Special Issue "Advances in Food, Bioproducts and Natural Byproducts for a Sustainable Future: From Conventional to Innovative Processes"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Isidoro Garcia-Garcia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
Interests: fermentation technology; food technology; acetic acid bacteria; vinegar
Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
grade E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: phenolic compounds; antioxidants; marine drugs; food safety; bioaccessibility; functional foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Maria Gullo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: foods and beverages fermentation; acetic acid bacteria; biopolymers; bacterial cellulose; valorization of agro-industrial wastes via fermentation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world population is expected to reach almost 10,000 million in 2050, which entails the need to focus on sustainability and its three pillars: economy, environment, and society. Within this context, it is necessary to use our resources efficiently; for instance, we will need to produce much food using less land and pollute less, to optimize the production of biomass from diversified resources, along with its subsequent conversion, fractionation, and processing. For this, new approaches and processes, with special emphasis from a biotechnological perspective, may need to be implemented to move towards a circular model that will confer environmental sustainability. Global projections of food losses constitute an abundant pool of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and functional compounds. Hence, the deployment of food waste streams as raw materials will encompass the formulation of added-value products that will be ideally reintroduced in the food supply chain to close the loop.

This Special Issue is devoted to the analysis and optimization of any food and bioproduct process as well as development of innovative and emerging food and byproducts processing methods, as a necessity for the sustainable transition to a bioeconomy era. Valorization, bioprocessing, and biorefining of food-industry-based streams, the role of industrial microorganisms, the isolation of high added-value compounds, applications of the resulting bio-based chemicals in food manufacturing, novel food formulations, economic policies for food waste management, along with sustainability or techno-economic assessment of processing methods constitute subject areas that need to be addressed. More specifically, bioprocess design to valorize food-industry waste and byproducts streams should be initiated by characterizing the composition of the onset raw material with the aim of identifying the target end-products, whereas the generation of multiple high added-value products is a prerequisite for cost-effective processes to establish economic sustainability. On top of that, the feasibility of innovative processes could be sustained by encompassing food applications, driven by the constantly emerging consumers’ demand for functional foods and beverages with enhanced nutritional value. Equally, a growing awareness for bio-based and natural food components is being developed, thereby imposing challenges on the substitution of chemically derived ingredients with their natural counterparts.

Prof. Dr. Isidoro Garcia-Garcia
Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
Dr. Maria Gullo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food wastes and byproducts
  • natural wastes and byproducts
  • valorization strategies
  • bioprocesses optimization
  • bioactive compounds
  • added-value products
  • cosmetics
  • nutraceuticals
  • functional foods and beverages

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Differential Response of the Proteins Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism in Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains during the Second Fermentation in a Sealed Bottle
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 12165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app112412165 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The traditional method for sparkling wine making consists of a second fermentation of a base wine followed by ageing in the same bottle that reaches the consumers. Nitrogen metabolism is the second most important process after carbon and takes place during wine fermentation [...] Read more.
The traditional method for sparkling wine making consists of a second fermentation of a base wine followed by ageing in the same bottle that reaches the consumers. Nitrogen metabolism is the second most important process after carbon and takes place during wine fermentation by yeast. Amino acids are the most numerous nitrogen compounds released by this process. They contribute to the organoleptic properties of the wines and, therefore, to their sensory quality. The main objective of this study is to compare the differential proteomic response of amino acid metabolism, specifically their proteins and their interactions in the G1 strain (unconventional yeast) during sparkling wine production versus the conventional P29 strain. One of the new trends in winemaking is the improvement of the organoleptic diversity of wine. We propose the use of unconventional yeast that shows desirable characteristics for the industry. For this purpose, these two yeasts were grown at sealed bottle conditions for the second fermentation (Champenoise method). No differences were obtained in the middle of fermentation between the yeast strains. The number of proteins identified, and the relationships established, were similar, highlighting lysine metabolism. At the end of the second fermentation, the difference between each strain was remarkable. Hardly any proteins were identified in unconventional versus conventional yeast. However, in both strains, the metabolism of sulfur amino acids, methionine, and cysteine obtained a greater number of proteins involved in these processes. The release of these amino acids to the medium would allow the yeast to balance the internal redox potential by reoxidation of NADPH. This study is focused on the search for a more complete knowledge of yeast metabolism, specifically the metabolism of amino acids, which are key compounds during the second fermentation. Full article
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Article
Statistical Optimization of a Hyper Red, Deep Blue, and White LEDs Light Combination for Controlled Basil Horticulture
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11199279 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
This study aims to optimize artificial LEDs light conditions, for “Genovese” basil germination and growth in an indoor environment suitable for horticulture. Following a previous study on the synergic effect of LEDs light and a tailored fertilizer, in this study, the effect of [...] Read more.
This study aims to optimize artificial LEDs light conditions, for “Genovese” basil germination and growth in an indoor environment suitable for horticulture. Following a previous study on the synergic effect of LEDs light and a tailored fertilizer, in this study, the effect of white LED in combination with hyper red and deep blue, as well the plants–lights distance, was correlated to 14 growth and germination parameters, such as height, number of plants, etc. A design of experiments approach was implemented, aiming to derive mathematical models with predictive power, employing a restrained number of tests. Results demonstrated that for the germination phase, it is not possible to derive reliable mathematical models because almost the same results were found for all the experiments in terms of a fruitful germination. On the contrary, for the growth phase, the statistical analysis indicates that the distance among plants and lights is the most significant parameter. Nevertheless, correlations with LED light type emerged, indicating that white LEDs should be employed only to enhance specific growth parameters (e.g., to reduce water consumption). The tailored models derived in this study can be exploited to further enhance the desired property of interest in the growth of basil in horticulture. Full article
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Article
Improvement of Paper Resistance against Moisture and Oil by Coating with Poly(-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and Polycaprolactone (PCL)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8058; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11178058 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Surface hydrophobicity and grease resistance of paper may be achieved by the application of coatings usually derived from fossil-oil resources. However, poor recyclability and environmental concerns on generated waste has increased interest in the study of alternative paper coatings. This work focuses on [...] Read more.
Surface hydrophobicity and grease resistance of paper may be achieved by the application of coatings usually derived from fossil-oil resources. However, poor recyclability and environmental concerns on generated waste has increased interest in the study of alternative paper coatings. This work focuses on the study of the performances offered by two different biopolymers, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and polycaprolactone (PCL), also assessing the effect of a plasticizer (PEG) when used as paper coatings. The coated samples were characterized for the structural (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), diffusive (water vapor and grease barrier properties), and surface properties (affinity for water and oil, by contact angle measurements). Samples of polyethylene-coated and fluorinated paper were used as commercial reference. WVTR of coated samples generally decreased and PHBV and PCL coatings with PEG at 20% showed interesting low wettability, as inferred from the water contact angles. Samples coated with PCL also showed increased grease resistance in comparison with plain paper. This work, within the limits of its lab-scale, offers interesting insights for future research lines toward the development of cellulose-based food contact materials that are fully recyclable and compostable. Full article
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Article
Design of a New Fermented Beverage from Medicinal Plants and Organic Sugarcane Molasses via Lactic Fermentation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6089; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11136089 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Functional beverages obtained using medicinal plants and fermented with lactic acid bacteria are gaining much interest from the scientific community, driven by the growing demand for food and beverages with beneficial properties. In this work, three different batches of medicinal plants and organic [...] Read more.
Functional beverages obtained using medicinal plants and fermented with lactic acid bacteria are gaining much interest from the scientific community, driven by the growing demand for food and beverages with beneficial properties. In this work, three different batches of medicinal plants and organic sugarcane molasses, named FB-lc, FB-sp and FB-lcsp, were prepared and fermented by using Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121, Bifidobacterium breve B632 and a mix of both strains’ culture, respectively. The three fermented beverages revealed a high level of polyphenols (expressed as gallic acid equivalent), ranging from 182.50 to 315.62 µg/mL. The highest content of flavonoids (152.13 µg quercetin equivalent/mL) and tannins (93.602 µg catechin equivalent/mL) was detected in FB-lcsp trial. The IR spectroscopy analysis showed a decrease in sugar (pyranose forms, D-glucopyranose and rhamnosides). In addition, the aromatic compounds of the fermented beverages, detected by GC-MS headspace analysis, showed twenty-four interesting volatile compounds, which could give positive aroma attributes to the flavor of the beverages. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the beverage obtained by the mix culture strains. Accordingly, the production of these beverages can be further investigated for considering their well-being effects on human health. Full article
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Article
Immobilization of Pectinolytic Enzymes on Nylon 6/6 Carriers
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11104591 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Pectinolytic enzymes are an important tool for sustainable food production, with a wide range of applications in food processing technologies as well as the extraction of bioactive compounds from pectin-rich raw materials. In the present study, we immobilized commercial pectinase preparation onto pellet [...] Read more.
Pectinolytic enzymes are an important tool for sustainable food production, with a wide range of applications in food processing technologies as well as the extraction of bioactive compounds from pectin-rich raw materials. In the present study, we immobilized commercial pectinase preparation onto pellet and thread shaped nylon 6/6 carriers and assessed its stability and reusability. Five commercial pectinase preparations were tested for different pectin de-polymerizing activities (pectinase, polygalacturonase, and pectin lyase activities). Thereafter, Pectinex® Ultra Tropical preparation, exhibiting the highest catalytic activities among the studied preparations (p < 0.0001), was immobilized on nylon 6/6 using dimethyl sulfate and glutaraldehyde. The immobilization yield was in accordance with the carrier surface area available for enzyme attachment, and it was 1.25 ± 0.10 U/g on threads, which was over 40 times higher than that on pellets. However, the inactivation of immobilized enzymes was not dependent on the shape of the carrier, indicating that the attachment of the enzymes on the surface of nylon 6/6 carriers was similar. The half-life of enzyme inactivation fast phase at 4 °C was 12.8 days. After 5 weeks, the unused threads retained 63% of their initial activity. Reusability study showed that after 20 successive cycles the remaining activity of the immobilized pectinase was 22%, indicating the good prospects of reusability of the immobilized enzyme preparations for industrial application. Full article
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Article
Effect of Time and Temperature on Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Sous Vide Chicken Breast Fillets
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11073189 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Temperature and time are two critical parameters in sous vide cooking which directly affect eating quality characteristics and food safety. This study aimed to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological properties of sous vide chicken breast fillets cooked at twelve different combinations of temperature (60, [...] Read more.
Temperature and time are two critical parameters in sous vide cooking which directly affect eating quality characteristics and food safety. This study aimed to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological properties of sous vide chicken breast fillets cooked at twelve different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (60, 90, 120, and 150 min). The results showed that cooking temperature played a major role in the moisture content, cooking loss, pH, a* color value, shear force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Increasing cooking temperature caused an increase in cooking loss, lipid oxidation, TBARS, and pH, while moisture content was reduced (p < 0.05). Cooking time played a minor role and only moisture content, cooking loss, and a* color value were affected by this parameter (p < 0.05). Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Psychrotrophic bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were not detected during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Cooking at 60 °C for 60 min showed the optimum combination of temperature and time for sous vide cooked chicken breast fillets. The result of this study could be interesting for catering, restaurants, ready-to-eat industries, and homes to select the optimum combination of temperature and time for improving the eating quality characteristics and ensuring microbiological safety. Full article
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Article
Effects of Different LED Light Recipes and NPK Fertilizers on Basil Cultivation for Automated and Integrated Horticulture Methods
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11062497 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
This study aims to optimize the conditions for “Genovese” basil (Ocimum Basilicum) germination and growth in an indoor environment suitable for horticulture through a synergic effect of light and fertilizers addition. In fact, several studies determined that specific light conditions are [...] Read more.
This study aims to optimize the conditions for “Genovese” basil (Ocimum Basilicum) germination and growth in an indoor environment suitable for horticulture through a synergic effect of light and fertilizers addition. In fact, several studies determined that specific light conditions are capable of enhancing basil growth, but this effect is highly dependent on the environmental conditions. In this study, the effect of different light sources was determined employing a soil with a negligible amount of fertilizer, demonstrating substantial improvement when light-emitting diode (LED) lights (hyper red and deep blue in different combinations) were applied with respect to daylight (Plants height: +30%, Total fresh mass: +50%). Thereafter, a design of experiment approach has been implemented to calculate the specific combination of LED lights and fertilizer useful to optimize the basil growth. A controlled-release fertilizer based on nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) derived from agro-residues was compared with a soil enriched in macronutrients. The results demonstrate significant improvements for the growth parameters with the employment of the controlled-release NPK with respect to enriched soil combined with a ratio of hyper red and deep blue LED light equal to 1:3 (Total fresh mass: +100%, Leaves number: +20%). Full article
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Article
Kombucha Tea as a Reservoir of Cellulose Producing Bacteria: Assessing Diversity among Komagataeibacter Isolates
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11041595 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is receiving a great deal of attention due to its unique properties such as high purity, water retention capacity, high mechanical strength, and biocompatibility. However, the production of BC has been limited because of the associated high costs and low [...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is receiving a great deal of attention due to its unique properties such as high purity, water retention capacity, high mechanical strength, and biocompatibility. However, the production of BC has been limited because of the associated high costs and low productivity. In light of this, the isolation of new BC producing bacteria and the selection of highly productive strains has become a prominent issue. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage in which the bacteria fraction of the microbial community is composed mostly of strains belonging to the genus Komagataeibacter. In this study, Kombucha tea production trials were performed starting from a previous batch, and bacterial isolation was conducted along cultivation time. From the whole microbial pool, 46 isolates were tested for their ability to produce BC. The obtained BC yield ranged from 0.59 g/L, for the isolate K2G36, to 23 g/L for K2G30—which used as the reference strain. The genetic intraspecific diversity of the 46 isolates was investigated using two repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing methods: the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) elements and the (GTG)5 sequences, respectively. The results obtained using the two different approaches revealed the suitability of the fingerprint techniques, showing a discrimination power, calculated as the D index, of 0.94 for (GTG)5 rep-PCR and 0.95 for ERIC rep-PCR. In order to improve the sensitivity of the applied method, a combined model for the two genotyping experiments was performed, allowing for the ability to discriminate among strains. Full article
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Article
Optimization of the Acetification Stage in the Production of Wine Vinegar by Use of Two Serial Bioreactors
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11031217 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
In the scope of a broader study about wine acetification, previous works concluded that using a single bioreactor hindered simultaneously reaching high productivities with high substrate consumption and the use of two serially arranged bioreactors (TSAB) could achieve such goal. Then, the aim [...] Read more.
In the scope of a broader study about wine acetification, previous works concluded that using a single bioreactor hindered simultaneously reaching high productivities with high substrate consumption and the use of two serially arranged bioreactors (TSAB) could achieve such goal. Then, the aim of this work is the optimization, using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions, of this TSAB using polynomial models previously obtained. The ranges for the operational variables leading to either maximum and minimum mean rate of acetification of 0.11 ≤ (rA)global ≤ 0.27 g acetic acid·(100 mL·h)−1 and acetic acid production of 14.7 ≤ Pm ≤ 36.6 g acetic acid·h−1 were identified; the results show that simultaneously maximizing (rA)global and Pm is not possible so, depending on the specific objective, different operational ranges must be used. Additionally, it is possible to reach a productivity close to the maximum one (34.6 ≤ Pm ≤ 35.5 g acetic acid·h−1) with an almost complete substrate use [0.2% ≤ Eu2 ≤ 1.5% (v/v)]. Finally, comparing the performance of the bioreactors operating in series and in parallel revealed that the former choice resulted in greater production. Full article
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Article
Eggplant Fruit (Solanum melongena L.) and Bio-Residues as a Source of Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Food Colorants, Using Innovative Food Technologies
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11010151 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Consumers are very concerned with following a healthy diet, along with some precautions that may influence environmental impact. Solanum melongena L. is one of the most consumed vegetables due to its excellent nutritional value and antioxidant action. Associated with its high consumption, considerable [...] Read more.
Consumers are very concerned with following a healthy diet, along with some precautions that may influence environmental impact. Solanum melongena L. is one of the most consumed vegetables due to its excellent nutritional value and antioxidant action. Associated with its high consumption, considerable amounts of agro-food wastes are produced. This work targets the valorization of this matrix, through the use of its bio-residues to study the obtention of coloring pigments, applying innovative technologies. Its nutritional value, chemical composition, and bioactive potential were evaluated, and the ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain coloring pigments of high industrial interest was optimized. Considering the results, low contents of fat and carbohydrates and energy value were evident, as well as the presence of compounds of interest (free sugars, organic acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and phenolic acids). In addition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential was detected. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the extraction of natural pigments, showing a concentration of 11.9 mg/g of anthocyanins/g of extract, applying optimal conditions of time, solvent, and solid/liquid ratio of 0.5 min, 68.2% (v/v) and 5 g/L, respectively. S. melongena proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds and natural pigments, which can generate great interest in the food industry. Full article
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Article
Modelling of the Acetification Stage in the Production of Wine Vinegar by Use of Two Serial Bioreactors
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9064; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10249064 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 550
Abstract
In the scope of a broader study about modelling wine acetification, the use of polynomial black-box models seems to be the best choice. Additionally, the use of two serially arranged bioreactors was expected to result in increased overall acetic acid productivity. This paper [...] Read more.
In the scope of a broader study about modelling wine acetification, the use of polynomial black-box models seems to be the best choice. Additionally, the use of two serially arranged bioreactors was expected to result in increased overall acetic acid productivity. This paper describes the experiments needed to obtain enough data for modelling the process and the use of second-order polynomials for this task. A fractional experimental design with central points was used with the ethanol concentrations during loading of the bioreactors, their operation temperatures, the ethanol concentrations at unloading time, and the unloaded volume in the first one as factors. Because using two serial reactors imposed some constraints on the operating ranges for the process, an exhaustive combinatorial analysis was used to identify a working combination of such ranges. The obtained models provided highly accurate predictions of the mean overall rate of acetic acid formation, the mean total production of acetic acid of the two-reactor system, and ethanol concentration at the time the second reactor is unloaded. The operational variables associated with the first bioreactor were the more strongly influential to the process, particularly the ethanol concentration at the time the first reactor was unloaded, the unloaded volume, and the ethanol concentration when loading. Full article
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Review

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Review
Applications of Plant Polymer-Based Solid Foams: Current Trends in the Food Industry
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11209605 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Foams are a type of material of great importance, having an extensive range of applications due to a combination of several characteristics, such as ultra-low density, tunable porous architecture, and outstanding mechanical properties. The production of polymer foams worldwide is dominated by those [...] Read more.
Foams are a type of material of great importance, having an extensive range of applications due to a combination of several characteristics, such as ultra-low density, tunable porous architecture, and outstanding mechanical properties. The production of polymer foams worldwide is dominated by those based on synthetic polymers, which might be biodegradable or non-biodegradable. The latter is a great environmental concern and has become a major waste management problem. Foams derived from renewable resources have aroused the interest of researchers, solid foams made from plant polymers in particular. This review focuses on the development of plant polymer-based solid foams and their applications in the food industry over the last fifteen years, highlighting the relationship between their material and structural properties. The applications of these foams fall mainly into two categories: edible foams and packaging materials. Most plant polymers utilized for edible applications are protein-based, while starch and cellulose are commonly used to produce food packaging materials because of their ready availability and low cost. However, plant polymer-based solid foams exhibit some drawbacks related to their high water absorbency and poor mechanical properties. Most research has concentrated on improving these two physical properties, though few studies give a solid understanding and comprehension of the micro- to macrostructural modifications that would allow for the proper handling and design of foaming processes. There are, therefore, several challenges to be faced, the control of solid foam structural properties being the main one. Full article
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Review
Olive Mill Wastewater as Renewable Raw Materials to Generate High Added-Value Ingredients for Agro-Food Industries
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7511; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11167511 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Olive oil production represents an agro-industrial activity of vital economic importance for many Mediterranean countries. However, it is associated with the generation of a huge amount of by-products, both in solid and liquid forms, mainly constituted by olive mill wastewater, olive pomace, wood, [...] Read more.
Olive oil production represents an agro-industrial activity of vital economic importance for many Mediterranean countries. However, it is associated with the generation of a huge amount of by-products, both in solid and liquid forms, mainly constituted by olive mill wastewater, olive pomace, wood, leaves, and stones. Although for many years olive by-products have only been considered as a relevant environmental issue, in the last decades, numerous studies have deeply described their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-hyperglycemic activities. Therefore, the increasing interest in natural bioactive compounds represents a new challenge for olive mills. Studies have focused on optimizing methods to extract phenols from olive oil by-products for pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications and attempts have been made to describe microorganisms and metabolic activity involved in the treatment of such complex and variable by-products. However, few studies have investigated olive oil by-products in order to produce added-value ingredients and/or preservatives for food industries. This review provides an overview of the prospective of liquid olive oil by-products as a source of high nutritional value compounds to produce new functional additives or ingredients and to explore potential and future research opportunities. Full article
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Review
Application of Conventional and Non-Conventional Extraction Methods to Obtain Functional Ingredients from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Tissues and By-Products
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11167303 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
In recent years, researchers in the pharmaceutical and food areas focused on finding the best ways to take advantage of functional ingredients present in jackfruit tissues and by-products such as phenolics and pectin. Many of these studies focused on adding value to the [...] Read more.
In recent years, researchers in the pharmaceutical and food areas focused on finding the best ways to take advantage of functional ingredients present in jackfruit tissues and by-products such as phenolics and pectin. Many of these studies focused on adding value to the by-products and decreasing their negative environmental impact. However, the type, quantity, and characteristics of jackfruit functional ingredients are highly dependent on the extraction method, either through conventional or non-conventional technologies, and the jackfruit tissue used, with peel and seeds being the most studied. The reported studies suggest that extractions and pre-treatments with emerging technologies such as ultrasounds, microwaves, radio frequency, or supercritical fluids can facilitate the release of functional ingredients of jackfruit; reduce the time and energy consumption required; and, in some cases, improve extraction yields. Therefore, emerging technologies could increase the functional potential of jackfruit and its by-products, with promising applications in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Full article
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Review
Functional and Healthy Features of Conventional and Non-Conventional Sourdoughs
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083694 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Sourdough is a composite ecosystem largely characterized by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria which are the main players in the fermentation process. The specific strains involved are influenced by several factors including the chemical and enzyme composition of the flour and the sourdough [...] Read more.
Sourdough is a composite ecosystem largely characterized by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria which are the main players in the fermentation process. The specific strains involved are influenced by several factors including the chemical and enzyme composition of the flour and the sourdough production technology. For many decades the scientific community has explored the microbiological, biochemical, technological and nutritional potential of sourdoughs. Traditionally, sourdoughs have been used to improve the organoleptic properties, texture, digestibility, palatability, and safety of bread and other kinds of baked products. Recently, novel sourdough-based biotechnological applications have been proposed to meet the demand of consumers for healthier and more natural food and offer new inputs for the food industry. Many researchers have focused on the beneficial effects of specific enzymatic activities or compounds, such as exopolysaccharides, with both technological and functional roles. Additionally, many studies have explored the ability of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to produce antifungal compounds for use as bio-preservatives. This review provides an overview of the fundamental features of sourdoughs and their exploitation to develop high value-added products with beneficial microorganisms and/or their metabolites, which can positively impact human health. Full article
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Review
Wheat Germ Agglutinin—From Toxicity to Biomedical Applications
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11020884 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Wheat germ agglutinin is a hevein class N-Acetylglucosamine–binding protein with specific toxicity and biomedical potential. It is extractable from wheat germ—a low-value byproduct of the wheat industry—using well–established extraction methods based on salt precipitation and affinity chromatography. Due to its N-Acetylglucosamine [...] Read more.
Wheat germ agglutinin is a hevein class N-Acetylglucosamine–binding protein with specific toxicity and biomedical potential. It is extractable from wheat germ—a low-value byproduct of the wheat industry—using well–established extraction methods based on salt precipitation and affinity chromatography. Due to its N-Acetylglucosamine affinity, wheat germ agglutinin exhibits antifungal properties as well as cytotoxic properties. Its anticancer properties have been demonstrated for various cancer cells, and toxicity mechanisms are well described. Wheat germ agglutinin has been demonstrated as a viable solution for various biomedical and therapeutic applications, such as chemotherapy, targeted drug delivery, antibiotic-resistant bacteria monitoring and elimination. This is performed mostly in conjunction with nanoparticles, liposomes, and other carrier mechanisms via surface functionalization. Combined with abundant wheat byproduct sources, wheat germ agglutinin has the potential to improve the biomedical field considerably. Full article
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