Special Issue "Personalized Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Antonis Zampelas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 157 72 Athens, Greece
Interests: human nutrition; cardiovascular nutrition; nutritional epidemiology; obesity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

"Personalized nutrition" is a term that has been described in the literature in various ways. In summary, it can be defined as tailored nutrition interventions, developed according to each individual’s characteristics.

The personalized nutrition concept was developed in nutritional sciences mainly because it is now widely accepted that dietary guidelines and public health nutrition programs do not have the same effects on everyone.

Group programs may increase primary and/or secondary disease prevention, whereas Individualization could have a major impact on treatment of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, in sport performance, successful pregnancy and other conditions, other to prevention achieved through.

The relationships, however, between individuals, their food consumption and behavior, and their phenotype (including health) are extremely complex and the focus of current research in nutritional sciences. In addition, personalized nutrition has significant overlapping with nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, epigenetics, metabolomics, and micobiomics. The purpose, therefore, of this Special Issue of Nutrients on "Personalized Nutrition" is to highlight the majority if not all of these aspects, hence providing insight into dietary needs at the individual level, in order to prevent and/or treat disease as well as to improve the quality of life.

Prof. Dr. Antonis Zampelas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nutigenetics
  • metabolomics
  • microbiomics
  • personalized nutrition

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Presence of Hypertension Is Reduced by Mediterranean Diet Adherence in All Individuals with a More Pronounced Effect in the Obese: The Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS)
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030853 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study’s aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a major risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study’s aim was to examine associations between hypertension and a priori known lifestyle risk factors, including weight status and Mediterranean diet adherence. The study included a representative sample of the adult population (N = 3775 (40.8% males)), from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS), which took place from September 2013 to May 2015. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected using validated questionnaires, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed for the two main metropolitan areas (N = 1040; 41.1%). Hypertension diagnosis was according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) guidelines. Weighted proportions, extended Mantel–Haenszel (M–H) analyses, and multiple logistic regressions (for the survey data) were performed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 118.6 mmHg and 72.2 mmHg respectively, with both values being higher in males compared to females in all age groups (p < 0.001). Study participants with hyperlipidemia or diabetes, and those overweight, were almost twice as likely to be hypertensives, with the odds increasing to 4 for those obese (p for all, < 0.05). Stricter Mediterranean diet adherence significantly decreased the likelihood of hypertension by 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.439, 0.943), and a significant interaction was found between Mediterranean diet adherence and weight status on hypertension. The presence of hypertension is clustered with comorbidities, but is significantly associated with modifiable risk factors, including Mediterranean diet and weight status, underlining the need for personalized medical nutritional treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Article
A Blind Man Leads a Blind Man? Personalised Nutrition-Related Attitudes, Knowledge and Behaviours of Fitness Trainers in Hungary
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12030663 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
It is well-documented that fitness trainers could play an important role in the nutrition-related behaviour of their clients based on their personalised nutrition-related counselling activities, but there are considerable concerns all over the world about the level of their knowledge to become nutritional [...] Read more.
It is well-documented that fitness trainers could play an important role in the nutrition-related behaviour of their clients based on their personalised nutrition-related counselling activities, but there are considerable concerns all over the world about the level of their knowledge to become nutritional coaches. In the framework of the current study based on qualitative (focus-group interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire and analysis of responses by multivariable methods, as well as structural equation modelling) methods, it has been proven that (1) theoretically, both the trainers and the dietitians acknowledge the importance of cooperation in the optimisation of coaching efficiency and advisory work due to some “professional jealousness” and differences in professional background, as well as in culture, so it is hard to find a common platform for cooperation, especially in market segments characterised by relative low levels of purchasing power; (2) due to lack of regulation, there is a high heterogeneity of professional competences of trainers in general and their nutritional competences, in particular; (3) the majority of trainers do not have an objective picture on his/her effective nutritional knowledge, and they often offer a much wider scope of services (e.g., nutritional counselling for clients with chronic diseases) which are well beyond their professional knowledge and (4) the dietary guidelines have not become an integral part of professional knowledge, even at the level of specialists. To improve the current—in some cases, dangerous—situation, the following steps should be taken: (1) enhancement of the level of professional qualification of future trainers, integrating the practice-oriented approaches and emphasising the role of teamwork by simulation-based practices; (2) highlighting in a clear way the professional and ethical boundaries of the activities of trainers and (3) working out an efficient incentive system for the continuous professional development of trainers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Article
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE): A Marker for Personalized Feedback on Dieting
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12030660 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) expression and activity is associated with obesity. ACE is a circulating factor that predicts sustained weight loss over a time frame of months. Here, we evaluate whether ACE might also be an early marker (over a 24-hour period) for [...] Read more.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) expression and activity is associated with obesity. ACE is a circulating factor that predicts sustained weight loss over a time frame of months. Here, we evaluate whether ACE might also be an early marker (over a 24-hour period) for weight loss. 32 participants (78% females; BMI 28.47 ± 4.87kg/m2) followed a 1200KCal diet with an optional daily (<250KCal) snack and were asked to use an in-house generated health platform to provide recordings of food intake, physical activity and urine collection time and volume. Following a day of dieting, ACE levels in urine negatively correlated with weight loss (p = 0.015). This reduction in ACE levels was significantly more robust in individuals with a BMI > 25 (p = 0.0025). This study demonstrated that ACE levels correlate with BMI and weight loss as early as after 1 day of dieting, and thus ACE could be a potential early “biofeedback” marker for weight loss and diet efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Article
Dietary Patterns of Greek Adults and Their Associations with Serum Vitamin D Levels and Heel Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters for Bone Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12010123 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the dietary patterns which indicate the nutritional habits of Greek adults and their effects on serum 25(OH)D levels and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters for bone health. This study is part of OSTEOS, an observational cross-sectional [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the dietary patterns which indicate the nutritional habits of Greek adults and their effects on serum 25(OH)D levels and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters for bone health. This study is part of OSTEOS, an observational cross-sectional study. In total, 741 adults from rural and urban areas throughout Greece were recruited. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for assessment of the population’s dietary habits. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by enzyme immunoassay; QUS parameters were assessed with an Achilles device. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for dietary pattern determination, and univariate analysis of variance was used for the assessment of 25(OH)D, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and stiffness index (SI) determinants. Six dietary patterns explain 52.2% of the variability of Greek adults’ nutritional habits. The ‘vegetables–fruit’ dietary pattern explains the biggest rate of variability. Determinants of serum 25(OH)D are body mass index (BMI), elderly status, summer sun exposure, organized physical activity, a ‘healthy’ pattern in winter months, and adherence to a ‘sweet’ pattern. Determinants of QUS parameters are age, BMI, sedentary time, organized physical activity participation, and adherence to a ‘healthy’ pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Article
Fragmented Dosing of β-alanine Induces A Body Weight-Independent Pharmacokinetic Response
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2869; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11122869 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Personalised dosing of performance-enhancing food supplements is a hot topic. β-alanine is currently dosed using a fixed dose; however, evidence suggests that this might favour light compared to heavy subjects. A weight-relative dose seems to reverse this problem. In the present study, a [...] Read more.
Personalised dosing of performance-enhancing food supplements is a hot topic. β-alanine is currently dosed using a fixed dose; however, evidence suggests that this might favour light compared to heavy subjects. A weight-relative dose seems to reverse this problem. In the present study, a novel dosing strategy was tested. A fragmented dose, composed of a fixed fragment of 800 mg and a weight-relative fragment of 10 mg/kg body weight, was compared to a fixed dose of 1600 mg and a weight-relative dose of 20 mg/kg body weight in a cohort of 20 subjects with a body weight ranging 48–139 kg (79.9 ± 24.4 kg). The results show that, following a fragmented dose, the influence of body weight on the pharmacokinetic response (iAUC) over a 210 min period was absent (r = −0.168; p = 0.478), in contrast to the fixed or weight-relative dose. The pharmacokinetic response also seemed more homogenous (CV% = 26%) following a fragmented dose compared to the fixed (33%) and the weight-relative dose (31%). The primary advantage of the easy-to-calculate fragmented dosing strategy is that it does not systematically favour or impair a certain weight group. Thorough dosage studies are lacking in the current field of sports and food supplements, therefore similar considerations can be made towards other (ergogenic) food supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Review

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Review
Detection of Early Disease Risk Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: A New Era with the NMR Metabolomics Assessment
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 806; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12030806 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease developed due to accumulation and chronification of several risk factors associated with disrupted metabolism. The early detection of the biomarkers by NMR spectroscopy could be helpful to prevent multifactorial diseases. The exposure of each risk factor [...] Read more.
The metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease developed due to accumulation and chronification of several risk factors associated with disrupted metabolism. The early detection of the biomarkers by NMR spectroscopy could be helpful to prevent multifactorial diseases. The exposure of each risk factor can be detected by traditional molecular markers but the current biomarkers have not been enough precise to detect the primary stages of disease. Thus, there is a need to obtain novel molecular markers of pre-disease stages. A promising source of new molecular markers are metabolomics standing out the research of biomarkers in NMR approaches. An increasing number of nutritionists integrate metabolomics into their study design, making nutrimetabolomics one of the most promising avenues for improving personalized nutrition. This review highlight the major five risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and related diseases including carbohydrate dysfunction, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Together, it is proposed a profile of metabolites of each risk factor obtained from NMR approaches to target them using personalized nutrition, which will improve the quality of life for these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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Review
Cholesterol Disturbances and the Role of Proper Nutrition in CKD Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11112820 - 18 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread disease with increasing prevalence in the modern society. Lipid disturbances are common in this group of patients. In most patients with CKD atherogenic dyslipidemia is observed. Dyslipidemia in patients with renal diseases increases the risk of [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread disease with increasing prevalence in the modern society. Lipid disturbances are common in this group of patients. In most patients with CKD atherogenic dyslipidemia is observed. Dyslipidemia in patients with renal diseases increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and it accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease to its end stage. The amelioration of dyslipidemia and the lowering of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, insulin sensitivity and remnant lipoproteins levels may lead to the reduction in cardiovascular burden. Nutritional interventions can strengthen the beneficial effect of treatment and they play an important role in the preservation of overall well-being of the patients with CKD since the aim of appropriate diet is to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, prevent malnutrition, and hamper the progression of kidney disease. The management of dyslipidemia, regardless of the presence of chronic kidney disease, should be initiated by the introduction of therapeutic lifestyle changes. The introduction of diet change was shown to exert beneficial effect on the lipid level lowering that reaches beyond pharmacological therapy. Currently available evidence give the impression that data on dietary interventions in CKD patients is not sufficient to make any clinical practice guidelines and is of low quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
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