthmatic adolescent patients from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors factors, psychological factors, and sleep parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Logistic regression after adjusting for multiple confounders was used to explore the association between sleep chronotype and asthma. Results: The asthmatic adolescent group slept less (≤5 h: 24.3% vs. 23.2%) than the non-asthmatic adolescent group. Mean sleep duration (430.6 ± 95.6 vs. 433.5 ± 93.6 min), midpoint of sleep on school-free days (MSF; 255.9 ± 75.9 vs. 258.3 ± 73.6 min), midpoint of sleep on school days (MSW; 199.1 ± 49.1 vs. 200.1 ± 48.4 min), sleep duration on school days (SDW; 398.2 ± 98.1 vs. 400.2 ± 96.8 min), and sleep duration on school-free days (SDF; 511.8 ± 151.9 vs. 516.7 ± 147.2 min) were significantly lower, sleep satisfaction was significantly poorer (low sleep satisfaction: 41.3% vs. 37.5%), and late chronotype was significantly higher in the asthmatic adolescent (21.1% vs. 20.0%). After adjusting for multiple confounders, late chronotype was significantly associated with an increased frequency of adolescent asthma (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01–1.09) compared to intermediate chronotypes. Conclusions: Although our study shows a very modest association (OR of 1.05 in the fully adjusted model), we show that the late sleep chronotype is associated with asthma in adolescents in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Academic Schedule and Day-to-Day Variations in Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity of University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082810 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Students starting at university tend to adopt unhealthy behaviors. With students expected to sit during classes, their academic schedule may be responsible for their activity patterns. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between university students’ academic schedule and [...] Read more.
Students starting at university tend to adopt unhealthy behaviors. With students expected to sit during classes, their academic schedule may be responsible for their activity patterns. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between university students’ academic schedule and day-to-day variations in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA). The activity of 317 first-year undergraduate students (mean age 19.6 ± 1.4 years, 69.4% female, 30.0% male, and 0.6% other) was measured with the activPAL3™ triaxial monitor for seven consecutive days. Each class hour was found to be associated with 9.0 additional minutes of SB (95% CI [4.9, 13.1]), 54 additional seconds of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; 95% CI [12, 96]), and 12.2 min less time in bed (95% CI [−16.6, −7.8]). Active SB ratio (total duration of SB bouts < 30 min divided by total SB duration) decreased by 0.011 per hour of class scheduled for the students (95% CI [−0.016, −0.006]). Light PA (LPA) was not significantly associated with class duration. Students tend to cycle more on days with classes. Seated transportation was not significantly related to whether the students had classes or not. Overall, the academic schedule is associated with SB and PA in students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Relationship between School Backpacks and Musculoskeletal Pain in Children 8 to 10 Years of Age: An Observational, Cross-Sectional and Analytical Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072487 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Back pain in children is a reality and various factors are involved in its etiology. The study’s aim was to analyze the relationship between the use and type of backpack and pain in children. An analytical observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 123 [...] Read more.
Back pain in children is a reality and various factors are involved in its etiology. The study’s aim was to analyze the relationship between the use and type of backpack and pain in children. An analytical observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 123 schoolchildren between 8–10 years. Data on the participants’ weight and height and their backpacks were collected, as well as the way of travel to school and their physical activity during the week. The results indicated that all backpacks were large because the backpack’s height is longer than torso length. Participants who studied in a traditional educational system (62.60%) carried backpacks that exceeded 10% of their body weight. Additionally, 31.7% of the students presented pain. There is no significant correlation between the weight or type of backpack and the pressure pain threshold collected from shoulders muscles. Participants who carried backpacks heavier than 10% of their body weight did not have more musculoskeletal pain or a lower pressure pain threshold than the others, although they did report greater fatigue. All these topics should be debated considering the student’s social environment and the backpack’s discomfort to the children, even though no relationship was found between musculoskeletal pain and backpack weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Patterns of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Youths and Adolescents in Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1903; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17061903 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Youths and adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/STIs from unprotected sex. Promotion of young population’s awareness about risky sexual behaviors is essential to develop contextualized interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five Vietnamese provinces to document current attitudes and practices regarding sexual behaviors [...] Read more.
Youths and adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/STIs from unprotected sex. Promotion of young population’s awareness about risky sexual behaviors is essential to develop contextualized interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five Vietnamese provinces to document current attitudes and practices regarding sexual behaviors among youths. The information on sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviors was collected via self-reported questionnaires. The factors associated with risky sexual behaviors were identified by the multivariate logistic regression. Among the 1200 participants, 73.5% reported having sex in their lifetime, and 48.1% used condoms at their latest sexual intercourse. Participants in urban areas were more likely not to intend to use condoms and had a higher unintended pregnancy rate than in rural areas. Older age was positively associated with not wanting to use and not using condoms. Substance-using participants were more likely to not use condoms. The participants taking alcohol or other stimulants before sex had a higher likelihood of unintended pregnancy. Respondents’ attitudes and practices regarding sexual behaviors were associated with gender and employment. This study indicated that young population’s awareness in Vietnam is high, however, risky sexual behaviors also remain common. Sex-related educational programs about the consequences of substance use, multiple sex partners, and unprotected sex should be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Prevalence of Anemia and its Associated Factors among Chinese 9-, 12-, and 14-Year-Old Children: Results from 2014 Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1474; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17051474 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Background: Anemia has been one of the main nutritional challenges around the world. Not enough attention has been paid to this issue in children and adolescents in China. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia among 9-, 12-, and [...] Read more.
Background: Anemia has been one of the main nutritional challenges around the world. Not enough attention has been paid to this issue in children and adolescents in China. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia among 9-, 12-, and 14-year old Chinese children and investigate the associated factors of anemia. Methods: Data come from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 26 provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China. A total of 48,537 children aged 9, 12, and 14 years old were included in data analyses. Anthropometric measurements were conducted to obtain information about height and weight. Capillary blood was collected from the fingertip, and hemoglobin concentration was tested by HemoCue201+. Information about sleep duration, daily consumption of eggs, milk, and breakfast were obtained from a self-administrated questionnaire. The mixed-effects logistic regression model was applied to estimate the association between selected variables and risk of anemia. Results: A total of 8.4% of participants were identified as being anemic; and the prevalence was higher in girls and rural children. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis showed that children who were overweight, obese, and consumed eggs and milk every day had a lower risk of anemia. Spermarche, overweight/obesity, and having milk every day were associated with lower risk of anemia in boys, while menarche was found to be a risk factor and eating eggs every day to be a protective factor of anemia in girls. Conclusions: Anemia among 9-, 12-, and 14-year-old children is still high. Intervention programs of adding egg and milk into school daily diet might contribute to reducing anemia in Chinese school aged children, especially for those living in rural areas or girls with menarche. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Sexting, Online Sexual Victimization, and Psychopathology Correlates by Sex: Depression, Anxiety, and Global Psychopathology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1018; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17031018 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Recent research on sexting highlighted a relationship between this new technology-mediated behavior and psychopathology correlates, although up to date results are mixed, and so far, studies have often used simple and not clinically validated measures of mental health. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Recent research on sexting highlighted a relationship between this new technology-mediated behavior and psychopathology correlates, although up to date results are mixed, and so far, studies have often used simple and not clinically validated measures of mental health. This study aimed to investigate sexting behaviors, online sexual victimization, and related mental health correlates using clinically validated measures for global psychopathology, anxiety, and depression; and doing so separately for men and women. The sample consisted of 1370 Spanish college students (73.6% female; 21.4 mean age; SD = 4.85) who took part in an online survey about their engagement in sexting behaviors, online sexual victimization behaviors, and psychopathological symptomatology, measured by a sexting scale and the Listado de Síntomas Breve (brief symptom checklist) (LSB-50), respectively. Out of our total sample, 37.1% of participants had created and sent their own sexual content (active sexting), 60.3% had received sexual content (passive sexting), and 35.5% had both sent and received sexual content, with significant differences between male and female engagement in passive sexting. No differences were found between men and women in the prevalence of their victimization by nonconsensual dissemination of sexual content; however, women were more pressured and threatened into sexting than men. Sex differences in psychopathology were found only for depression prevalence rates but not for global psychopathology or anxiety. Furthermore, for male participants, our results showed a significant association only between online sexual victimization and psychopathology but not for consensual active and passive sexting. However, for the female participants, active sexting, passive sexting, and online sexual victimization were all associated with poorer mental health. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Exploring the Diagnostic Accuracy of the KidFit Screening Tool for Identifying Children with Health and Motor Performance-Related Fitness Impairments: A Feasibility Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 995; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030995 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
Child obesity is associated with poor health and reduced motor skills. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the KidFit Screening Tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity, reduced motor skills and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness. Fifty-seven children (mean age: 12.57 ± 1.82 [...] Read more.
Child obesity is associated with poor health and reduced motor skills. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the KidFit Screening Tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity, reduced motor skills and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness. Fifty-seven children (mean age: 12.57 ± 1.82 years; male/female: 34/23) were analysed. The Speed and Agility Motor Screen (SAMS) and the Modified Shuttle Test-Paeds (MSTP) made up the KidFit Screening Tool. Motor Proficiency (BOT2) (Total and Gross) was also measured. BMI, peak-oxygen-uptake (VO2peak) were measured with a representative sub-sample (n = 25). Strong relationships existed between the independent variables included in the KidFit Screening Tool and; BMI (R2 = 0.779, p < 0.001); Gross Motor Proficiency (R2 = 0.612, p < 0.001) and VO2peak (mL/kg/min) (R2 = 0.754, p < 0.001). The KidFit Screening Tool has a correct classification rate of 0.84 for overweight/obesity, 0.77 for motor proficiency and 0.88 for cardiorespiratory fitness. The sensitivity and specificity of the KidFit Screening Tool for identifying children with overweight/obesity was 100% (SE = 0.00) and 78.95%, respectively (SE = 0.09), motor skills in the lowest quartile was 90% (SE = 0.095) and 74.47% (SE = 0.064), respectively, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness was 100% (SE = 0.00) and 82.35% (SE = 0.093), respectively. The KidFit Screening Tool has a strong relationship with health- and performance-related fitness, is accurate for identifying children with health- and performance-related fitness impairments and may assist in informing referral decisions for detailed clinical investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Article
Social Noise Exposure in a Sample of Slovak University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010324 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Purpose: Social noise exposure is currently an emerging problem in adolescents and young adults. Various leisure time activities may be responsible for hearing impairment (temporary or permanent hearing threshold shift or hearing loss). The study aimed to quantify environmental noise from various sources—voluntary [...] Read more.
Purpose: Social noise exposure is currently an emerging problem in adolescents and young adults. Various leisure time activities may be responsible for hearing impairment (temporary or permanent hearing threshold shift or hearing loss). The study aimed to quantify environmental noise from various sources—voluntary (social) noise (personal music players (PMPs), high-intensity noise exposure events), and road traffic noise and to detect hearing disorders in relation to individual listening to PMPs in the sample of young adults living and studying in Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia. Methods: The study included 1003 university students (306 men and 697 women, average age 23.1 ± 2) living in Bratislava for 4 or more years; 347 lived in the student housing facility exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq = 67.6 dB) and 656 in the control one (LAeq = 53.4 dB). Respondents completed a validated ICBEN 5-grade scale “noise annoyance questionnaire”. In the exposed group a significant source of annoyance was road traffic noise (p < 0.001), noise from entertainment facilities (p < 0.001), industrial noise (p < 0.001), and noise from neighboring flats (p = 0.003). The exposure to PMPs was objectified by the conversion of the subjective evaluation of the volume setting and duration. With the cooperation of the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT)specialist, we arranged audiometric examinations on the pilot sample of 41 volunteers. Results: From the total sample of respondents, 79.2% reported the use of a PMP in the course of the last week, and the average time was 285 min. There was a significant difference in PMP use between the road traffic noise-exposed (85.6%) and the control group (75.8%) (p = 0.01). Among PMP users 30.7% exceeded the lower action value (LAV) for industry (LAeq,8h = 80 dB). On a pilot sample of volunteers (n = 41), audiometry testing was performed indicating a hearing threshold shift at higher frequencies in 22% of subjects. Conclusions: The results of the study on a sample of young healthy individuals showed the importance of exposure to social noise as well as to road traffic noise and the need for prevention and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Perceptual Styles and Cannabis Consumption Prediction in Young People
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010288 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Given that risk perception has been found to be both a vulnerability and a protective factor with respect to consumption, the objectives of this study were to find out whether there exist specific patterns of risk perception associated with cannabis use and, if [...] Read more.
Given that risk perception has been found to be both a vulnerability and a protective factor with respect to consumption, the objectives of this study were to find out whether there exist specific patterns of risk perception associated with cannabis use and, if so, how they relate to cannabis consumption and to the sources of information on drugs accessed by young people. An ex post facto study was carried out with 1851 young Andalusians aged 18 to 29, using an adaptation of the Andalusian Government “Andalusian Population versus Drugs” survey. For the first objective, a cluster analysis was carried out in which three perceptual style groups were formed: “Strict”, “Permissive-Awareness” and “Lax”. Cannabis use in the “lax” group was found to be 14.31 times more frequent than in the “strict” group and 2.75 times more frequent than in the “permissive-awareness” group. A logistic regression analysis was also performed, which correctly predicted 80.4% of users and non-consumers. Correlation was found between perceptual styles and the sources of information used about drugs. This study identified three different risk perception styles that heavily correlated to cannabis consumption and to the type of sources young Andalusians use to obtain information about drugs, suggesting the need for a change in preventive policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
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Article
Influence of Personality Traits and Its Interaction with the Phenomenon of Bullying: Multi-Centre Descriptive Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010172 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Bullying affects thousands of teenagers worldwide and has devastating consequences. Various studies suggest that the personality of teenagers is a risk profile for bullying. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the personality of teenagers aged 14 to 16 [...] Read more.
Bullying affects thousands of teenagers worldwide and has devastating consequences. Various studies suggest that the personality of teenagers is a risk profile for bullying. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between the personality of teenagers aged 14 to 16 years from three education centres located in the province of Seville (Spain) and bullying in any of its victim or aggressor roles. A multi-centre cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted in three education centres in the province of Seville (Spain). The sample consisted of 93 students. In order to measure the two main variables, the Bull-S test was used for bullying, and the EPQ-J questionnaire was used for personality traits. A descriptive and correlation analysis was performed between variables. The results showed that 14% (n = 13) of the sample were detected as victims and another 14% (n = 13) were detected as aggressors. Statistically significant differences were found between neuroticism (p = 0.044; Phi = 0.615), sincerity (p = 0.016; V de Cramer = 0.474), and anti-social behaviour (p = 0.007; Phi = 0.620) with the variables victim/aggressor. Bullies are typically males who score high on neuroticism and anti-social behaviour, with a tendency towards social dissimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Eating Habits and Daily Activities in the Sample of Slovak Students
Authors: Diana Vondrova 1; Jana Babjakova 1; Katarina Hirosova 1; Alexandra Filova 1; Martin Samohyl 1; Jana Jurkovicova 1; Juraj Stofko 2; Lubica Argalasova 1
Affiliation: 1 Institute of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia; 2 Institute of Physiotherapy, Balneology and Medical Rehabilitation, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, 91701 Trnava, Slovakia

Title: Determination of adulthood chronic disease onset by adolescent lifestyle and social factors – A review
Authors: Dagmar Skýbová 1,2; Hana Šlachtová 1,2; Hana Tomášková 1,2; Andrea Dalecká 1,2; Rastislav Maďar 2
Affiliation: 1 Centre for Epidemiological Research, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic; 2 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic

Title: E-Cigarette Use Among University Students in Slovakia
Authors: Jana Babjakova 1; Michael Weitzman 2; Diana Vondrova 1; Alexandra Filova 1; Branislav Kollar 3; Juraj Stofko 4; Jana Jurkovicova 1; Lubica Argalasova 1
Affiliation: 1. Faculty of Medicine Comenius University Bratislava, Institute of Hygiene, Spitalska 24, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia; 2. Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, 1 Park Avenue, NY, NY 10025, USA; 3. 1st Department of Neurology of the Faculty of Medicine of Comenius University in Bratislava and of the University Hospital Bratislava, Mickiewiczova 13, 813 69 Bratislava, Slovakia; 4. Institute of Physiotherapy, Balneology and Medical Rehabilitation, The University of St. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, 91701 Trnava, Slovakia

Title: Personal listening and IT devices and their relation to life style in the Slovak Risk Behavioral Survey
Authors: Lubica Argalasova 1; Michael Weitzman 2; Diana Vondrova 1; Jana Babjakova 1; Martin Samohyl 1; Alexandra Filova 1; Katarina Hirosova 1; Branislav Kollar 3; Juraj Stofko 4; Jana Jurkovicova 1
Affiliation: 1. Faculty of Medicine Comenius University Bratislava, Institute of Hygiene, Spitalska 24, 813 72 Bratislava, Slovakia; 2. Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, 1 Park Avenue, NY, NY 10025, USA; 3. 1st Department of Neurology of the Faculty of Medicine of Comenius University in Bratislava and of the University Hospital Bratislava, Mickiewiczova 13, 813 69 Bratislava, Slovakia; 4. Institute of Physiotherapy, Balneology and Medical Rehabilitation, The University of St. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, 91701 Trnava, Slovakia

Title: The nurse interventions and determination of selected nutrition markers in adolescents with different eating habits

Authors: Zuzana Slezáková 1; Jarmila Kristová 1; Dana Zrubcová 2; Andrea Solgajová 2; Martina Valachovičová 1
Affiliation: 1. Faculty of Nursing and Medical Professional Studies of the Slovak Medical University in Bratislava, Slovakia; 2. Faculty of Social Sciences and Health Care, University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra, Slovakia

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