Special Issue "Advance in Pediatric Dentistry"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ziad D. Baghdadi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Preventive Dental Science Division of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0W2, Canada
Interests: clinical pediatric dentistry; nonpharmacological techniques for managing children at the dental office; oral rehabilitation under general anesthesia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is an honor to serve as the guest editor for this Special Issue of Children entitled, “Advance in Pediatric Dentistry”. Pediatric dentistry is a specialty that involves concepts and adapts techniques and procedures not only from general dentistry and other dental specialties, but also from general medicine and other medical specialties. Pediatric dentists are required to treat a broad range of diseases in infants, children, and adolescents, including those with special healthcare needs. Pediatric dentistry as an art and science is continually evolving, and with the new developments and advancements in both the theory and practice of pediatric dentistry, achieving the goal of providing quality dental care is made attainable for all patients from birth to 18 years of age.

I am inviting you all to consider submitting your manuscripts to this Special Issue to showcase your research, clinical work, and practice-related findings to a global audience. Manuscripts adopting the following methodology are welcome:

  • Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods;
  • Review articles: Narrative and systematic with and without a meta-analysis;
  • Case reports examining a single or multiple individuals or events occurring in real-life settings;
  • Short communications presenting new ideas, concepts or early interesting research results;
  • Clinical practice papers sharing experience from the clinic.

I seek to attract contributions from academics and practitioners from diverse professional backgrounds. As the title implies, this Special Issue is particularly open to new developments, unconventional, or inspirational contributions that help to move dentistry for children forward. 

Please, if you have a tentative title of your contribution, I would very much appreciate receiving it. I would encourage all of you to share this call for papers with colleagues who might be interested. 

Prof. Dr. Ziad D. Baghdadi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • adolescent
  • child
  • dental care for children
  • oral health
  • pediatric dentistry

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ectopic Eruption of Maxillary First Permanent Molars: Preliminary Results of Prevalence and Dentoskeletal Characteristics in Spanish Paediatric Population
Children 2021, 8(6), 479; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8060479 - 06 Jun 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
The ectopic eruption of the maxillary first permanent molar (EEM) is a local alteration of dental eruption with a multifactorial aetiology. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of the EEM in children and to analyse whether there is a [...] Read more.
The ectopic eruption of the maxillary first permanent molar (EEM) is a local alteration of dental eruption with a multifactorial aetiology. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of the EEM in children and to analyse whether there is a relationship between EEM and dento-skeletal characteristics. A total of 322 children were analysed with the Ricketts cephalometric study and descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was carried out. The prevalence of EEM was 8.7%, with no statistically significant differences regarding gender or location, but a higher prevalence in the 7-year-old age group (18.8%) and bilateral EEM was more prevalent than unilateral EEM (p < 0.05). The most frequent findings were a shortened anterior cranial base, a retroposition of the maxilla and a distal position of the upper permanent first molar in relation to the pterygoid vertical in children with EEM. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the cephalometric parameters except a decreased palatal plane in the bilateral EEM group and a distal upper incisor position in the EEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of the EEM was 8.7%, more frequently bilateral, and significantly in seven-year-old patients. Children with bilateral EEM have decreased palatal plane values and a more posterior position of the upper incisor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
Parental and Dentist Satisfaction with Primary Anterior Zirconia Crowns: A Case Series Analysis
Children 2021, 8(6), 451; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8060451 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 819
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study evaluated overall parental satisfaction of zirconia crowns (ZC) placed on primary maxillary anterior teeth with that of two independent, blinded dentists. 131 ZC placed in 37 children, aged 24.8–62.2 months (mean = 42.8), who had at least one recall [...] Read more.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated overall parental satisfaction of zirconia crowns (ZC) placed on primary maxillary anterior teeth with that of two independent, blinded dentists. 131 ZC placed in 37 children, aged 24.8–62.2 months (mean = 42.8), who had at least one recall visit a minimum of 6 months after placement were rated (average = 13.3). Crown colour match, crown contour and crown durability were evaluated by parents and compared to photographic evaluations of two independent raters. Overall parental satisfaction was also evaluated. The overall retention rate was 99.7% and parental satisfaction was 100%. Colour match was rated excellent by 84% of parents and 36% of dental evaluators. Crown contour was rated excellent by 97% of parents and 55% of dental evaluators. The length of follow-up had no effect on colour match or crown contour. ZC comprises an aesthetic and durable option for restoring carious primary maxillary incisors and were well-accepted by parents. Parents were less critical than dental evaluators of crown appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Communication
Flowable Urethane Dimethacrylate-Based Filler for Root Canal Obturation in Primary Molars: A Pilot SEM and microCT Assessment
Children 2021, 8(2), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8020060 - 20 Jan 2021
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Pulpectomy in deciduous teeth involves endodontic access opening, root canal debridement and obturation with an appropriate filling material. EndoREZ (ER) is the urethane dimethacrylate-based filler, which can be used for root canal obturation in permanent and primary teeth. This observation aimed to evaluate [...] Read more.
Pulpectomy in deciduous teeth involves endodontic access opening, root canal debridement and obturation with an appropriate filling material. EndoREZ (ER) is the urethane dimethacrylate-based filler, which can be used for root canal obturation in permanent and primary teeth. This observation aimed to evaluate the behavior of the ER as a filler in root canals of two primary molars after the physiological resorption process using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (µCT) in second lower molars after their natural exfoliation. The SEM analysis revealed a non-uniform, porous and lacunary structure of ER, visually similar to the resorbed surface of the dentine. The µCT observations demonstrated the differences in the resorption level of the root and material surfaces. The preliminary observations suggest that ER is resorbed faster than root tissues and can therefore be a suitable material for the root canal filling in primary teeth. However, more investigations are needed to support these preliminary findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
The Behavior of Two Types of Upper Removable Retainers—Our Clinical Experience
Children 2020, 7(12), 295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7120295 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 826
Abstract
The Hawley retainer (HR) and the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) are the most common removable retainers in orthodontic treatments. The aim of this retrospective study was to comparatively analyze the behavior of two types of removable retainers—HRs and VFRs—in terms of retainer damage, loss, [...] Read more.
The Hawley retainer (HR) and the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) are the most common removable retainers in orthodontic treatments. The aim of this retrospective study was to comparatively analyze the behavior of two types of removable retainers—HRs and VFRs—in terms of retainer damage, loss, and the rate of installation of mild or severe relapse that required recourse to certain therapeutic interventions. The study was performed on 618 orthodontic patients aged 11–17 years, average age 13.98 ± 1.51, out of which 57% were patients having VFRs and the remaining 43% having HRs in the upper arch. We performed an analysis of the two groups of patients—HRs group and VFRs group—at 6 months (T1) and at 12 months (T2) after the application of the retainer. The results showed that 6% of all the retainers were damaged, mostly at T2 (54.1%). Seven percent of all the retainers were lost, mostly at T1 (58.1%). Of all the patients, 9.1% presented mild relapse, mostly at T1 (58.9%), while 2.6% presented severe relapse. The VFRs were significantly more frequently associated with the occurrence of damage than the HRs (p < 0.001). Severe relapse was more frequently associated with the HRs rather than with VFRs (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
Management of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH): A 1-Year Retrospective Study in a Specialist Secondary Care Centre in the UK
Children 2020, 7(12), 252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7120252 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
(1) Background: Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is an enamel defect that affects an estimated 14.2% of children worldwide. Care takes place in primary and secondary care facilities. (2) Aim: To investigate how children with MIH are managed within a specialist centre in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is an enamel defect that affects an estimated 14.2% of children worldwide. Care takes place in primary and secondary care facilities. (2) Aim: To investigate how children with MIH are managed within a specialist centre in the north of England. (3) Method: A retrospective service evaluation within the paediatric dentistry department was registered with the clinical governance unit. Children who attended consultant-led new-patient clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2015 with a diagnosis of MIH were included. The data collected concerned the pre-referral treatment, the history and diagnoses and the treatments completed. (4) Results: Out of 397 records reviewed, 48 (12.1%) had MIH, where 81.3% and 18.8% of patients had severe and mild MIH, respectively. The majority of patients (n = 44 (91.7%)) were referred appropriately. Treatment was completed at the specialist centre for 44 (91.7%) patients. Twenty-five (52.1%) patients had an extraction of one or more first permanent molar teeth. Sixteen patients had the extractions at between 8 and 10 years old and 2 had the extractions later as part of an orthodontic plan. (5) Conclusion: Most children had severe MIH and were referred at an appropriate time to facilitate the consideration of loss of poor prognosis of first permanent molars (FPMs). Most children required specialist management of their MIH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
Article
Time-Dependent Anti-Demineralization Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride
Children 2020, 7(12), 251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7120251 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 897
Abstract
This study compared the demineralization resistance of teeth treated with silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to that treated with fluoride varnish. A total of 105 healthy bovine incisors were divided into control, fluoride varnish, and SDF groups. The enamel surface density change was then [...] Read more.
This study compared the demineralization resistance of teeth treated with silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to that treated with fluoride varnish. A total of 105 healthy bovine incisors were divided into control, fluoride varnish, and SDF groups. The enamel surface density change was then measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at three depths. The demineralized zone volume was measured on 3D micro-CT images to evaluate the total demineralization rate. The enamel surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The enamel density had continuously decreased while demineralization increased in the control and fluoride varnish groups. The enamel density had increased in the SDF group till the 7th day of demineralization treatment and decreased thereafter. However, the decrease in the SDF group was less severe than that in the other groups (p < 0.05). The demineralized enamel volume had increased through treatment and was the highest in the control group, followed by the fluoride varnish and SDF group. The enamel surface morphology was the roughest and most irregular in the control group, followed by the fluoride varnish group and SDF groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
Positional Differences of the Mandibular Canal in Relation to Permanent Mandibular First Molars with Eruption Disturbances in Children
Children 2020, 7(11), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7110206 - 31 Oct 2020
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Eruption disturbances in permanent mandibular first molars (PM1s) are uncommon. This retrospective study aimed to investigate differences in the position of the mandibular canal in relation to PM1s, with or without, eruption disturbances. Panoramic and cross-sectional views were reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography [...] Read more.
Eruption disturbances in permanent mandibular first molars (PM1s) are uncommon. This retrospective study aimed to investigate differences in the position of the mandibular canal in relation to PM1s, with or without, eruption disturbances. Panoramic and cross-sectional views were reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography imaging of children with PM1 eruption disturbances. Distances from the most inferior margin of the mandible to the center of the mandibular canal (M–C) and from the outer margin of the lingual cortex to the center of the mandibular canal (L–C) were measured for normally erupted PM1s (normal group) and for PM1s with eruption disturbances (ED group) and compared using independent t-tests. The mean M–C was significantly shorter in the ED group (4.86 ± 1.07 mm) than in the normal group (6.56 ± 1.06 mm) (p < 0.05). The mean L–C was also significantly shorter in the ED group (2.74 ± 0.74 mm) than in the normal group (3.09 ± 0.71 mm) (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the mandibular canal tended to be positioned more inferiorly in relation to PM1s with eruption disturbances than normally erupted PM1s in children. Clinicians should be aware of this positional deviation when managing children with PM1 eruption disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Central Incisor Width as Predictor of Permanent Maxillary Canine Width in a Kurdish Population: A Pilot Study
Children 2020, 7(8), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080092 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Background: Estimation of the mesio-distal width of permanent maxillary canines (PMCs) is a critical part of mixed dentition space analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a specific prediction equation for the estimation of the mesio-distal width of PMCs depending [...] Read more.
Background: Estimation of the mesio-distal width of permanent maxillary canines (PMCs) is a critical part of mixed dentition space analysis. The aim of this pilot study is to find a specific prediction equation for the estimation of the mesio-distal width of PMCs depending on the width of permanent maxillary and mandibular central incisors (PMMCIs) in a Kurdish population. Methods: A hundred study casts were collected. The mesio-distal widths of the PMMCIs and PMCs were measured by digital caliper. Linear regression tests were applied to find the prediction equation using the sum width of PMMCIs as predictors. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 17.2 ± 2.39 years old. Statistically significant differences in the mesio-distal widths of PMMCIs and PMCs were found between males and females (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, statistically significant correlations were identified between the widths of PMMCIs and PMCs in both males (r = 0.633, p = 0.0001) and females (r = 0.717, p = 0.0001). Likewise, the mesio-distal width of PMMCIs was found to be a significant predictor of the width of PMCs in both males (R2 = 0.403, p = 0.0001) and females (R2 = 5.14, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: For the first time, regression equations were developed for a Kurdish population and can be useful as a part of a mixed dentition space analysis in Kurdish children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Article
Children’s Drawing as a Projective Measure to Understand Their Experiences of Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia
Children 2020, 7(7), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7070073 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Purpose: The overall aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of 3 to 10 year-old children’s experiences, main concerns, and how they manage attending hospital for dental treatment under general anesthesia (DTGA). Methods: Twelve children aged 3–10 who were scheduled [...] Read more.
Purpose: The overall aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of 3 to 10 year-old children’s experiences, main concerns, and how they manage attending hospital for dental treatment under general anesthesia (DTGA). Methods: Twelve children aged 3–10 who were scheduled for DTGA were interviewed. In addition to tape-recorded interviews, data were collected using video diaries, participant observations, and pre-, peri-, and postoperative drawings. The children’s drawings (n = 43) were analyzed using the Child Drawing: Hospital Manual (CD:H) and Vygotsky postulations for context readings, with the aim to explore what it means for children to undergo DTGA. Results: The analysis found that the main concern for children during the pre-operative period was that they were forced to prepare for an unknown experience, which elicited stress. This situation was handled during the peri-operative period by trying to recover control and to cooperate despite fear, stress, and anxiety. Drawings completed post-operatively showed the surgical mask, “stinky” smell of the anesthetic gas, and multiple extraction of teeth were the main troubling experiences for children. Several weeks after DTGA, children tried to regain normalcy in their lives again. Conclusion: This study contributed to a deeper understanding of how children as young as 3 years undergoing DTGA experience and express their lived experiences: emotional, psychological, physiological, or physical stress in the context of DTGA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Review

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Review
Assessment of Genetical, Pre, Peri and Post Natal Risk Factors of Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH): A Narrative Review
Children 2021, 8(6), 432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children8060432 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Objectives: Analyze defects in the state of maturation of the enamel result in an adequate volume of enamel, but in an insufficient mineralization, which can affect both deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Among the most common defects, we recognize Deciduous Molar Hypominerlization (DMH), [...] Read more.
Objectives: Analyze defects in the state of maturation of the enamel result in an adequate volume of enamel, but in an insufficient mineralization, which can affect both deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Among the most common defects, we recognize Deciduous Molar Hypominerlization (DMH), Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM), and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). These, in fact, affect the first deciduous molars, the second deciduous molars and molars, and permanent incisors, respectively, but their etiology remains unclear. The objective of the paper is to review studies that focus on investigating possible associations between genetic factors or prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes and these enamel defects. Materials and methods: A comprehensive and bibliometric search for publications until January 2021 was conducted. The research question was formulated following the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome strategy. Case-control, cross-sectional, cohort studies, and clinical trials investigating genetic and environmental etiological factors of enamel defects were included. Results: Twenty-five articles are included. For genetic factors, there is a statistical relevance for SNPs expressed in the secretion or maturation stage of amelogenesis (16% of studies and 80% of studies that investigated these factors). For prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes, there is a statistical relevance for postnatal factors, such as the breastfeeding period (2%), asthma (16%), high fever episodes (20%), infections/illnesses (20%), chickenpox (12%), antibiotic intake (8%), diarrhea (4%), and pneumonia (4%). Conclusions: The results are in agreement with the multifactorial idea of the dental enamel defects etiology, but to prove this, further studies enrolling larger, well-diagnosed, and different ethnic populations are necessary to expand the investigation of the genetic and environmental factors that might influence the occurrence of DMH, HPSM, and MIH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Other

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Case Report
Restoration of an Upper Anterior Tooth in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder—A Student Case Report
Children 2020, 7(11), 237; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7110237 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Background: Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other mental or physical limitations experience an imbalance in the frequency of dental treatment as compared with the general patient population, in part, due to inadequate pre-graduate training of future dentists. Case presentation: This case [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other mental or physical limitations experience an imbalance in the frequency of dental treatment as compared with the general patient population, in part, due to inadequate pre-graduate training of future dentists. Case presentation: This case report describes a successful anterior tooth restoration, in awake state, in a 15-year-old boy with early childhood autism. The procedure was carried out independently by students of dentistry within the scope of their integrated clinical training semesters. Desensitization sessions were used as a preparatory measure and elements of behavioral facilitation (tell-show-feel-feel-do) were applied during the treatment. Conclusions: To avoid discrimination of this group of patients in the provision and quality of dental care, a structured approach to the transfer of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of special care dentistry is indispensable. To this end, treatment strategies for special care patients should be taught to pre-graduate dental students as a fundamental part of their university curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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Case Report
Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation—To Extract or to Restore beyond the Optimal Age?
Children 2020, 7(8), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children7080091 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2751
Abstract
The management of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) in children presents a clinical challenge to the dental team. Hypomineralised FPMs in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) conditions could undergo post-eruptive breakdown, making them susceptible to caries, leading to their subsequent loss. The planned extraction [...] Read more.
The management of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) in children presents a clinical challenge to the dental team. Hypomineralised FPMs in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) conditions could undergo post-eruptive breakdown, making them susceptible to caries, leading to their subsequent loss. The planned extraction of compromised FPMs is a valid alternative to complex restorative treatment. However, establishing the presence or absence of third permanent molars, amongst other considerations, is crucial to reaching a successful outcome. Clinicians should understand the importance of an orthodontic examination around the age of 8 years old with regard to establishing a differential therapeutic decision about the ideal timing of MIH-affected FPMs’ extraction in children. The aim of this article is to highlight that, with an interdisciplinary approach, a good outcome can be achieved following the extraction of poorly prognosed FPMs. The most cost-effective way of addressing MIH-affected FPMs is extraction, followed by orthodontic space closure when indicated. This obviates the need for the repeated restorative replacement and saves perfectly healthy premolars from being extracted for space creation in orthodontic treatment in several clinical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Pediatric Dentistry)
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