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Volume 13, September-2

Water, Volume 13, Issue 19 (October-1 2021) – 193 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Water is the most transcendental natural resource that is renewable and sustains life. Water demand is increasing dramatically due to population growth and the rapid development of socioeconomic sectors. This research identified that countries with lower industry-value-added-to-GDP quotients were among those with higher industrial water use efficiency, while low water-services-use-efficiency quotients were associated with high services value added to the GDP. View this paper
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Article
Mobility of nZVI in a Reconstructed Porous Media Monitored by an Image Analysis Procedure
Water 2021, 13(19), 2797; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192797 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) technology has been found to be promising and effective for the remediation of soils or groundwater. However, while nanoparticles are traveling through porous media, they can rapidly aggregate, causing their settling and deposition. When nZVI are injected in the [...] Read more.
Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (nZVI) technology has been found to be promising and effective for the remediation of soils or groundwater. However, while nanoparticles are traveling through porous media, they can rapidly aggregate, causing their settling and deposition. When nZVI are injected in the groundwater flow, the behavior (mobility, dispersion, distribution) is unknown in groundwater, causing the use of enormous quantities of them if used at the field scale. In this paper, a laboratory experiment was carried out with groundwater flow in a two-dimensional, laboratory-scale tank to assess the nanoparticle behavior by means of an image analysis procedure. A solution of zero-valent iron nanoparticles, Nanofer 25S particles, were used and glass beads were utilized as porous medium. The laboratory experiment included the use of a digital camera for the acquisition of the images. The image analysis procedure was used to assess the behavior of nZVI plume. A calibration procedure and a mass balance were applied to validate the proposed image analysis procedure, with the hypothesis that nanoparticles would be uniformly distributed in the third dimension of the tank (thickness). The results show that the nanoparticles presented small dispersive effects and the motion was strongly influenced from the higher weight of them with respect to the water. Therefore, the results indicate that nanoparticles have an own motion not strongly influenced by the fluid flow but more determined from the injection phase and gravity. The statistical elaborations show that the nZVI plume did not respond to the classical mechanisms of the dispersion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Sustainable Exploitation)
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Editorial
Tracers and Timescales: Tools for Distilling and Simplifying Complex Fluid Mechanical Problems
Water 2021, 13(19), 2796; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192796 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The last several decades have seen significant advances in fluid–mechanical, water-quality, and ecological observation systems, as well as in related scientific computing capabilities [...] Full article
Article
Relationship between Earthquake-Induced Hydrologic Changes and Faults
Water 2021, 13(19), 2795; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192795 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Hydraulic properties of fault zones are important to understanding the pore pressure development and fault stability. In this work, we examined the relationship between water level changes caused by the 2008 Wenchuan Mw 7.9 earthquake and faults using four wells with the [...] Read more.
Hydraulic properties of fault zones are important to understanding the pore pressure development and fault stability. In this work, we examined the relationship between water level changes caused by the 2008 Wenchuan Mw 7.9 earthquake and faults using four wells with the same lithology around the Three Gorges Dam, China. Two of the wells penetrating the fault damage zones recorded sustained water level changes, while the other two wells that are not penetrating any fault damage zones recorded transient water level changes. The phase shift and tidal factor calculated from water level, a proxy of permeability and storage coefficient, revealed that both the permeability and storage coefficient changed in the two wells penetrating the fault damage zones, while the other two wells not penetrating the fault damage zone did not show any change in permeability and storage coefficient. Thus, we tentatively suggest that faults may play an important controlling role on earthquake-induced hydrologic changes because the detrital or clogging components in the fractures may be more easily removed by seismic waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquakes and Groundwater)
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Review
Insights into Gastrointestinal Virome: Etiology and Public Exposure
Water 2021, 13(19), 2794; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192794 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Recycled wastewater is widely used owing to the potential shortage of water resources for drinking purposes, recreational activities, and irrigation. However, gut microbiomes of both human beings and animals negatively affect this water quality. Wastewater contamination is continuously monitored, using fecal contamination indicators [...] Read more.
Recycled wastewater is widely used owing to the potential shortage of water resources for drinking purposes, recreational activities, and irrigation. However, gut microbiomes of both human beings and animals negatively affect this water quality. Wastewater contamination is continuously monitored, using fecal contamination indicators or microbial source tracking approaches, to oppose arising enteric infections. Viral gastroenteritis is considered a principal manifestation of waterborne pathogenic virome-mediated infections, which are mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Furthermore, acquired enteric viromes are the common cause of infantile acute diarrhea. Moreover, public exposure to wastewater via wastewater discharge or treated wastewater reuse has led to a significant surge of public health concerns. In this review, we discussed the etiology of waterborne enteric viromes, notably gastrointestinal virus infections, and public exposure to municipal wastewater. Conclusively, the early human virome is affected mainly by birth mode, dietary behavior, and maternal health, and could provide a signature of disease incidence, however, more virome diversification is acquired in adulthood. A multi-phase treatment approach offered an effective means for the elimination of wastewater reuse mediated public risks. The insights highlighted in this paper offer essential information for defining probable etiologies and assessing risks related to exposure to discharged or reused wastewater. Full article
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Article
Aquatic Biological Diversity Responses to Flood Disturbance and Forest Management in Small, Forested Watersheds
Water 2021, 13(19), 2793; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192793 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
We examined riparian system responses to an extreme rainfall event on 1–4 December 2007, in eleven small watersheds (mean area—13.2 km2) from 2008–2016 at debris flow, high flood, and low flood reaches (all extended overbank flows). Macroinvertebrate responses followed expected outcomes [...] Read more.
We examined riparian system responses to an extreme rainfall event on 1–4 December 2007, in eleven small watersheds (mean area—13.2 km2) from 2008–2016 at debris flow, high flood, and low flood reaches (all extended overbank flows). Macroinvertebrate responses followed expected outcomes after extreme disturbance including increasing chironomids and other multi-voltine species. A core assemblage of twenty abundant and common species-maintained populations even after debris flow (likely by recolonizing quickly) with total richness during project of 253 including 183 rare species (<0.01 total abundance) supporting an annual turnover of species from 22 to 33%. Primary disturbance changes to habitat were declines in shade and in-channel wood at all reaches, more strongly at debris flow reaches. Macroinvertebrate communities across disturbance intensities became increasingly similar after the storm. Combined effects of the flood reducing channel complexity and previous logging decreasing in-channel wood recruitment from riparian systems, limits habitat complexity. Until this feature of forested watershed streams returns, there appears to be a ceiling on reach scale aquatic biological diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Biodiversity and Forests)
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Article
Treatment of Bilge Water by Fenton Oxidation Followed by Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption
Water 2021, 13(19), 2792; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192792 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Due to its high oil content, the discharge of bilge water from ships is one of the most important pollutants in marine ecosystem. In this research, we investigated the treatment of bilge water for Haydarpasa Waste Collection Plant by Fenton oxidation followed by [...] Read more.
Due to its high oil content, the discharge of bilge water from ships is one of the most important pollutants in marine ecosystem. In this research, we investigated the treatment of bilge water for Haydarpasa Waste Collection Plant by Fenton oxidation followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. We applied the following optimum operational conditions for Fenton oxidation: [Fe2+]: 6 mM; [H2O2]: 30 mM; and the ratio of [Fe2+]/[H2O2]: 1/5. Adsorption was performed in the effluent sample of Fenton oxidation. The effects of different adsorption periods, adsorbent concentrations, temperature, and pH were examined. Additionally, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied. We obtained the following optimum operational conditions: 24 h, 2 g of GAC L−1, 20 °C, and pH = 6. We observed an 89.5 ± 1.9% of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency under these conditions. Data generated from the experiments fit both isotherm models well, though we preferred the Langmuir isotherm model to the Freundlich isotherm model because the former’s regression coefficient (0.90) was larger than that reported for the Freundlich isotherm model (0.78). The potential to treat bilge water by Fenton oxidation followed by granular activated carbon is promising for the Haydarpasa Waste Collection Plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Article
Study of Comprehensive Utilization of Water Resources of Urban Water Distribution Network
Water 2021, 13(19), 2791; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192791 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 276
Abstract
China is a country where the levels of water resources per capita are extremely low. With the rapid development of urbanization, water resource shortages have become a bottleneck existing in more and more cities. This study considers the comprehensive management of urban flood [...] Read more.
China is a country where the levels of water resources per capita are extremely low. With the rapid development of urbanization, water resource shortages have become a bottleneck existing in more and more cities. This study considers the comprehensive management of urban flood control, water supply, water and the ecological environment, catches the main contradiction between “water deficient” and “water rich” in cities, puts forward a comprehensive utilization pattern for urban water resources by emphasizing the utilization of rain–flood resources. After a simulation study, a better regulation pattern is brought out and achieve multiple benefits based on the river system of Gucheng Lake, which is located in Nanjing, Gaochun district, by optimizing conventional regulation. The results show that two parameters, the low water level (LWL) below which Gucheng Lake stops supplying ecological water, and the high water level (HWL) where Gucheng Lake stops importing water from rivers, are the key parameters to decide the regulation benefits, and the LWL of 9 m and HWL of 12 m is the best combination in river network regulation, the annual potential utilizable of rain–flood resources of Gucheng Lake river system can reach 57 million m3 per year, through the comprehensive utilization of the rain–flood resources, the negative effect of flood is effectively reduced and the disaster is controlled on one hand; and the water demand of urban and rural water supply, 100,000 m3/day, is effectively guaranteed as well as the regional ecological environment is improved on the other hand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Use of Water and Soil Resources)
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Article
Classification and Prediction of Fecal Coliform in Stream Waters Using Decision Trees (DTs) for Upper Green River Watershed, Kentucky, USA
Water 2021, 13(19), 2790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192790 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
The classification of stream waters using parameters such as fecal coliforms into the classes of body contact and recreation, fishing and boating, domestic utilization, and danger itself is a significant practical problem of water quality prediction worldwide. Various statistical and causal approaches are [...] Read more.
The classification of stream waters using parameters such as fecal coliforms into the classes of body contact and recreation, fishing and boating, domestic utilization, and danger itself is a significant practical problem of water quality prediction worldwide. Various statistical and causal approaches are used routinely to solve the problem from a causal modeling perspective. However, a transparent process in the form of Decision Trees is used to shed more light on the structure of input variables such as climate and land use in predicting the stream water quality in the current paper. The Decision Tree algorithms such as classification and regression tree (CART), iterative dichotomiser (ID3), random forest (RF), and ensemble methods such as bagging and boosting are applied to predict and classify the unknown stream water quality behavior from the input variables. The variants of bagging and boosting have also been looked at for more effective modeling results. Although the Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, and Extremely Randomized Tree models have been found to yield consistent classification results, DTs with Adaptive Boosting and Bagging gave the best testing accuracies out of all the attempted modeling approaches for the classification of Fecal Coliforms in the Upper Green River watershed, Kentucky, USA. Separately, a discussion of the Decision Support System (DSS) that uses Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Support Tools for Water Quality Management)
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Article
Regional Agroclimate Characteristic and Its Multiple Teleconnections: A Case Study in the Jianghan Plain (JHP) Region
Water 2021, 13(19), 2789; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192789 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Agricultural production depends on local agroclimatic conditions to a great extent, affected by ENSO and other ocean-atmospheric climate modes. This paper analyzed the spatio-temporal distributions of climate elements in the Jianghan Plain (JHP), Central China, and explored the impacts from teleconnection patterns, aimed [...] Read more.
Agricultural production depends on local agroclimatic conditions to a great extent, affected by ENSO and other ocean-atmospheric climate modes. This paper analyzed the spatio-temporal distributions of climate elements in the Jianghan Plain (JHP), Central China, and explored the impacts from teleconnection patterns, aimed at providing references for dealing with climate change and guiding agricultural activities. Both linear and multifactorial regression models were constructed based on the frequentist quantile regression and Bayesian quantile regression method, with the daily meteorological data sets of 17 national stations in the plain and teleconnection climate characteristic indices. The results showed that precipitation in JHP had stronger spatial variability than evapotranspiration. El Niño probably induced less precipitation in summer while the weakening Arctic Oscillation might lead to more summertime precipitation. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of the multifactorial and linear regression model at the median level were 0.42–0.56 and 0.12–0.18, respectively. The mean relative error (MRE) ranged −2.95–−0.26% and −7.83–0.94%, respectively, indicating the much better fitting accuracy of the multiple climatic factors model. Meanwhile it confirmed that the agricultural climate in JHP was under the influence from multiple teleconnection patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Climate Change)
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Review
Systematic Review of Flood and Drought Literature Based on Science Mapping and Content Analysis
Water 2021, 13(19), 2788; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192788 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The severity and frequency of flood and drought events have increased in recent decades. These climate change-induced and anthropogenic stressors on water resources represent the leading water-related hazards to communities. Further, the increasing exposure of the population and infrastructure to such events has [...] Read more.
The severity and frequency of flood and drought events have increased in recent decades. These climate change-induced and anthropogenic stressors on water resources represent the leading water-related hazards to communities. Further, the increasing exposure of the population and infrastructure to such events has heightened the risks. Assessing the impact scope of these events in different subfields towards comprehensively evaluating the risks requires an unbiased systematic approach. This paper combines content analysis and science mapping to investigate the existing multidisciplinary body of knowledge on analyzing flood and drought together. Searching the literature using selected search terms yielded a sample of 119 publications. Initially, various contents, such as the authors’ keywords, applied methods and indices, and study scale, were extracted from these articles. These contents were then incorporated into the science mapping technique to form communicative networks. Analyzing these publications revealed 13 major research themes, with a sustained focus on hydrological issues. However, a more diverse range of themes was recently revealed, including economy, sociology, insurance, and policymaking. Producing such computational and visual networks explained informative insights that can help further develop both existing and new frameworks to support the management, design and policymaking sectors in responding to both flood and drought events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Floods and Droughts under a Changing Climate)
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Article
Modelling the Impact of Vegetation Change on Hydrological Processes in Bayin River Basin, Northwest China
Water 2021, 13(19), 2787; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192787 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Vegetation change in arid areas may lead to the redistribution of regional water resources, which can intensify the competition between ecosystems and humans for water resources. This study aimed to accurately model the impact of vegetation change on hydrological processes in an arid [...] Read more.
Vegetation change in arid areas may lead to the redistribution of regional water resources, which can intensify the competition between ecosystems and humans for water resources. This study aimed to accurately model the impact of vegetation change on hydrological processes in an arid endorheic river watershed undergoing revegetation, namely, the middle and lower reaches of the Bayin River basin, China. A LU-SWAT-MODFLOW model was developed by integrating dynamic hydrological response units with a coupled SWAT-MODFLOW model, which can reflect actual land cover changes in the basin. The LU-SWAT-MODFLOW model outperformed the original SWAT-MODFLOW model in simulating the impact of human activity as well as the leaf area index, evapotranspiration, and groundwater table depth. After regional revegetation, evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge in different sub-basins increased significantly. In addition, the direction and amount of surface-water–groundwater exchange changed considerably in areas where revegetation involved converting low-coverage grassland and bare land to forestland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Hydrologic Modeling in Watershed Scales)
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Article
Protection and Guidance of Downstream Moving Fish with Electrified Horizontal Bar Rack Bypass Systems
Water 2021, 13(19), 2786; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192786 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Horizontal bar rack bypass systems (HBR-BS) are characterized by a horizontal bar rack (HBR) with narrow clear bar spacing of 10–20 mm and an adjacent bypass (BS) to efficiently protect and guide downstream moving fish at water intakes. The small bar spacing may [...] Read more.
Horizontal bar rack bypass systems (HBR-BS) are characterized by a horizontal bar rack (HBR) with narrow clear bar spacing of 10–20 mm and an adjacent bypass (BS) to efficiently protect and guide downstream moving fish at water intakes. The small bar spacing may lead to operational challenges, such as clogging and high head losses. This study investigated whether combining an HBR with a low-voltage electric field (e-HBR) allows one to increase the clear bar spacing while maintaining a high standard of fish protection and guidance efficiency. To this end, an HBR-BS with 20 mm bar spacing and an e-HBR-BS with 20 and 51 mm bar spacing were tested with spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in a laboratory flume. The racks were electrified with 38 V pulsed direct current. The protection efficiency of the e-HBR with 51 mm was 96% for spirlin and 86% for eels, which are similar results to those of the HBR with 20 mm. Some eels passed through the e-HBR, but only when they were parallel to the rack. Fish injuries of variable severeness due to the electrification were observed. The results highlight the potential of hybrid barriers for the protection of downstream moving fish. However, fish injuries due to electricity may occur; and reporting applied voltage, electrode geometry, resulting electric field strength and the pulse pattern of the electrified rack setup is necessary to ensure comparability among studies and to avoid injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams)
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Article
Photocatalytic Bactericidal Performance of LaFeO3 under Solar Light in the Presence of Natural Organic Matter: Spectroscopic and Mechanistic Evaluation
Water 2021, 13(19), 2785; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192785 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Solar photocatalytic inactivation (SPCI) of E. coli as the indicator microorganism using LaFeO3 (LF) has already been investigated under various experimental conditions, excluding any role of natural organic matter (NOM). However, comprehensive information about the behavior of E. coli and its inactivation [...] Read more.
Solar photocatalytic inactivation (SPCI) of E. coli as the indicator microorganism using LaFeO3 (LF) has already been investigated under various experimental conditions, excluding any role of natural organic matter (NOM). However, comprehensive information about the behavior of E. coli and its inactivation mechanism in the presence of NOM, as well as the behavior of NOM components via solar photocatalysis using LF as a photocatalyst, has prime importance in understanding real natural water environments. Therefore, in this study, further assessment was devoted to explore the influence of various NOM representatives on the SPCI of E. coli by using LF as a novel non-TiO2 photocatalyst. The influence of NOM as well as its sub-components, such as humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), was also investigated to understand different NOM-related constituents of real natural water conditions. In addition to spectroscopic and mechanistic investigations of cell-derived organics, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra with parallel factor multiway analysis (PARAFAC) modeling revealed further information about the occurrence and/or disappearance of NOM-related and bacteria-related fluorophores upon LF SPCI. Both the kinetics as well as the mechanism of the LF SPCI of E. coli in the presence of NOM compounds displayed substrate-specific variations under all conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Photocatalytic Water Treatment)
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Article
Sponge City Program (SCP) and Urban Flood Management (UFM)—The Case of Guiyang, SW China
Water 2021, 13(19), 2784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192784 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 290
Abstract
Flood management is a complex issue in Chinese cities that exhibit high populations and have undergone rapid urbanization. Urban flood management (UFM) approaches can be used to mitigate urban flood risk. To address urban issues of poor water quality and urban surface flooding, [...] Read more.
Flood management is a complex issue in Chinese cities that exhibit high populations and have undergone rapid urbanization. Urban flood management (UFM) approaches can be used to mitigate urban flood risk. To address urban issues of poor water quality and urban surface flooding, the Sponge City Program (SCP) was initiated in 2013 in China. The SCP aims to provide an opportunity for Chinese cities to improve their current UFM practices. This study looks at Guiyang (a pilot sponge city located in SW China) as a case study to identify the challenges and opportunities of UFM in China. Guiyang is a valley city surrounded by a hilly landscape. Using interview records and flood data, we illustrate that the primary type of flood in Guiyang is fluvial rather than surface water flooding. In Guiyang, the current function and targets of the SCP have yet to engage with the catchment level flood management, instead mainly focusing on the site-specific context (i.e., community level). Catchment flood management planning (CFMP) and natural flood management (NFM) both address this problem and may be a more suitable approach to manage flood discharge from the upper and middle catchments in Guiyang. In addition, it is suggested that a mixed option combining “hard” infrastructure (e.g., reservoirs and floodwalls) with “soft” flood management measures (e.g., improving people awareness and participation) may improve urban flood resilience in Chinese cities. Full article
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Article
Coarse and Fine Particulate Organic Matter Transport by a Fourth-Order Mountain Stream to Lake Bourget (France)
Water 2021, 13(19), 2783; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192783 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Transport of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) derived from forest litterfall has been hardly studied in rivers, unlike fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) or dissolved organic matter (DOM). Yet, many rivers are dammed or run into lakes, and there is growing evidence that [...] Read more.
Transport of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) derived from forest litterfall has been hardly studied in rivers, unlike fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) or dissolved organic matter (DOM). Yet, many rivers are dammed or run into lakes, and there is growing evidence that CPOM accumulation in river delta participates substantially in ecological processes such as greenhouse gas emissions of lakes and reservoirs. We investigated the transport of CPOM and FPOM by the Leysse River (discharge from 0.2 to 106 m3 s−1) to Lake Bourget (France) in relation to aerial litter deposition, river network length, and discharge. Over a 19-month study period, the volume-weighted mean CPOM and FPOM concentrations were 1.3 and 7.7 g m−3, respectively. Most CPOM and FPOM transport occurred during major flood events, and there were power relationships between maximum discharge and particulate organic matter (POM) transport during these events. The annual export of CPOM (190 t AFDM) was 85% of the litter accumulation in autumn on permanent sections of the riverbed (224 t AFDM), which suggests that export is a major process compared to breakdown. Export of CPOM was 1.25 t yr−1 km−2 of the forested catchment area. This study highlights the need to account for long-range CPOM transport to describe the fate of litter inputs to streams and to quantify the organic matter input and processing in lakes and reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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Article
Phytoplankton Dynamics and Water Quality in the Venice Lagoon
Water 2021, 13(19), 2780; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192780 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
We analyzed the phytoplankton abundance and community structure monthly over a 20-year period (1998–2017) at five stations in the Venice lagoon (VL), one of the sites belonging to the Long-Term Ecological Research network of Italy (LTER-Italy). We focused on phytoplankton seasonal patterns, inter-annual [...] Read more.
We analyzed the phytoplankton abundance and community structure monthly over a 20-year period (1998–2017) at five stations in the Venice lagoon (VL), one of the sites belonging to the Long-Term Ecological Research network of Italy (LTER-Italy). We focused on phytoplankton seasonal patterns, inter-annual variability and long-term trends in relation to water quality. Diatoms numerically dominated (ca. 60% on average), followed by nanoflagellates (37%), while coccolithophorids and dinoflagellates contributed less than 2%. We observed distinct seasonal and inter-annual changes in the abundance and floristic composition of the phytoplankton groups, whilst no clear long-term trend was statistically significant. We also assessed the water quality changes, applying to our dataset the multimetric phytoplankton index (MPI), recently officially adopted by Italy to accomplish the water framework directive (WFD) requirements. The index evidenced a temporal improvement of the water quality from “moderate” to “good” and allowed us to confirm its reliability to address the changes in the water quality, not only spatially—as previously known—but also for following the yearly time trends. Overall, our results highlight the importance of long-term observations, for understanding the variability in the phytoplankton communities of the lagoon as well as the relevance of their use to test and apply synthetic descriptors of water quality, in compliance with the environmental directives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytoplankton Ecology and Physiology of Coastal Seas)
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Article
Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Sediment Transport and Sorting in Pressurized Pipes
Water 2021, 13(19), 2782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192782 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Sediment transport in pipes is an effective engineering measure used to reallocate water–sediment resources and is widely used in reservoir flooding and sediment discharging, river dredging, floodplain area deposition, as well as other projects. An experimental investigation of sediment transport in pressurized pipes, [...] Read more.
Sediment transport in pipes is an effective engineering measure used to reallocate water–sediment resources and is widely used in reservoir flooding and sediment discharging, river dredging, floodplain area deposition, as well as other projects. An experimental investigation of sediment transport in pressurized pipes, with heterogeneous sediment (d50 = 107 μm) of the lower Yellow River as the experimental material, is presented. This study mainly explored the change law of sediment transport and sorting in pressure pipes with an internal diameter of 0.08 m. The experimental results reveal that the presence of sediment significantly changed the distribution of the flow velocity field. At the same flow rate, the velocity of the lower water body with a high sediment concentration decreased, while that of the upper water body increased. At a low water flow rate, the increase in sediment concentration caused an asymmetric distribution of the cross-sectional velocity. The vertical concentration decreased in height, and the obvious stratification of vertical sediment particles was observed. With the increase in the flow rate, the asymmetry of the velocity distribution significantly decreased, the concentration profile tended towards being uniformly distributed along the vertical direction, and the separation effect of the sediment particles weakened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Erosion and Sediment Transport)
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Article
Estimation of Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Chinese Cabbage Using Eddy Covariance in Northwest China
Water 2021, 13(19), 2781; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192781 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Chinese cabbage is a key vegetable crop in northwest China. It is of great significance to study the evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (Kc) for agricultural water-saving management in this area. Eddy covariance (EC) was used to measure [...] Read more.
Chinese cabbage is a key vegetable crop in northwest China. It is of great significance to study the evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (Kc) for agricultural water-saving management in this area. Eddy covariance (EC) was used to measure the ET and Kc of Chinese cabbage in northwest China from 1 May to 16 October 2020, in order to analyze the characteristics of these variables under plastic mulch. The results showed that the average Kc of the first crop of cabbage was higher in the middle and late stages, with values of 1.08 and 1.09 during the heading and maturity stages, respectively. The average Kc of the second crop of cabbage was higher in the middle stage, with values of 1.10 and 1.13 during the rosette and heading stages, respectively. The average annual Kc of Chinese cabbage was 0.81. Although Kc was higher in the middle and late periods, the water use efficiency was still 28.96 kg·ha−1·mm−1. The annual ET of Chinese cabbage was 505.3 mm. The study revealed the variation pattern of ET and Kc of Chinese cabbage, which provides an important scientific basis for the irrigation management of Chinese cabbage and is of great significance to guide the practice of water-saving vegetable planting. Full article
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Article
OpenHi.net: A Synergistically Built, National-Scale Infrastructure for Monitoring the Surface Waters of Greece
Water 2021, 13(19), 2779; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192779 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The large-scale surface-water monitoring infrastructure for Greece Open Hydrosystem Information Network (Openhi.net) is presented in this paper. Openhi.net provides free access to water data, incorporating existing networks that manage their own databases. In its pilot phase, Openhi.net operates three telemetric networks for monitoring [...] Read more.
The large-scale surface-water monitoring infrastructure for Greece Open Hydrosystem Information Network (Openhi.net) is presented in this paper. Openhi.net provides free access to water data, incorporating existing networks that manage their own databases. In its pilot phase, Openhi.net operates three telemetric networks for monitoring the quantity and the quality of surface waters, as well as meteorological and soil variables. Aspiring members must also offer their data for public access. A web-platform was developed for on-line visualization, processing and managing telemetric data. A notification system was also designed and implemented for inspecting the current values of variables. The platform is built upon the web 2.0 technology that exploits the ever-increasing capabilities of browsers to handle dynamic data as a time series. A GIS component offers web-services relevant to geo-information for water bodies. Accessing, querying and downloading geographical data for watercourses (segment length, slope, name, stream order) and for water basins (area, mean elevation, mean slope, basin order, slope, mean CN-curve number) are provided by Web Map Services and Web Feature Services. A new method for estimating the streamflow from measurements of the surface velocity has been advanced as well to reduce hardware expenditures, a low-cost ‘prototype’ hydro-telemetry system (at about half the cost of a comparable commercial system) was designed, constructed and installed at six monitoring stations of Openhi.net. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Smart Technologies in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Climate Change and Water Exploitation as Co-Impact Sources on River Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Water 2021, 13(19), 2778; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192778 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Climate change can affect freshwater communities superimposing on other major stressors, such as water exploitation, with effects still poorly understood. The exacerbation of naturally-occurring periods of low flows has been reported as a major hydrological effect of water diversions, with severe impacts on [...] Read more.
Climate change can affect freshwater communities superimposing on other major stressors, such as water exploitation, with effects still poorly understood. The exacerbation of naturally-occurring periods of low flows has been reported as a major hydrological effect of water diversions, with severe impacts on river benthic macroinvertebrate communities. This study aimed at assessing long-term modifications of low-flow events in a large lowland Italian river possibly associated to climate change and the effects of these events, intensified by water withdrawals, on benthic macroinvertebrates. A 77-year dataset on daily discharge was thus analyzed through Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s method to investigate modifications of the main hydrological parameters. Moreover, macroinvertebrates were collected during the low-flow periods that occurred from 2010 to 2015 at three sites downstream of water withdrawals, representing three different conditions of hydrological impairment. After assessing possible differences in taxonomical and functional composition between sites and impairment conditions, redundancy analysis and ordinary least squares regression were performed to link benthos metrics to environmental (hydrological and physico-chemical) characteristics. An increase in the duration of the low-flow periods and reduced summer flows were detected on the long term, and the magnitude of low flows was significantly altered by water withdrawals. These hydrological features shaped both structural and functional characteristics of benthic assemblages, highlighting the need for a more environmentally-sustainable water resource management in the current context of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Biodiversity)
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Article
Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data in Agricultural Drought Monitoring: Application in Northeastern China
Water 2021, 13(19), 2777; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192777 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Drought is the costliest disaster around the world and in China as well. Northeastern China is one of China’s most important major grain producing areas. Frequent droughts have harmed the agriculture of this region and further threatened national food security. Therefore, the timely [...] Read more.
Drought is the costliest disaster around the world and in China as well. Northeastern China is one of China’s most important major grain producing areas. Frequent droughts have harmed the agriculture of this region and further threatened national food security. Therefore, the timely and effective monitoring of drought is extremely important. In this study, the passive microwave remote sensing soil moisture data, i.e., the SMOS soil moisture (SMOS-SM) product, was compared to several in situ meteorological indices through Pearson correlation analysis to assess the performance of SMOS-SM in monitoring drought in northeastern China. Then, maps based on SMOS-SM and in situ indices were created for July from 2010 to 2015 to identify the spatial pattern of drought distributions. Our results showed that the SMOS-SM product had relatively high correlation with in situ indices, especially SPI and SPEI values of a nine-month scale for the growing season. The drought patterns shown on maps generated from SPI-9, SPEI-9 and sc-PDSI were also successfully captured using the SMOS-SM product. We found that the SMOS-SM product effectively monitored drought patterns in northeastern China, and this capacity would be enhanced when field capacity information became available. Full article
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Article
Study on Sludge and Dissolved Oxygen Distribution in a Full-Scale A2/O Oxidation Ditch
Water 2021, 13(19), 2776; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192776 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The distribution of velocity, sludge, and dissolved oxygen in a full-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) oxidation ditch was numerically simulated under three rotation speed scenarios. The viscosity and settling rate of activated sludge were defined through a user-defined function (UDF), and the sludge phase was [...] Read more.
The distribution of velocity, sludge, and dissolved oxygen in a full-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) oxidation ditch was numerically simulated under three rotation speed scenarios. The viscosity and settling rate of activated sludge were defined through a user-defined function (UDF), and the sludge phase was calculated using the mixture multiphase flow model. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was set as a user-defined source (UDS) and its generation and consumption rates were defined with UDFs. The relationship between velocity and sludge concentration was found to be contradictory, with dead zones leading to large sludge concentrations at the bottom of the oxidation ditch (OD), but not at the middle-curved wall of the anoxic pool. The flow rate of the reflux slot and aerator oxygenation rate were checked and correlated with DO concentrations in the anaerobic pool. The majority of the large sludge concentrations were concentrated in the biological selection pool and these remained constant with bed height. With reduced propeller and agitator rotation speed, the sludge concentrations reduced in the biological selection pool, but increased in the anaerobic and anoxic pools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Emerging Solutions for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
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Article
Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Sanitary Zone Delineation of Karst Groundwater Sources—Blederija Spring Case Study
Water 2021, 13(19), 2775; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192775 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The application of groundwater vulnerability methods has great importance for the sanitary protection zones delineation of karstic sources. Source vulnerability assessment of karst groundwater has mainly relied on the European approach (European Cooperation in Science and Technology—COST action 620), which includes analysis of [...] Read more.
The application of groundwater vulnerability methods has great importance for the sanitary protection zones delineation of karstic sources. Source vulnerability assessment of karst groundwater has mainly relied on the European approach (European Cooperation in Science and Technology—COST action 620), which includes analysis of the K factor, which refers to water flow through the saturated zone of the karst system. In the paper, two approaches to groundwater vulnerability assessment have been applied, COP + K and TDM (Time-Dependent Model) methods, to produce the most suitable source vulnerability map that can be transformed into sanitary protection zones maps. Both methods were tested on the case example of Blederija karst spring in Eastern Serbia. This spring represents a classical karst spring with allogenic and autogenic recharge. Dual aquifer recharge points out the necessity for the inclusion of the vulnerability assessment method created especially for the assessment of karst groundwater. Obtained vulnerability maps show similar results, particularly in the spring and the ponor areas, and these zones are most important for future protection. The COP + K method brings out three vulnerability classes that can be directly transformed into three sanitary protection zones. Contrary to the previous one, the TDM method uses water travel time as a vulnerability degree. The results show that the final map can be easily used to define sanitary zones considering different national legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Assessment)
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Article
Combining Spectral Water Indices and Mathematical Morphology to Evaluate Surface Water Extraction in Taiwan
Water 2021, 13(19), 2774; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192774 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Rivers in Taiwan are characterised by steep slopes and high sediment concentrations. Moreover, with global climate change, the dynamics of channel meandering have become complicated and frequent. The primary task of river governance and disaster prevention is to analyse river changes. Spectral water [...] Read more.
Rivers in Taiwan are characterised by steep slopes and high sediment concentrations. Moreover, with global climate change, the dynamics of channel meandering have become complicated and frequent. The primary task of river governance and disaster prevention is to analyse river changes. Spectral water indices are mostly used for surface water estimation, which separates the water from the background based on a threshold value, but it can be challenging in the case of environmental noise. Edge detection uses a canny edge detector and mathematical morphology for extracting geometrical features from the image and effective edge detection. This study combined spectral water indices and mathematical morphology to capture water bodies based on downloaded remote sensing images. From the findings, this study summarised the applicability of various spectral water body indices to the surface water extraction of different river channel patterns in Taiwan. The normalised difference water index and the modified normalised difference water index are suitable for braided rivers, whereas the automated water extraction index is ideal for meandering rivers. Full article
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Article
Implications of Hysteresis on the Horizontal Soil Water Redistribution after Infiltration
Water 2021, 13(19), 2773; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192773 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Although soil water redistribution is critical for a number of problems, a rather limited study of this process has been reported up to now and especially as regards the implications of hysteresis on horizontal soil water redistribution after infiltration. To this end, a [...] Read more.
Although soil water redistribution is critical for a number of problems, a rather limited study of this process has been reported up to now and especially as regards the implications of hysteresis on horizontal soil water redistribution after infiltration. To this end, a thorough theoretical and numerical investigation of the redistributed soil water content profiles formed after the cessation of a horizontal infiltration is presented. A number of different initial soil water contents before the initiation of the horizontal infiltration and different infiltration depths were analyzed using the HYDRUS-1D software package considering the appropriate hysteretic wetting and drying curves. The effect of neglecting hysteresis was also investigated for the same conditions. The main wetting and drying boundary curves of the studied porous medium and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation were experimentally determined. The theoretical and numerical analysis indicated that the form of the redistributed soil water content profiles in the presence of hysteresis was similar to the original infiltration profile independently of whether the initial soil water content was taken on the boundary wetting or drying curve and independently of the porous medium type. Specifically, in a relatively short time after the initiation of the redistribution process, the magnitude of the soil matrix head gradient tended to zero due to hysteresis, and this resulted in an insignificant soil water movement, although the soil water content and the hydraulic conductivity values were still high. In addition, the redistribution proceeded at a faster rate than the smallest depth of infiltration water prior to the redistribution, and it was faster during the early stages of the redistribution. Accordingly, hysteresis is important for the simulation of horizontal soil water redistribution as it is, for example, in the case of localized irrigation systems’ design and management. Full article
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Article
Combined Electro-Fenton and Anodic Oxidation Processes at a Sub-Stoichiometric Titanium Oxide (Ti4O7) Ceramic Electrode for the Degradation of Tetracycline in Water
Water 2021, 13(19), 2772; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192772 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
The mineralization of tetracycline by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) as well as the study of the toxicity of its intermediates and degradation products are presented. Electro-Fenton (EF), anodic oxidation (AO), and electro-Fenton coupled with anodic oxidation (EF/AO) were used to degrade tetracycline [...] Read more.
The mineralization of tetracycline by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) as well as the study of the toxicity of its intermediates and degradation products are presented. Electro-Fenton (EF), anodic oxidation (AO), and electro-Fenton coupled with anodic oxidation (EF/AO) were used to degrade tetracycline on carbon felt (cathode) and a sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide (Ti4O7) layer deposited on Ti (anode). As compared to EF and AO, the coupled EF/AO system resulted in the highest pollutant removal efficiencies: total organic carbon removal was 69 ± 1% and 68 ± 1%, at 20 ppm and 50 ppm of initial concentration of tetracycline, respectively. The effect of electrolysis current on removal efficiency, mineralization current efficiency, energy consumption, and solution toxicity of tetracycline mineralization were investigated for 20 ppm and 50 ppm tetracycline. The EF/AO process using a Ti4O7 anode and CF cathode provides low energy and high removal efficiency of tetracycline caused by the production of hydroxyl radicals both at the surface of the non-active Ti4O7 electrode and in solution by the electro-Fenton process at the cathodic carbon felt. Complete removal of tetracycline was observed from HPLC data after 30 min at optimized conditions of 120 mA and 210 mA for 20 ppm and 50 ppm tetracycline concentrations. Degradation products were elucidated, and the toxicity of the products were measured with luminescence using Microtox® bacteria toxicity test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Tool for Quantitative Risk Analysis of Urban Flooding
Water 2021, 13(19), 2771; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192771 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
One of the effects of climate change is an increasing frequency of heavy rainfall events, which in turn leads to increased flooding damage in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for dynamic risk evaluation that can be [...] Read more.
One of the effects of climate change is an increasing frequency of heavy rainfall events, which in turn leads to increased flooding damage in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for dynamic risk evaluation that can be used to fulfil several of the goals in the European Flood Risk Management Directive. Flood risk analysis was performed as a spatial GIS analysis with the FME software. The primary data source for the analysis was a 1D/2D model calculation, wherein 1D models described the pipeline network and the watercourses and a 2D model described surface runoff. An ArcGIS online platform was developed to visualize the results in a format understandable for decision makers. The method and tool were tested for the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The tool developed in the study enabled the efficient analysis of consequences for various precipitation scenarios. Results could be used to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding and prioritize areas in which measures need to be implemented. The study showed that for urban areas in steep terrain, it is essential to include water velocity and depth-integrated velocity in risk analysis in addition to water depths and pipe network capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Management of Flood Risk in Urban Areas)
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Editorial
Natural Background Levels in Groundwater
Water 2021, 13(19), 2770; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192770 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 292
Abstract
High levels of inorganic compounds in groundwater represent a significant problem in many parts of the world, with major economic, social and environmental drawbacks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Background Levels in Groundwater)
Article
Living with Urban Flooding: A Continuous Learning Process for Local Municipalities and Lessons Learnt from the 2021 Events in Germany
Water 2021, 13(19), 2769; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192769 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
In 2021, heavy precipitation events in Germany have confirmed once again that pluvial flooding can cause catastrophic damage in large, medium, and small cities. However, despite several hazard-oriented strategies already in place, to date there is still a lack of integrated approaches to [...] Read more.
In 2021, heavy precipitation events in Germany have confirmed once again that pluvial flooding can cause catastrophic damage in large, medium, and small cities. However, despite several hazard-oriented strategies already in place, to date there is still a lack of integrated approaches to actually preventing negative consequences induced by heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, municipalities across the world are still learning from recent episodes and there is a general need to explore new techniques and guidelines that could help to reduce vulnerability, and enhance the resilience, adaptive capacity, and sustainability of urban environments, considering the already predicted future challenges associated with climate variability. To address this gap, this paper presents the outcomes of the research project “Heavy Rainfall Checklist for Sewer Operation” which was conducted by IKT Institute for Underground Infrastructure, to involve all the stakeholders affected by pluvial flooding within cities, and implement a series of documents that can be adopted by municipalities across the world to support organizations and their operational staff in preventing problems caused by heavy rainfall incidents. More in detail, three different rainfall scenarios have been deeply analysed, and for each of them a list of specific tasks and suggestions has been provided for aiding decision-making. Full article
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Article
Insights into the Simultaneous Sorption of Ciprofloxacin and Heavy Metals Using Functionalized Biochar
Water 2021, 13(19), 2768; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/w13192768 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Biochar and chitosan are considered as green and cost-effective adsorbents for water purification; the combination of these two materials may lead to an improved adsorption capacity of the generated adsorbents. Most sorption studies have been focused on the ability to adsorb one contaminant [...] Read more.
Biochar and chitosan are considered as green and cost-effective adsorbents for water purification; the combination of these two materials may lead to an improved adsorption capacity of the generated adsorbents. Most sorption studies have been focused on the ability to adsorb one contaminant or the same type of contaminants. Thus, this study aimed to produce chitosan-biochar beads (CH-BB) and test their efficiency in the simultaneous removal of a metal-complexing antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), and three metal(loid)s (As, Cd and Pb). Modification of raw pig manure biochar resulted in an increase in its adsorption capacity, except for Pb. The highest increment was observed for As (almost 6-fold) and the lowest was observed for CIP (1.1-fold). The adsorbent was able to simultaneously remove all targeted contaminants, individually and in the mixture. The adsorption capacity of CH-BB followed the order: Pb > Cd > >As > CIP. When Pb and As were present in the same mixture, their removal efficiency increased from 0.13 ± 0.01 to 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/g for As and from 0.75 ± 0.08 to 0.85 ± 0.02 mg/g for Pb due to their co-precipitation. The CIP–metal complexation probably resulted in a reduced adsorption ability for inorganics due to the decreased concentration of free ions. The presence of metals and metalloids led to alterations in CIP’s mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
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