Special Issue "Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Douglas Gladue
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Plum Island Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Greenport, NY 11944, USA.
Interests: ASFV, CSFV, PRRSV, PEDV, PDCoV, SwIV, FMDV, Swine viruses
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain
Interests: Vaccines; Immunology; Virology; African swine fever virus; emergent and reemergent viruses
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Manuel Borca
E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
USDA ARS Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, USA
Interests: All aspects of ASFV research
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main topic of this Special Issue is agriculturally important swine viruses that have an effect on swine production or overall swine health. This includes viruses that have recently caused outbreaks, for example, the African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Europe and Asia or the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in Japan, which are causing devastating losses to the swine industry. Endemic swine viruses would include porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), swine influenza virus (SwIV), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).

Dr. Douglas Gladue
Dr. Fernando Rodriguez
Dr. Manuel Borca
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • African swine fever virus (ASFV)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)
  • Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
  • Swine influenza virus (SwIV)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

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Published Papers (31 papers)

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Research

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Article
Field Verification of an African Swine Fever Virus Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay during an Outbreak in Timor-Leste
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12121444 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Recent outbreaks of African swine fever virus (ASFV) have seen the movement of this virus into multiple new regions with devastating impact. Many of these outbreaks are occurring in remote, or resource-limited areas, that do not have access to molecular laboratories. Loop-mediated isothermal [...] Read more.
Recent outbreaks of African swine fever virus (ASFV) have seen the movement of this virus into multiple new regions with devastating impact. Many of these outbreaks are occurring in remote, or resource-limited areas, that do not have access to molecular laboratories. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid point of care test that can overcome a range of inhibitors. We outline further development of a real-time ASFV LAMP, including field verification during an outbreak in Timor-Leste. To increase field applicability, the extraction step was removed and an internal amplification control (IAC) was implemented. Assay performance was assessed in six different sample matrices and verified for a range of clinical samples. A LAMP detection limit of 400 copies/rxn was determined based on synthetic positive control spikes. A colourmetric LAMP assay was also assessed on serum samples. Comparison of the LAMP assay to a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed on clinical ASFV samples, using both serum and oral/rectal swabs, with a substantial level of agreement observed. The further verification of the ASFV LAMP assay, removal of extraction step, implementation of an IAC and the assessment of a range of sample matrix, further support the use of this assay for rapid in-field detection of ASFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Transcriptional Immune Signatures of Alveolar Macrophages and the Impact of the NLRP3 Inflammasome on Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Replication
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111299 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a contagious viral (PRRSV) disease in pigs characterized by poor reproductive health, increased mortality, and reductions in growth rates. PRRSV is known to implement immuno-antagonistic mechanisms to evade detection and mute host responses to infection. To [...] Read more.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a contagious viral (PRRSV) disease in pigs characterized by poor reproductive health, increased mortality, and reductions in growth rates. PRRSV is known to implement immuno-antagonistic mechanisms to evade detection and mute host responses to infection. To better understand the cellular immunosignature of PRRSV we have undertaken transcriptome and immunomodulatory studies in PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). We first used genome-wide transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to elucidate PRRSV-induced changes in the PAM transcriptome in response to infection. We found a number of cellular networks were altered by PRRSV infection, including many associated with innate immunity, such as, the NLRP3 inflammasome. To further explore the role(s) of innate immune networks in PRRSV-infected PAMs, we used an NLRP3-specific inhibitor, MCC950, to identify the potential functionality of the inflammasome during PRRSV replication. We found that PRRSV does quickly induce expression of inflammasome-associated genes in PAMs. Treatment of PAMs with MCC950 suggests NLRP3 inflammasome activation negatively impacts viral replication. Treatment of PAMs with cell culture supernatants from macrophages subjected to NLRP3 inflammasome activation (via polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) transfection), prior to PRRSV infection resulted in significantly reduced viral RNA levels compared to PAMs treated with cell culture supernatants from macrophages subjected to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition (MCC950 treatment/poly I:C transfection). This further supports a role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the innate macrophagic anti-PRRSV immune response and suggests that PRRSV is sensitive to the effects of NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Taken together, these transcriptome and immunoregulatory data highlight the complex changes PRRSV infection induces in the molecular immune networks of its cellular host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Communication
Evaluation in Swine of a Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Lacking the MGF-360-1L Gene
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101193 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
The African swine fever (ASF) pandemic is currently affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, resulting in significant swine production losses. The causative agent, ASF virus (ASFV), is a large, structurally complex virus with a genome encoding more than 160 genes. The function of most of [...] Read more.
The African swine fever (ASF) pandemic is currently affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, resulting in significant swine production losses. The causative agent, ASF virus (ASFV), is a large, structurally complex virus with a genome encoding more than 160 genes. The function of most of those genes remains unknown. Here, we presented the previously uncharacterized ASFV gene MGF360-1L, the first gene in the genome. The kinetic studies of virus RNA transcription demonstrated that the MGF360-1L gene was transcribed as a late virus protein. The essentiality of MGF360-1L to virus replication was evaluated by developing a recombinant ASFV lacking the gene (ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-1L). In primary swine macrophage cell cultures, ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-1L showed similar replication kinetics as the parental highly virulent field isolate Georgia2007 (ASFV-G). Domestic pigs experimentally infected with ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-1L presented with a clinical disease indistinguishable from that caused by ASFV-G, demonstrating that MGF360-1L was not involved in virulence in swine, the natural host of ASFV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Deletion of CD2-Like (CD2v) and C-Type Lectin-Like (EP153R) Genes from African Swine Fever Virus Georgia-∆9GL Abrogates Its Effectiveness as an Experimental Vaccine
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101185 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently the most dreaded infectious disease affecting the global swine production industry. There is no commercial vaccine available, making the culling of infected animals the current solution to control outbreaks. Effective experimental vaccines have been developed by [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently the most dreaded infectious disease affecting the global swine production industry. There is no commercial vaccine available, making the culling of infected animals the current solution to control outbreaks. Effective experimental vaccines have been developed by deleting virus genes associated with virulence. Deletion of the ASFV 9GL gene (∆9GL) has resulted in the attenuation of different ASFV strains, although the degree of attenuation varies across isolates. Here, we investigated the possibility of the increased safety of the experimental vaccine strain ASFV-G-Δ9GL by deleting two additional virus genes involved in pathogenesis, CD2v, a CD2 like viral encoded gene from the EP402R open reading frame (ORF), and C-type lectin-like viral gene, encoded from the EP153R ORF. Two new recombinant viruses were developed, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v and ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v/ΔEP153R, harboring two and three gene deletions, respectively. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v/ΔEP153R, but not ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v, had a decreased ability to replicate in vitro in swine macrophage cultures when compared with parental ASFV-G-Δ9GL. Importantly, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v and ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔCD2v/ΔEP153R induced almost undetectable viremia levels when inoculated into domestic pigs and failed to protect them against challenge with parental virulent ASFV-Georgia, while ASFV-G-Δ9GL offered robust protection during challenge. Therefore, the deletion of CD2-like and C-type lectin-like genes significantly decreased the protective potential of ASFV-G-Δ9GL as a vaccine candidate. This study constitutes an example of the unpredictability of genetic manipulation involving the simultaneous deletion of multiple genes from the ASFV genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Characterization of Emerging Swine Viral Diseases through Oxford Nanopore Sequencing Using Senecavirus A as a Model
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101136 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Emerging viral infectious diseases present a major threat to the global swine industry. Since 2015, Senecavirus A (SVA) has been identified as a cause of vesicular disease in different countries and is considered an emerging disease. Despite the growing concern about SVA, there [...] Read more.
Emerging viral infectious diseases present a major threat to the global swine industry. Since 2015, Senecavirus A (SVA) has been identified as a cause of vesicular disease in different countries and is considered an emerging disease. Despite the growing concern about SVA, there is a lack of preventive and diagnostic strategies, which is also a problem for all emerging infectious diseases. Using SVA as a model, we demonstrated that Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing could be used as a robust tool for the investigation and surveillance of emerging viral diseases. Our results identified that MinION sequencing allowed for rapid, unbiased pathogen detection at the species and strain level for clinical cases. SVA whole genome sequences were generated using both direct RNA sequencing and PCR-cDNA sequencing methods, with an optimized consensus accuracy of 94% and 99%, respectively. The advantages of direct RNA sequencing lie in its shorter turnaround time, higher analytical sensitivity and its quantitative relationship between input RNA and output sequencing reads, while PCR-cDNA sequencing excelled at creating highly accurate sequences. This study developed whole genome sequencing methods to facilitate the control of SVA and provide a reference for the timely detection and prevention of other emerging infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
The Spillover of African Swine Fever in Western Poland Revealed Its Estimated Origin on the Basis of O174L, K145R, MGF 505-5R and IGR I73R/I329L Genomic Sequences
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1094; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101094 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The African swine fever epidemic occurred in Poland at the beginning of 2014 and, up to date, the disease has been spreading mainly in the eastern part of the country. Unexpectedly, in November 2019 an infected wild boar case was confirmed in Lubuskie [...] Read more.
The African swine fever epidemic occurred in Poland at the beginning of 2014 and, up to date, the disease has been spreading mainly in the eastern part of the country. Unexpectedly, in November 2019 an infected wild boar case was confirmed in Lubuskie voivodship in western Poland. During the following weeks, several dozen African swine fever virus (ASFV)-positive animals were notified in the neighboring area, causing severe concern regarding further spread of the disease to the mostly pig-dense region in Poland, namely, Wielkopolskie voivodship. Moreover, almost a year after, several infected wild boar cases were confirmed for the first time in Germany, just beyond the Polish border, sending out a shock wave through the global pig market. The whole genome sequence of ASFV, isolated from the first case of ASF in western Poland, and three selected viruses from other affected areas, revealed the tandem repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in reference to the Georgia 2007/1 strain. These data, supported by the conventional sequencing of selected genomic regions from a total of 154 virus samples isolated between 2017 and 2020 in Poland, shed a new light on pathogen epidemiology. The sequence variations within the O174L gene detected in this study showed that cases identified in western Poland might be originating from the so-called southern Warsaw cluster. Moreover, the viruses originating from the northern Warsaw cluster do not possess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations within the K145R and MGF 505-5R genes, which are specific to all of the other Polish ASFV strains. These results led to a conclusion of their distinct origin. Supporting these results, the nucleotide sequencing of I73R/I329L intergenic region revealed its new, previously undescribed variant, called IGR IV, with an additional three tandem repeats of 10 nucleotides in comparison to the reference sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Host Transcriptional Response to Persistent Infection with a Live-Attenuated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12080817 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
Both virulent and live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains can establish persistent infection in lymphoid tissues of pigs. To investigate the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence, we performed a transcriptional analysis of inguinal lymphoid tissue collected from pigs experimentally infected with [...] Read more.
Both virulent and live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains can establish persistent infection in lymphoid tissues of pigs. To investigate the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence, we performed a transcriptional analysis of inguinal lymphoid tissue collected from pigs experimentally infected with an attenuated PRRSV strain at 46 days post infection. A total of 6404 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected of which 3960 DEGs were upregulated and 2444 DEGs were downregulated. Specifically, genes involved in innate immune responses and chemokines and receptors associated with T-cell homing to lymphoid tissues were down regulated. As a result, homing of virus-specific T-cells to lymphoid tissues seems to be ineffective, evidenced by the lower frequencies of virus-specific T-cell in lymphoid tissue than in peripheral blood. Genes associated with T-cell exhaustion were upregulated. Likewise, genes involved in the anti-apoptotic pathway were upregulated. Collectively, the data suggested that the live-attenuated PRRSV strain establishes a pro-survival microenvironment in lymphoid tissue by suppressing innate immune responses, T-cell homing, and preventing cell apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Molecular Characterization of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Its New Genetic Classification Based on the Nucleocapsid Gene
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12080790 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes continuous, significant damage to the swine industry worldwide. By RT-PCR-based methods, this study demonstrated the ongoing presence of PEDV in pigs of all ages in Korea at the average detection rate of 9.92%. By the [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes continuous, significant damage to the swine industry worldwide. By RT-PCR-based methods, this study demonstrated the ongoing presence of PEDV in pigs of all ages in Korea at the average detection rate of 9.92%. By the application of Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, it was found that the nucleocapsid (N) gene of PEDV could evolve at similar rates to the spike (S) gene at the order of 10−4 substitutions/site/year. Based on branching patterns of PEDV strains, three main N gene-base genogroups (N1, N2, and N3) and two sub-genogroups (N3a, N3b) were proposed in this study. By analyzing the antigenic index, possible antigenic differences also emerged in both the spike and nucleocapsid proteins between the three genogroups. The antigenic indexes of genogroup N3 strains were significantly lower compared with those of genogroups N1 and N2 strains in the B-cell epitope of the nucleocapsid protein. Similarly, significantly lower antigenic indexes in some parts of the B-cell epitope sequences of the spike protein (COE, S1D, and 2C10) were also identified. PEDV mutants derived from genetic mutations of the S and N genes may cause severe damage to swine farms by evading established host immunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Gilt Vaccination with a Mixed Administration of a PRRS MLV and a PPV1 Subunit Vaccine Protects against Heterologous PRRSV1 Infection and Prevents Detrimental Effects on Piglet Performance
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 789; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12080789 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
The efficacy of the combined administration of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live virus (MLV) vaccine and a porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) subunit vaccine in gilts was addressed in two experiments. Experiment A aimed to establish a 4-week onset of [...] Read more.
The efficacy of the combined administration of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified live virus (MLV) vaccine and a porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) subunit vaccine in gilts was addressed in two experiments. Experiment A aimed to establish a 4-week onset of immunity (OOI). Gilts were randomly distributed in three treatment groups: non-vaccinated control animals (group 1), animals vaccinated with the combined vaccine (group 2), and a third group that consisted of animals vaccinated with the PRRS MLV vaccine alone (group 3). Four weeks after the first vaccination, gilts were challenged with a heterologous PRRS virus 1 (PRRSV1) and euthanized three weeks after. Besides this, experiment B pursued a 17-week duration of immunity (DOI). In this case, gilts were distributed in the same treatment groups, but for the third group, which consisted of non-vaccinated, non-challenged animals were used instead. For the DOI assessment, gilts were artificially inseminated 4 weeks after the first vaccination, challenged at day 90 of gestation, and followed up, together with their offspring, until day 20 post-farrowing. Serology and viremia post-challenge were determined in gilts from both experiments, while farrowing and piglet performance were only evaluated in experiment B. Overall, the combined vaccine helped to protect gilts from viremia post-challenge and, consequently, to prevent PRRS clinical symptoms and diminish the proportion of piglets infected congenitally or early in life. The combined vaccine also elicited a significant improvement in piglet survival rate and growth performance until weaning. The present results reveal efficacy and lack of interference of the mixed use of the tested vaccines against PRRSV1 infection, with at least 4-week OOI and 17-week DOI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Cocirculation of Swine H1N1 Influenza A Virus Lineages in Germany
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 762; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12070762 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
The genome analysis of 328 H1N1 swine influenza virus isolates collected in a 13-year long-term swine influenza surveillance in Germany is reported. Viral genomes were sequenced with the Illumina next-generation sequencing technique and conventional Sanger methods. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with Bayesian tree [...] Read more.
The genome analysis of 328 H1N1 swine influenza virus isolates collected in a 13-year long-term swine influenza surveillance in Germany is reported. Viral genomes were sequenced with the Illumina next-generation sequencing technique and conventional Sanger methods. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted with Bayesian tree inference. The results indicate continued prevalence of Eurasian avian swine H1N1 but also emergence of a novel H1N1 reassortant, named Schneiderkrug/2013-like swine H1N1, with human-like hemagglutinin and avian-like neuraminidase and internal genes. Additionally, the evolution of an antigenic drift variant of A (H1N1) pdm09 was observed, named Wachtum/2014-like swine H1N1. Both variants were first isolated in northwest Germany, spread to neighboring German states and reached greater proportions of the H1N1 isolates of 2014 and 2015. The upsurge of Wachtum/2014-like swine H1N1 is of interest as this is the first documented persistent swine-to-swine spread of A (H1N1) pdm09 in Germany associated with antigenic variation. Present enzootic swine influenza viruses in Germany now include two or more co-circulating, antigenically variant viruses of each of the subtypes, H1N1 and H1N2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
The C962R ORF of African Swine Fever Strain Georgia Is Non-Essential and Not Required for Virulence in Swine
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 676; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12060676 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of the African swine fever (ASF) epizootic currently affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. The virus genome encodes for more than 160 genes, of which only a few [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of the African swine fever (ASF) epizootic currently affecting pigs throughout Eurasia, causing significant economic losses in the swine industry. The virus genome encodes for more than 160 genes, of which only a few have been studied in detail. Here we describe the previously uncharacterized ASFV open reading frame (ORF) C962R, a gene encoding for a putative NTPase. RNA transcription studies using infected swine macrophages demonstrate that the C962R gene is translated as a late virus protein. A recombinant ASFV lacking the C962R gene (ASFV-G-ΔC962R) demonstrates in vivo that the C962R gene is non-essential, since ASFV-G-ΔC962R has similar replication kinetics in primary swine macrophage cell cultures when compared to parental highly virulent field isolate Georgia2007 (ASFV-G). Experimental infection of domestic pigs with ASFV-G-ΔC962R produced a clinical disease similar to that caused by the parental ASFV-G, confirming that deletion of the C962R gene from the ASFV genome does not impact virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
SERTA Domain Containing Protein 1 (SERTAD1) Interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus Structural Glycoprotein E2, Which Is Involved in Virus Virulence in Swine
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040421 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
E2 is the major structural glycoprotein of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV). E2 has been shown to be involved in important virus functions such as replication and virulence in swine. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we previously identified several host proteins specifically [...] Read more.
E2 is the major structural glycoprotein of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV). E2 has been shown to be involved in important virus functions such as replication and virulence in swine. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we previously identified several host proteins specifically interacting with CSFV E2. Here, we analyze the protein interaction of E2 with SERTA domain containing protein 1 (SERTAD1), a factor involved in the stimulation of the transcriptional activities of different host genes. We have confirmed that the interaction between these two proteins occurs in CSFV-infected swine cells by using a proximity ligation assay and confocal microscopy. Amino acid residues in the CSFV E2 protein that are responsible for mediating the interaction with SERTAD1 were mapped by a yeast two-hybrid approach using a randomly mutated E2 library. Using that information, a recombinant CSFV mutant (E2ΔSERTAD1v) that harbors substitutions in those residues mediating the protein-interaction with SERTAD1 was developed and used to study the role of the E2-SERTAD1 interaction in viral replication and virulence in swine. CSFV E2ΔSERTAD1v, when compared to the parental BICv, showed a clearly decreased ability to replicate in the SK6 swine cell line and a more severe replication defect in primary swine macrophage cultures. Importantly, 80% of animals infected with E2ΔSERTAD1v survived infection, remaining clinically normal during the 21-day observational period. This result would indicate that the ability of CSFV E2 to bind host SERTAD1 protein during infection plays a critical role in virus virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Swine Host Protein Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing 115 (CCDC115) Interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus Structural Glycoprotein E2 during Virus Replication
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12040388 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Interactions between the major structural glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) with host proteins have been identified as important factors affecting virus replication and virulence. Previously, using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified swine host proteins specifically interacting with CSFV E2. [...] Read more.
Interactions between the major structural glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) with host proteins have been identified as important factors affecting virus replication and virulence. Previously, using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified swine host proteins specifically interacting with CSFV E2. In this report, we use a proximity ligation assay to demonstrate that swine host protein CCDC115 interacts with E2 in CSFV-infected swine cells. Using a randomly mutated E2 library in the context of a yeast two-hybrid methodology, specific amino acid mutations in the CSFV E2 protein responsible for disrupting the interaction with CCDC115 were identified. A recombinant CSFV mutant (E2ΔCCDC115v) harboring amino acid changes disrupting the E2 protein interaction with CCDC115 was produced and used as a tool to assess the role of the E2–CCDC115 interaction in viral replication and virulence in swine. CSFV E2ΔCCDC115v showed a slightly decreased ability to replicate in the SK6 swine cell line and a greater replication defect in primary swine macrophage cultures. A decreased E2–CCDC115 interaction detected by PLA is observed in cells infected with E2ΔCCDC115v. Importantly, animals intranasally infected with 105 TCID50 of E2ΔCCDC115v experienced a significantly longer survival period when compared with those infected with the parental Brescia strain. This result would indicate that the ability of CSFV E2 to bind host CCDC115 protein during infection plays an important role in virus replication in swine macrophages and in virus virulence during the infection in domestic swine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 in Taiwan
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 316; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12030316 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The PRRS virus (PRRSV) can be divided into two species, PRRSV 1 (European) and PRRSV 2 (North American). In Taiwan, PRRSV 2 isolates are dominant and cause respiratory [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The PRRS virus (PRRSV) can be divided into two species, PRRSV 1 (European) and PRRSV 2 (North American). In Taiwan, PRRSV 2 isolates are dominant and cause respiratory symptoms in nursing pigs. From October to November 2018, in a pig herd in central Taiwan, pregnant sows had abortions and stillbirths, and piglets suffered from respiratory disorders. Laboratory tests identified the presence of PRRSV 1 in serum from sows and suckling piglets in this scenario. The complete genome of the identified PRRSV 1 strain was genetically closely related to that of a European PRRSV vaccine strain (98.2%). This local European isolate is designated as PRRSV/NPUST-2789-3W-2/TW/2018 (NPUST2789). This report is the first to indicate an outbreak in Taiwan of a PRRSV 1 strain that shares a common evolutionary ancestor with the European PRRSV vaccine strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Porcine Circovirus 2 Induction of ROS Is Responsible for Mitophagy in PK-15 Cells via Activation of Drp1 Phosphorylation
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12030289 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Mitochondrial dynamics is essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential and causes the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may ultimately lead to mitochondrial apoptosis. However, whether [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dynamics is essential for the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential and causes the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may ultimately lead to mitochondrial apoptosis. However, whether PCV2 induce mitophagy remains unknown. Here we show that PCV2-induced mitophagy in PK-15 cells via Drp1 phosphorylation and PINK1/Parkin activation. PCV2 infection enhanced the phosphorylation of Drp1 and its subsequent translocation to mitochondria. PCV2-induced Drp1 phosphorylation could be suppressed by specific CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306, suggesting CDK1 as its possible upstream molecule. PCV2 infection increased the amount of ROS, up-regulated PINK1 expression, and stimulated recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly decreased PCV2-induced ROS, down-regulated Drp1 phosphorylation, and lessened PINK1 expression and mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. Inhibition of Drp1 by mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 Mdivi-1 or RNA silencing not only resulted in the reduction of ROS and PINK1, improved mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, but also led to reduced apoptotic responses. Together, our study shows that ROS induction due to PCV2 infection is responsible for the activation of Drp1 and the subsequent mitophagic and mitochondrial apoptotic responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Genotyping Porcine Circovirus 3 (PCV-3) Nowadays: Does It Make Sense?
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12030265 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
The discovery of a globally distributed porcine circovirus (Porcine circovirus 3; PCV-3) has led to intense research activity and the production of a large amount of molecular data. Different research groups have proposed several, not always concordant, genotypes for this virus. [...] Read more.
The discovery of a globally distributed porcine circovirus (Porcine circovirus 3; PCV-3) has led to intense research activity and the production of a large amount of molecular data. Different research groups have proposed several, not always concordant, genotypes for this virus. While such categories could aid an easier interpretation of PCV-3 molecular epidemiology, any classification, to be useful in practical settings, must be univocal and of help in the understanding of underlying biological features and epidemiology. Based on these premises, the possibility of defining PCV-3 genotypes was evaluated on the broadest available dataset of PCV-3 complete genome (n = 357) and open reading frame 2 (ORF2, n = 653) sequences. Genetic distance and phylogenetic clustering were selected as the main objective criteria. Additional factors, including the number of within-cluster sequences, host and geographic clustering, concordance between different genomic regions, and analysis method were also taken in account to generate a classification that could be effectively applied in research and diagnostic settings. A maximum within-genotype genetic distance of 3% at the complete genome and 6% at the ORF2 levels, bootstrap support higher than 90%, and concordance between analysis methods allowed us to clearly define two clades which could be potentially defined as genotypes. Further subdivision was not suggested due to the absence of a meaningful association between PCV-3 and its biological/epidemiological features. Nevertheless, since one of the clades included two strains only, thus far we formally propose the definition of only one PCV-3 genotype (PCV-3a). The established criteria will allow us to automatically recognize other genotypes when more strain sequences are characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Genetic and Biological Diversity of Porcine Sapeloviruses Prevailing in Zambia
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12020180 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) has been detected worldwide in pig populations. Although PSV causes various symptoms such as encephalomyelitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia in pigs, the economic impact of PSV infection remains to be determined. However, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of PSV [...] Read more.
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) has been detected worldwide in pig populations. Although PSV causes various symptoms such as encephalomyelitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia in pigs, the economic impact of PSV infection remains to be determined. However, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of PSV is quite limited, particularly in Africa. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PSV infection in Zambia and characterized the isolated PSVs genetically and biologically. We screened 147 fecal samples collected in 2018 and found that the prevalences of PSV infection in suckling pigs and fattening pigs were high (36.2% and 94.0%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Zambian PSVs were divided into three different lineages (Lineages 1–3) in the clade consisting of Chinese strains. The Zambian PSVs belonging to Lineages 2 and 3 replicated more efficiently than those belonging to Lineage 1 in Vero E6 and BHK cells. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that genetic recombination events had occurred and the recombination breakpoints were located in the L and 2A genes. Our results indicated that at least two biologically distinct PSVs could be circulating in the Zambian pig population and that genetic recombination played a role in the evolution of PSVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Isolation and Identification of Porcine Deltacoronavirus and Alteration of Immunoglobulin Transport Receptors in the Intestinal Mucosa of PDCoV-Infected Piglets
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12010079 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. [...] Read more.
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea, vomiting, and frequently death in piglets, causing serious economic losses to the pig industry. The strain CHN-JS-2017 was isolated and identified by cytopathology, immunofluorescence assays, transmission electron microscopy, and sequence analysis. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-JS-2017 is 97.4%–99.6% identical to other PDCoV strains. The pathogenicity of the CHN-JS-2017 strain was investigated in orally inoculated five-day-old piglets; the piglets developed acute, watery diarrhea, but all recovered and survived. CHN-JS-2017 infection-induced microscopic lesions were observed, and viral antigens were detected mainly by immunohistochemical staining in the small intestine. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) are crucial immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors for the transcytosis ofimmunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, or IgM. Importantly, CHN-JS-2017 infected five-day-old piglets could significantly down-regulate the expression of FcRn, pIgR, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)in the intestinal mucosa. Note that the level of FcRn mRNA in the intestinal mucosa of normal piglets is positively correlated with pIgR and NF-κB. At the same time, the expressions of FcRn, pIgR, and NF-κB mRNA are also positively correlated in infected piglets. These results may help explain the immunological and pathological changes associated with porcine deltacorononirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
The MGF360-16R ORF of African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia Encodes for a Nonessential Gene That Interacts with Host Proteins SERTAD3 and SDCBP
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12010060 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs with significant economic consequences to the swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes for more than 160 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs with significant economic consequences to the swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes for more than 160 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here we report the characterization of open reading frame (ORF) MGF360-16R. Kinetic studies of virus RNA transcription demonstrated that the MGF360-16R gene is transcribed as a late virus protein. Analysis of host–protein interactions for the MGF360-16R gene using a yeast two-hybrid screen identified SERTA domain containing 3 (SERTAD3) and syndecan-binding protein (SDCBP) as host protein binding partners. SERTAD3 and SDCBP are both involved in nuclear transcription and SDCBP has been shown to be involved in virus traffic inside the host cell. Interaction between MGF360-16R and SERTAD3 and SDCBP host proteins was confirmed in eukaryotic cells transfected with plasmids expressing MGF360-16R and SERTAD3 or SDCBP fused to fluorescent tags. A recombinant ASFV lacking the MGF360-16R gene (ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R) was developed from the highly virulent field isolate Georgia2007 (ASFV-G) and was used to show that MGF360-16R is a nonessential gene. ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R had a similar replication ability in primary swine macrophage cell cultures when compared to its parental virus ASFV-G. Experimental infection of domestic pigs showed that ASFV-G-ΔMGF360-16R is as virulent as the parental virus ASFV-G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Investigation of the Role of the Spike Protein in Reversing the Virulence of the Highly Virulent Taiwan Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Pintung 52 Strains and Its Attenuated Counterpart
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12010041 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continuously caused severe economic losses to the global swine industries; however, no successful vaccine against PEDV has been developed. In this study, we generated four autologous recombinant viruses, including the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5, attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, and two [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continuously caused severe economic losses to the global swine industries; however, no successful vaccine against PEDV has been developed. In this study, we generated four autologous recombinant viruses, including the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5, attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, and two chimeric viruses (iPEDVPT-P5-96S and iPEDVPT-P96-5S) with the reciprocally exchanged spike (S) gene, to study the role of the S gene in PEDV pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of PEDV attenuation will aid in the rational design of a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) using reverse genetics system. Our results showed that replacing the S gene from the highly virulent iPEDVPT-P5 led to complete restoration of virulence of the attenuated iPEDVPT-P96, with nearly identical viral shedding, diarrhea pattern, and mortality rate as the parental iPEDVPT-P5. In contrast, substitution of the S gene with that from the attenuated iPEDVPT-P96 resulted in partial attenuation of iPEDVPT-P5, exhibiting similar viral shedding and diarrhea patterns as the parental iPEDVPT-P96 with slightly severe histological lesions and higher mortality rate. Collectively, our data confirmed that the attenuation of the PEDVPT-P96 virus is primarily attributed to mutations in the S gene. However, mutation in S gene alone could not fully attenuate the virulence of iPEDVPT-P5. Gene (s) other than S gene might also play a role in determining virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Pathogenic Characteristics of a Porcine Astrovirus Strain Isolated in China
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v11121156 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence [...] Read more.
Astroviral infection is considered to be one of the causes of mammalian diarrheal diseases. It has been shown that astrovirus infections cause varying degrees of diarrhea in turkeys and mice. However, the pathogenesis of porcine astrovirus is unknown. In this study, the virulence of a cytopathic porcine astrovirus (PAstV) strain (PAstV1-GX1) isolated from the PK-15 cell line was tested using seven-day-old nursing piglets. The results showed that PAstV1-GX1 infection could cause mild diarrhea, growth retardation, and damage of the villi of the small intestinal mucosa. However, all the above symptoms could be restored within 7 to 10days post inoculation (dpi). To evaluate the innate immunity response of PAstV in vivo, the alteration of inflammatory cytokine expression in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1 was determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA expression levels of the IFNβ and ISG54 were found to be significantly elevated in virus-infected piglets. In contrast, expression of IFNλ was downregulated in piglets infected with PAstV1-GX1. In addition, the mRNA expression of the tight junction protein 1 and 2 and zonula occludin 1, which are associated with the intestinal barrier permeability, were affected after PAstV1 infection. The present study adds to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of PAstV and has established an animal model for further study of pig astrovirus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Fatty Acids Regulate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection via the AMPK-ACC1 Signaling Pathway
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v11121145 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV [...] Read more.
Lipids play a crucial role in the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a porcine virus that is endemic throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of fatty acids (FAs), a type of vital lipid, on PRRSV infection. In this study, we found that treatment with a FA biosynthetic inhibitor significantly inhibited PRRSV propagation, indicating the necessity of FAs for optimal replication of PRRSV. Further study revealed that 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key kinase antagonizing FA biosynthesis, was strongly activated by PRRSV and the pharmacological activator of AMPK exhibited anti-PRRSV activity. Additionally, we found that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the FA biosynthesis pathway, was phosphorylated (inactive form) by PRRSV-activated AMPK, and active ACC1 was required for PRRSV proliferation, suggesting that the PRRSV infection induced the activation of the AMPK–ACC1 pathway, which was not conducive to PRRSV replication. This work provides new evidence about the mechanisms involved in host lipid metabolism during PRRSV infection and identifies novel potential antiviral targets for PRRSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Article
Real-Time PCR Detection Patterns of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) in Polish Farms with Different Statuses of Vaccination against PCV2
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v11121135 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a globally spread pathogen controlled with generally highly efficacious vaccination protocols. In order to compare PCV2 detection profiles in farms with different vaccination statuses, serum (359) and fecal pools (351) and oral fluids (209) from four farms that do not vaccinate against PCV2 (NON-VAC) and from 22 farms that do vaccinate (VAC) were tested with quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of ORF2 of the virus were obtained from selected samples. Three genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d, were detected. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in PCV2 prevalence and quantities between the VAC and NON-VAC farms were evident. In five VAC farms, no viremia or shedding in feces was detected. On the other hand, in four VAC farms, the results were very similar to those from NON-VAC farms. No significant difference in PCV2 prevalence in oral fluids was observed between VAC and NON-VAC farms. An examination of viremia can be recommended for the detection of vaccination efficacy issues. The median of the PCV2 viral loads >6.0 log10 copies/mL in pooled sera from the vaccinated population should be considered a very strong indication that the vaccination protocol needs revision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Review

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Review
Achievements and Challenges of Classical Swine Fever Eradication in Brazil
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111327 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes one of the most critical diseases in the porcine industry worldwide. In Brazil, the first description of the infection was reported in 1888, and the national recognition of the first free zone (FZ) occurred in 2001. Brazil [...] Read more.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes one of the most critical diseases in the porcine industry worldwide. In Brazil, the first description of the infection was reported in 1888, and the national recognition of the first free zone (FZ) occurred in 2001. Brazil has been recently recognized (2015–2016) by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) with an FZ involving 15 states and the Federal District, corresponding to 95% of the industrial production of pigs in the country, and a non-free zone (NFZ), comprised by the North and Northeast regions of the country, with approximately 18% of the national pig herd and 5% of industrial production. This review aims to describe the history, the control and eradication actions, the recent occurrence of outbreaks in the NFZ, and the results obtained by the surveillance systems’ action in the FZ for CSF in Brazil since its creation. In the passive surveillance system, the notification of the suspect cases of classical swine fever (CSF) is mandatory while in the active surveillance system adopted in the FZ consists of serological monitoring of certified swine breeding farms (CSBFs), intensive pig farming (IPF), non-technified pig herds (NTPig), surveillance in slaughterhouses and monitoring the populations of wild pigs. In this region, the last outbreaks of the disease occurred in 1998, while in the NFZ, 28 outbreaks were detected from 2005 to 2017, with an apparent lethality rate of 93.96% (840/894). However, in 2018 and 2019, 68 new outbreaks were registered with an apparent lethality rate of 75.05% (1095/1459). Therefore, in 2019, the Brazil CSF-Free Strategic Plan was created to eradicate the infection from the country’s NFZ, since outbreaks in this region present a risk of reintroducing the disease FZ. Finally, differences in characteristics between the regions show factors that still need to be considered for the construction of a robust surveillance system in the NFZ and some improvements in the FZ. Thus, the control of CSF throughout the Brazilian territory requires strict sanitary guidelines, promoting animal health and, consequently, the national production chain’s competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Review
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Reverse Genetics and the Major Applications
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1245; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111245 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus that is known to infect only pigs. The virus emerged in the late 1980s and became endemic in most swine producing countries, causing substantial economic losses to the swine [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus that is known to infect only pigs. The virus emerged in the late 1980s and became endemic in most swine producing countries, causing substantial economic losses to the swine industry. The first reverse genetics system for PRRSV was reported in 1998. Since then, several infectious cDNA clones for PRRSV have been constructed. The availability of these infectious cDNA clones has facilitated the genetic modifications of the viral genome at precise locations. Common approaches to manipulate the viral genome include site-directed mutagenesis, deletion of viral genes or gene fragments, insertion of foreign genes, and swapping genes between PRRSV strains or between PRRSV and other members of the Arteriviridae family. In this review, we describe the approaches to construct an infectious cDNA for PRRSV and the ten major applications of these infectious clones to study virus biology and virus–host interaction, and to design a new generation of vaccines with improved levels of safety and efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Erratum
Erratum: Ramirez-Medina, E.; et al. Evaluation in Swine of a Recombinant African Swine Fever Virus Lacking the MGF-360-1L Gene. Viruses 2020, 12, 1193
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111307 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The Viruses Editorial Office wishes to notify its readers of corrections in [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
Brief Report
Eradication of Swine Vesicular Disease in Italy
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1269; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111269 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a contagious viral disease of pigs clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases, such as foot and mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis, vesicular exanthema of swine, and idiopathic vesicular disease. In Italy, where SVD was first reported in 1966, an [...] Read more.
Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a contagious viral disease of pigs clinically indistinguishable from other vesicular diseases, such as foot and mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis, vesicular exanthema of swine, and idiopathic vesicular disease. In Italy, where SVD was first reported in 1966, an eradication program started in 1995. The program, updated in 2008, was based on regionalization, complete control on pig movements, improvement of pig farms biosecurity, appropriate cleansing and disinfection procedures of vehicles approved for pig transportation, and a testing program using both serological and virological assays. In cases of confirmed SVD virus infection a stamping-out policy was applied. In the period 2009 to 2019, between 300,000 and 400,000 pigs were serologically tested each year. The last SVD outbreak was notified in 2015, and the last seropositive pig was detected in 2017. SVD surveillance is still ongoing and no proof of virus activity has been detected so far. All available data support the complete SVD virus eradication from the Italian pig industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Brief Report
Isolation and Genetic Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus from Domestic Pig Farms in South Korea, 2019
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12111237 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
On 17 September 2019, the first outbreak of African swine fever in a pig farm was confirmed in South Korea. By 9 October, 14 outbreaks of ASF in domestic pigs had been diagnosed in 4 cities/counties. We isolated viruses from all infected farms [...] Read more.
On 17 September 2019, the first outbreak of African swine fever in a pig farm was confirmed in South Korea. By 9 October, 14 outbreaks of ASF in domestic pigs had been diagnosed in 4 cities/counties. We isolated viruses from all infected farms and performed genetic characterization. The phylogenetic analysis showed that all of fourteen ASFV isolates in South Korea belong to genotype II and serogroup 8. Additionally, all isolates had an intergenic region (IGR) II variant with additional tandem repeat sequences (TRSs) between the I73R and I329L genes and showed characteristics of central variable region (CVR) 1 of the B602L gene and IGR 1 of MGF 505 9R/10R genes. These are identical to the genetic characteristics of some European isolates and Chinese isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Case Report
An Outbreak of a Respiratory Disorder at a Russian Swine Farm Associated with the Co-Circulation of PRRSV1 and PRRSV2
Viruses 2020, 12(10), 1169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12101169 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 761
Abstract
We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify the major respiratory pathogen responsible for an outbreak of respiratory disease at a swine farm in West Siberia in 2019. We discovered that the peak of morbidity and mortality coincided with a high level of porcine [...] Read more.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify the major respiratory pathogen responsible for an outbreak of respiratory disease at a swine farm in West Siberia in 2019. We discovered that the peak of morbidity and mortality coincided with a high level of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) 1 and 2-related viremia. Based on longer PRRSV2 viremia, the dominant role of PRRSV2 over PRRSV1 in the outbreak was assumed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PRRSV1 strain belonged to sub-genotype 2—one of the predominant groups of genotype 1 PRRSVs in Russia. A partial open reading frame 7 sequence of the PRRSV2 isolate demonstrated a high identity with modified live vaccine-related strains from Denmark (93%) and wild-type VR2332 (92%). We identified the first instance of PRRSV1/PRRSV2 mixed infection in Russia. This finding indicates that further field investigations are needed to access PRRSV2 epidemiology in eastern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Brief Report
X69R Is a Non-Essential Gene That, When Deleted from African Swine Fever, Does Not Affect Virulence in Swine
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12090918 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently causing devastating outbreaks in Asia and Europe, and the ASFV strain Georgia (ASFV-G) is responsible for these outbreaks. ASFV-G is highly virulent and continues to be maintained in these outbreak areas, apparently without suffering significant genomic [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is currently causing devastating outbreaks in Asia and Europe, and the ASFV strain Georgia (ASFV-G) is responsible for these outbreaks. ASFV-G is highly virulent and continues to be maintained in these outbreak areas, apparently without suffering significant genomic or phenotypic changes. When comparing the genome of ASFV-G to other isolates, a thus-far uncharacterized gene, X69R, is highly conserved and, interestingly, is similar to another ASFV uncharacterized gene, J64R. All sequenced ASFV isolates have one or both of these genes, X69R or J64R, suggesting that the presence of at least one of these genes may be necessary for ASFV replication and or virulence. The X69R gene is present in the ASFV-G genome while J64R is absent. To assess the importance of X69R in ASFV-G functionality, we developed a recombinant virus by deleting the X69R gene from the ASFV-G genome (ASFV-G-ΔX69R). ASFV-G-ΔX69R had the same replication kinetics in primary swine macrophage cultures as the parental ASFV-G, indicating that the X69R gene is not essential for ASFV-G viability or efficient replication in the main target cell during in vivo infection. In addition, swine intramuscularly inoculated with a low dose (102 HAD50) of ASFV-G-ΔX69R developed a clinical disease indistinguishable from that induced by the same dose of the virulent parental ASFV-G isolate. Viremia values of ASFV-G-ΔX69R did not significantly differ from those detected in animals infected with parental virus. Therefore, deletion of the X69R gene from ASFV-G does not affect virus replication or virulence in swine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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Brief Report
Identification of a Continuously Stable and Commercially Available Cell Line for the Identification of Infectious African Swine Fever Virus in Clinical Samples
Viruses 2020, 12(8), 820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/v12080820 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is causing outbreaks both in domestic pigs and wild boar in Europe and Asia. In 2018, the largest pig producing country, China, reported its first outbreak of African swine fever (ASF). Since then, the disease has quickly spread [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is causing outbreaks both in domestic pigs and wild boar in Europe and Asia. In 2018, the largest pig producing country, China, reported its first outbreak of African swine fever (ASF). Since then, the disease has quickly spread to all provinces in China and to other countries in southeast Asia, and most recently to India. Outbreaks of the disease occur in Europe as far west as Poland, and one isolated outbreak has been reported in Belgium. The current outbreak strain is highly contagious and can cause a high degree of lethality in domestic pigs, leading to widespread and costly losses to the industry. Currently, detection of infectious ASFV in field clinical samples requires accessibility to primary swine macrophage cultures, which are infrequently available in most regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Here, we report the identification of a commercially available cell line, MA-104, as a suitable substrate for virus isolation of African swine fever virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endemic and Emerging Swine Viruses)
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