Special Issue "Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health "

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Amanda Patterson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, and Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Interests: diet quality; young women; iron deficiency; mental health; cognitive function
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iron deficiency continues to be the most prevalent nutrient deficiency worldwide. It can result from excessive losses and various disease processes, but many cases are due to low total dietary iron intakes and/or poor absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract due to low bioavailability resulting from the form of iron (haem and/or non-haem) and the interaction with other food components (enhancers and/or inhibitors of iron absorption). Whatever the cause of iron deficiency, the impacts on health and wellbeing are significant and far reaching.

This special issue will publish manuscripts that examine dietary iron intake and its relationship with iron status, as well as papers addressing the implications of poor iron status on human health.

Dr. Amanda Patterson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • iron deficiency
  • iron depletion
  • iron stores
  • iron deficiency anaemia
  • iron status
  • ferritin
  • dietary iron
  • iron intakes
  • iron bioavailability
  • iron absorption
  • enhancers
  • inhibitors
  • immunity
  • cognition
  • fatigue
  • general health and wellbeing
  • mental health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Iron Status in Elderly Women Impacts Myostatin, Adiponectin and Osteocalcin Levels Induced by Nordic Walking Training
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041129 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Impaired iron metabolism is associated with increased risk of many morbidities. Exercise was shown to have a beneficial role; however, the mechanism is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between exerkines and iron metabolism in elderly [...] Read more.
Impaired iron metabolism is associated with increased risk of many morbidities. Exercise was shown to have a beneficial role; however, the mechanism is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between exerkines and iron metabolism in elderly women before and after 12 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW) training. Exerkines like myostatin, adiponectin, and osteocalcin have been shown to have several positive effects on metabolism. Thirty-six post-menopausal women (66 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a NW intervention group (n = 18; body mass, 68.8 ± 11.37 kg; fat, 23.43 ± 7.5 kg; free fat mass, 45.37 ± 5.92 kg) or a control group (n = 18; body mass, 68.34 ± 11.81 kg; fat, 23.61 ± 10.03 kg; free fat mass, 44.73 ± 3.9 kg). The training was performed three times a week for 12 weeks, with the intensity adjusted to 70% of the individual maximum ability. Before and one day after the 12-weeks intervention, performance indices were assessed using a senior fitness test. Blood samples (5 mL) were obtained from the participants between 7 and 8 AM, following an overnight fast, at baseline and one day immediately after the 12-week training program. A significant and large time × group interaction was observed for iron (NW: 98.6 ± 26.68 to 76.1 ± 15.31; CON: 100.6 ± 25.37 to 99.1 ± 27.2; p = 0.01; η p 2 = 0.21), myostatin (NW: 4.42 ± 1.97 to 3.83 ± 1.52; CON: 4.11 ± 0.95 to 4.84 ± 1.19; p = 0.00; η p 2 = 0.62), adiponectin (NW: 12.0 ± 9.46 to 14.6 ± 10.64; CON: 12.8 ± 8.99 to 11.9 ± 8.53; p = 0.00; η p 2 = 0.58), and osteocalcin (NW: 38.9 ± 26.04 to 41.6 ± 25.09; CON: 37.1 ± 33.2 to 37.2 ± 32.29; p = 0.03; η p 2 = 0.13). Furthermore, we have observed the correlations: basal ferritin levels were inversely correlated with changes in myostatin (r = −0.51, p = 0.05), change in adiponectin, and change in serum iron (r = −0.45, p = 0.05), basal iron, and osteocalcin after training (r = -0.55, p = 0.04). These findings indicate that iron modulates NW training-induced changes in exerkine levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
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Article
Maternal Dietary Intakes, Red Blood Cell Indices and Risk for Anemia in the First, Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy and at Predelivery
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 777; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12030777 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
As anemia remains a major public health problem in Ghana, we examined the effect of dietary intakes, and antenatal care (ANC) practices on red cell indices and anemia prevalence during the pregnancy continuum for 415 women. Dietary history was taken using the Food [...] Read more.
As anemia remains a major public health problem in Ghana, we examined the effect of dietary intakes, and antenatal care (ANC) practices on red cell indices and anemia prevalence during the pregnancy continuum for 415 women. Dietary history was taken using the Food and Agriculture Organization minimum dietary diversity indicator for women (MDD-W). Intake of ≥5 food groups was a proxy for micronutrient adequacy. Odds for anemia and meeting the MDD-W were estimated using ordinal and binary logistic regressions respectively. Intakes of 41.4% were micronutrient inadequate. At any time point in pregnancy, 54.4% were anemic (mild = 31.1%; moderate = 23.1%; severe = 0.2%) with 10%-point variation across the first (57.3%), second (56.4%) and third (53.3%) trimesters and pre-delivery (47.7%); 27.8% were anemic throughout pregnancy while 17.1% were never anemic. Morphologically, microcytic (79.4%) and hypochromic (29.3%) anemia were most prevalent, indicating nutritional deficiencies. Planning the pregnancy was a significant determinant for meeting the MDD-W. Overall, adolescence, poor diet, suboptimum ANC and underweight were associated with moderate and severe anemia. In specific time-points, dietary counselling, malaria, iron-folic acid supplementation, sickle cell disease and preeclampsia were observed. Decline of anemia during pregnancy suggests the positive impact of ANC services and supports strengthening education on dietary diversification during ANC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
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Article
Oral Supplementation with Sucrosomial Ferric Pyrophosphate Plus L-Ascorbic Acid to Ameliorate the Martial Status: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020386 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Altered martial indices before orthopedic surgery are associated with higher rates of complications and greatly affect the patient’s functional ability. Oral supplements can optimize the preoperative martial status, with clinical efficacy and the patient’s tolerability being highly dependent on the pharmaceutical formula. Patients [...] Read more.
Altered martial indices before orthopedic surgery are associated with higher rates of complications and greatly affect the patient’s functional ability. Oral supplements can optimize the preoperative martial status, with clinical efficacy and the patient’s tolerability being highly dependent on the pharmaceutical formula. Patients undergoing elective hip/knee arthroplasty were randomized to be supplemented with a 30-day oral therapy of sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate plus L-ascorbic acid. The tolerability was 2.7% among treated patients. Adjustments for confounding factors, such as iron absorption influencers, showed a relevant response limited to older patients (≥ 65 years old), whose uncharacterized Hb loss was averted upon treatment with iron formula. Older patients with no support lost −2.8 ± 5.1%, while the intervention group gained +0.7 ± 4.6% of circulating hemoglobin from baseline (p = 0.019). Gastrointestinal diseases, medications, and possible dietary factors could affect the efficacy of iron supplements. Future opportunities may consider to couple ferric pyrophosphate with other nutrients, to pay attention in avoiding absorption disruptors, or to implement interventions to obtain an earlier martial status optimization at the population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
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Article
Cord Blood-Derived Exosomal CNTN2 and BDNF: Potential Molecular Markers for Brain Health of Neonates at Risk for Iron Deficiency
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11102478 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Maternal iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and diabetes are prevalent during pregnancy. All are associated with neonatal brain iron deficiency (ID) and neurodevelopmental impairment. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles involved in cell–cell communication. Contactin-2 (CNTN2), a neural-specific glycoprotein, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are important [...] Read more.
Maternal iron deficiency anemia, obesity, and diabetes are prevalent during pregnancy. All are associated with neonatal brain iron deficiency (ID) and neurodevelopmental impairment. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles involved in cell–cell communication. Contactin-2 (CNTN2), a neural-specific glycoprotein, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are important in neurodevelopment and found in exosomes. We hypothesized that exosomal CNTN2 and BDNF identify infants at risk for brain ID. Umbilical cord blood samples were measured for iron status. Maternal anemia, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Cord blood exosomes were isolated and validated for the exosomal marker CD81 and the neural-specific exosomal marker CNTN2. Exosomal CNTN2 and BDNF levels were quantified by ELISA. Analysis of CNTN2 and BDNF levels as predictors of cord blood iron indices showed a direct correlation between CNTN2 and ferritin in all neonates (n = 79, β = 1.75, p = 0.02). In contrast, BDNF levels inversely correlated with ferritin (β = −1.20, p = 0.03), with stronger association in female neonates (n = 37, β = −1.35, p = 0.06), although there is no evidence of a sex-specific effect. Analysis of maternal risk factors for neonatal brain ID as predictors of exosomal CNTN2 and BDNF levels showed sex-specific relationships between infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and CNTN2 levels (Interaction p = 0.0005). While male IDMs exhibited a negative correlation (n = 42, β = −0.69, p = 0.02), female IDMs showed a positive correlation (n = 37, β = 0.92, p = 0.01) with CNTN2. A negative correlation between BNDF and maternal BMI was found with stronger association in female neonates (per 10 units BMI, β = −0.60, p = 0.04). These findings suggest CNTN2 and BNDF are respective molecular markers for male and female neonates at risk for brain ID. This study supports the potential of exosomal markers to assess neonatal brain status in at-risk infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
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Review

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Review
Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia: Implications and Impact in Pregnancy, Fetal Development, and Early Childhood Parameters
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12020447 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5820
Abstract
A normal pregnancy consumes 500–800 mg of iron from the mother. Premenopausal women have a high incidence of marginal iron stores or iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, particularly in the less developed world. Although pregnancy is associated with a “physiologic” anemia [...] Read more.
A normal pregnancy consumes 500–800 mg of iron from the mother. Premenopausal women have a high incidence of marginal iron stores or iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, particularly in the less developed world. Although pregnancy is associated with a “physiologic” anemia largely related to maternal volume expansion; it is paradoxically associated with an increase in erythrocyte production and erythrocyte mass/kg. ID is a limiting factor for this erythrocyte mass expansion and can contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review summarizes erythrocyte and iron balance observed in pregnancy; its implications and impact on mother and child; and provides an overview of approaches to the recognition of ID in pregnancy and its management, including clinically relevant questions for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
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