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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ihtesham Ur Rehman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Engineering Department, Faculty of Scince and Technology, Lancaster University, Gillow Avenue, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
Interests: dental materials; biomaterials; FTIR and Raman spectroscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mary Anne Melo
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The history of use of dental materials and biomaterials dates back to the BC era, but the real advances in this field have occurred since the 19th century, due to the invention and understanding of new materials. These advances have been due to the continuous quest for new materials and new technologies used in the design and fabrication of new and novel materials, and, in particular, the understanding of new materials with innovative clinical applications. These have only been possible due to interdisciplinary research of a translational nature, where physicians, surgeons, dentists, and materials scientists work together for a common and targeted goal. It is important for clinicians to understand the needs of the patient, who translates these needs for the materials scientist to develop an implant to improve the quality of life for the patient.

Once the chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the materials are well understood, then these materials can be tailored to provide specific clinical applications. Developments in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have only been possible due to work from this partnership. This Special Issue will provide an excellent forum to bring together different communities and publish research of a high caliber, which will be beneficial to healthcare.

I would like to take this opportunity to invite you to submit your manuscript to the Special Issue on “Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials” in IJMS, which will surely act as an excellent vehicle for the dissemination of your research. We will accept reviews and original scientific papers in this Special Issue, and very much look forward to your valuable contribution.

Prof. Dr. Ihtesham Rehman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biomaterials
  • polymers
  • bioceramics
  • nanomaterials
  • nano-technology
  • fibers glass ionomers
  • bioactive glasses
  • biocomposites
  • dental composites
  • characterization
  • properties of dental and biomaterials dental applications
  • dental technology
  • GTR membranes
  • restorative materials
  • dental implants
  • dental tissue engineering
  • scaffold for dental tissue engineering
  • oral biology
  • oral cancers
  • drug delivery
  • spectroscopy

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Reconfigurable Dual Peptide Tethered Polymer System Offers a Synergistic Solution for Next Generation Dental Adhesives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126552 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Resin-based composite materials have been widely used in restorative dental materials due to their aesthetic, mechanical, and physical properties. However, they still encounter clinical shortcomings mainly due to recurrent decay that develops at the composite-tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite [...] Read more.
Resin-based composite materials have been widely used in restorative dental materials due to their aesthetic, mechanical, and physical properties. However, they still encounter clinical shortcomings mainly due to recurrent decay that develops at the composite-tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth is intended to seal this interface, but the adhesive seal is inherently defective and readily damaged by acids, enzymes, and oral fluids. Bacteria infiltrate the resulting gaps at the composite-tooth interface and bacterial by-products demineralize the tooth and erode the adhesive. These activities lead to wider and deeper gaps that provide an ideal environment for bacteria to proliferate. This complex degradation process mediated by several biological and environmental factors damages the tooth, destroys the adhesive seal, and ultimately, leads to failure of the composite restoration. This paper describes a co-tethered dual peptide-polymer system to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability. The adhesive system incorporates an antimicrobial peptide to inhibit bacterial attack and a hydroxyapatite-binding peptide to promote remineralization of damaged tooth structure. A designer spacer sequence was incorporated into each peptide sequence to not only provide a conjugation site for methacrylate (MA) monomer but also to retain active peptide conformations and enhance the display of the peptides in the material. The resulting MA-antimicrobial peptides and MA-remineralization peptides were copolymerized into dental adhesives formulations. The results on the adhesive system composed of co-tethered peptides demonstrated both strong metabolic inhibition of S. mutans and localized calcium phosphate remineralization. Overall, the result offers a reconfigurable and tunable peptide-polymer hybrid system as next-generation adhesives to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
Article
TGF-β Activity Related to the Use of Collagen Membranes: In Vitro Bioassays
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6636; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186636 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Collagen membranes commonly used in guided bone regeneration are supposed to actively influence tissue regeneration and are not exclusively serving as passive barriers shielding away the soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms by which collagen membranes might affect tissue regeneration might involve the activation [...] Read more.
Collagen membranes commonly used in guided bone regeneration are supposed to actively influence tissue regeneration and are not exclusively serving as passive barriers shielding away the soft tissue. The molecular mechanisms by which collagen membranes might affect tissue regeneration might involve the activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. Here, we determined the TGF-β activity of supernatants and proteolytic lysates of five commercially available collagen membranes. The expression of TGF-β target genes interleukin 11 (IL11), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and IL11 immunoassay in gingival fibroblasts. TGF-β signaling activation was further assessed by blocking the TGF-β receptor I kinase, a TGF-β neutralizing antibody, and showing the nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad3 and total Smad2/3. We could identify two collagen membranes whose supernatants and lysates caused a robust increase of TGF-β receptor I kinase-dependent expression of IL11 in gingival fibroblasts. Moreover, the supernatant of a particular one membrane caused the nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad3 and Smad2/3 in the fibroblasts. These results strengthen the evidence that some collagen membranes possess an intrinsic TGF-β activity that might actively influence the process of guided bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Novel Nanocomposite Inhibiting Caries at the Enamel Restoration Margins in an In Vitro Saliva-Derived Biofilm Secondary Caries Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6369; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176369 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Secondary caries often occurs at the tooth-composite margins. This study developed a novel bioactive composite containing DMAHDM (dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate) and NACP (nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate), inhibiting caries at the enamel restoration margins in an in vitro saliva-derived biofilm secondary caries model for [...] Read more.
Secondary caries often occurs at the tooth-composite margins. This study developed a novel bioactive composite containing DMAHDM (dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate) and NACP (nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate), inhibiting caries at the enamel restoration margins in an in vitro saliva-derived biofilm secondary caries model for the first time. Four composites were tested: (1) Heliomolar nanocomposite, (2) 0% DMAHDM + 0% NACP, (3) 3% DMAHDM + 0% NACP, (D) 3% DMAHDM + 30% NACP. Saliva-derived biofilms were tested for antibacterial effects of the composites. Bovine enamel restorations were cultured with biofilms, Ca and P ion release of nanocomposite and enamel hardness at the enamel restoration margins was measured. Incorporation of DMAHDM and NACP into composite did not affect the mechanical properties (p > 0.05). The biofilms’ CFU (colony-forming units) were reduced by 2 logs via DMAHDM (p < 0.05). Ca and P ion release of the nanocomposite was increased at cariogenic low pH. Enamel hardness at the margins for DMAHDM group was 25% higher than control (p < 0.05). With DMAHDM + NACP, the enamel hardness was the greatest and about 50% higher than control (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel composite containing DMAHDM and NACP was strongly antibacterial and inhibited enamel demineralization, resulting in enamel hardness at the margins under biofilms that approached the hardness of healthy enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Red and Yellow Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin Demonstrated Differential Effects on Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Osteogenic Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21145153 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
The biological benefits of using two fractions derived from injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) in bone regeneration remain unclear. Thus, the current study examined two fractionation protocols producing yellow i-PRF and red i-PRF on periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). The i-PRF samples from five [...] Read more.
The biological benefits of using two fractions derived from injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) in bone regeneration remain unclear. Thus, the current study examined two fractionation protocols producing yellow i-PRF and red i-PRF on periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). The i-PRF samples from five donors were harvested from two different levels, with and without a buffy coat layer, to obtain red and yellow i-PRF, respectively. The PDLSCs were isolated and characterized before their experimental use. The culture medium in each assay was loaded with 20% of the conditioned medium containing the factors released from the red and yellow i-PRF. Cell proliferation and cell migration were determined with an MTT and trans-well assay, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was investigated using alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin red staining. The efficiency of both i-PRFs was statistically compared. We found that the factors released from the red i-PRF had a greater effect on cell proliferation and cell migration. Moreover, the factors released from the yellow i-PRF stimulated PDLSC osteogenic differentiation earlier compared with the red i-PRF. These data suggest that the red i-PRF might be suitable for using in bone regeneration because it induced the mobilization and growth of bone regenerative cells without inducing premature mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Bulk Fill Composites Have Similar Performance to Conventional Dental Composites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21145136 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
The aim of the study was to perform comprehensive characterization of two commonly used bulk fill composite materials (SDR Flow (SDR) and Filtek™ Bulk Fill Flowable Restorative (FBF) and one conventional composite material (Tetric EvoCeram; TEC). Eleven parameters were examined: flexural strength (FS), [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to perform comprehensive characterization of two commonly used bulk fill composite materials (SDR Flow (SDR) and Filtek™ Bulk Fill Flowable Restorative (FBF) and one conventional composite material (Tetric EvoCeram; TEC). Eleven parameters were examined: flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), degree of conversion, depth of cure, polymerisation shrinkage (PS), filler particle morphology, filler mass fraction, Vickers hardness, surface roughness following simulated toothbrush abrasion, monomer elution, and cytotoxic reaction of human gingival fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and cancer cells. The degree of conversion and depth of cure were the highest for SDR, followed by FBF and TEC, but there was no difference in PS between them. FS was higher for bulk fill materials, while their FM and hardness were lower than those of TEC. Surface roughness decreased in the order TEC→SDR→FBF. Bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA) and urethane dimethacrylate were found in TEC and FBF eluates, while SDR released BisGMA and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Conditioned media accumulated for 24 h from FBF and TEC were cytotoxic to primary human osteoblasts. Compared to the conventional composite, the tested bulk fill materials performed equally or better in most of the tests, except for their hardness, elastic modulus, and biocompatibility with osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Modifications of Hydroxyapatite by Gallium and Silver Ions—Physicochemical Characterization, Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Evaluation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5006; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21145006 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders enriched with silver or gallium ions or both were synthesized by two different routes: standard precipitation and the solid-state method. The powders were characterized by using several methods: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders enriched with silver or gallium ions or both were synthesized by two different routes: standard precipitation and the solid-state method. The powders were characterized by using several methods: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR). The effects of enrichment of the HAs in Ag+ or Ga3+ or both on in vitro cytotoxicity and microbiological activity were discussed. PXRD experiments showed that the samples obtained by the wet method consisted of single-phase nanocrystalline HA, while the samples prepared via the solid-state method are microcrystalline with a small amount of calcium oxide. The introduction of higher amounts of silver ions was found to be more effective than enriching HA with small amounts of Ag+. Gallium and silver ions were found not to affect the lattice parameters. Ga3+ affected the crystallinity of the samples as well as the content of structural hydroxyl groups. Among samples synthesized by the wet method, only one (5Ag-HAw) was cytotoxic, whereas all Ga-containing samples obtained by the dry method showed cytotoxicity. In the preliminary antimicrobial test all the materials containing “foreign” ions showed high antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Influence of Implant Material and Surface on Mode and Strength of Cell/Matrix Attachment of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Cell
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4110; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21114110 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
A fundamental step for cell growth and differentiation is the cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to determine the adhesion of different cell lineages, adipose derived stromal cells, osteoblasts, and gingival fibroblast to titanium and zirconia dental implants with different surface [...] Read more.
A fundamental step for cell growth and differentiation is the cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to determine the adhesion of different cell lineages, adipose derived stromal cells, osteoblasts, and gingival fibroblast to titanium and zirconia dental implants with different surface treatments. Primary cells were cultured on smooth/polished surfaces (titanium with a smooth surface texture (Ti-PT) and machined zirconia (ZrO2-M)) and on rough surfaces (titanium with a rough surface texture (Ti-SLA) and zirconia material (ZrO2-ZLA)). Alterations in cell morphology (f-actin staining and SEM) and in expression of the focal adhesion marker were analysed after 1, 7, and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA with a statistical significance at p = 0.05. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton were strongly affected by surface texture. Actin beta and vimentin expressions were higher on rough surfaces (p < 0.01). Vinculin and FAK expressions were significant (p < 0.05) and increased over time. Fibronectin and laminin expressions were significant (p < 0.01) and did not alter over time. Strength of cell/material binding is influenced by surface structure and not by material. Meanwhile, the kind of cell/material binding is regulated by cell type and implant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Three Dental Universal Adhesives—An In Vitro Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3950; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21113950 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Dental universal adhesives are considered an useful tool in modern dentistry as they can be used in different etching techniques, allow for simplified protocol and provide sufficient bond strength. However, there is still no consensus as to their toxicity towards pulp. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Dental universal adhesives are considered an useful tool in modern dentistry as they can be used in different etching techniques, allow for simplified protocol and provide sufficient bond strength. However, there is still no consensus as to their toxicity towards pulp. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three universal adhesives: OptiBond Universal, Prime&Bond Universal and Adhese in an in vitro experimental model, monocyte/macrophage cell line SC (ATCC CRL-9855). The cytotoxicity was measured by means of XTT assay, whereas the genotoxicity (comet assay) was evaluated based on the percentage of DNA present in the comet tail. Furthermore, the ability of the adhesives to induce apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry (FC) with the FITC annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The analysis of the cell cycle progression was performed with FC using PI staining. OptiBond Universal presented significant, while Prime&Bond Universal and Adhese Universal had minimal cytotoxicity and genotoxicity towards human SC cells. Moreover, only OptiBond Universal increased the level of apoptosis in SC cell line. None of the adhesives showed significant cell cycle arrest, as revealed by FC analysis. Due to substantial differences in toxicity in in vitro studies of dental adhesives, there is a great need for further research in order to establish more reliable test protocols allowing for standardized methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
Novel Urethane-Dimethacrylate Monomers and Compositions for Use as Matrices in Dental Restorative Materials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2644; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072644 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
In this study, novel urethane-dimethacrylate monomers were synthesized from 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (MEBDI) and oligoethylene glycols monomethacrylates, containing one to three oxyethylene groups. They can potentially be utilized as matrices in dental restorative materials. The obtained monomers were used to prepare four new formulations. Two [...] Read more.
In this study, novel urethane-dimethacrylate monomers were synthesized from 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (MEBDI) and oligoethylene glycols monomethacrylates, containing one to three oxyethylene groups. They can potentially be utilized as matrices in dental restorative materials. The obtained monomers were used to prepare four new formulations. Two of them were solely composed of the MEBDI-based monomers. In a second pair, a monomer based on triethylene glycol monomethacrylate, used in 20 wt.%, was replaced with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a reactive diluent typically used in dental materials. For comparison purposes, two formulations, using typical dental dimethacrylates (bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), urethane-dimethacrylate (UDMA) and TEGDMA) were prepared. The monomers and mixtures were tested for the viscosity and density. The homopolymers and copolymers, obtained via photopolymerization, were tested for the degree of conversion, polymerization shrinkage, water sorption and solubility, hardness, flexural strength and modulus. The newly developed formulations achieved promising physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics so as to be suitable for applications as dental composite matrices. A combination of the MEBDI-based urethane-dimethacrylates with TEGDMA resulted in copolymers with a high degree of conversion, low polymerization shrinkage, low water sorption and water solubility, and good mechanical properties. These parameters showed an improvement in relation to currently used dental formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Article
In-Situ Forming pH and Thermosensitive Injectable Hydrogels to Stimulate Angiogenesis: Potential Candidates for Fast Bone Regeneration Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1633; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051633 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Biomaterials that promote angiogenesis are required for repair and regeneration of bone. In-situ formed injectable hydrogels functionalised with bioactive agents, facilitating angiogenesis have high demand for bone regeneration. In this study, pH and thermosensitive hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) composite [...] Read more.
Biomaterials that promote angiogenesis are required for repair and regeneration of bone. In-situ formed injectable hydrogels functionalised with bioactive agents, facilitating angiogenesis have high demand for bone regeneration. In this study, pH and thermosensitive hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) composite materials loaded with heparin (Hep) were investigated for their pro-angiogenic potential. Hydrogel formulations with varying Hep concentrations were prepared by sol–gel technique for these homogeneous solutions were neutralised with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at 4 °C. Solutions (CS/HA/Hep) constituted hydrogels setting at 37 °C which was initiated from surface in 5–10 minutes. Hydrogels were characterised by performing injectability, gelation, rheology, morphology, chemical and biological analyses. Hydrogel solutions facilitated manual dropwise injection from 21 Gauge which is highly used for orthopaedic and dental administrations, and the maximum injection force measured through 19 G needle (17.191 ± 2.296N) was convenient for manual injections. Angiogenesis tests were performed by an ex-ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay by applying injectable solutions on CAM, which produced in situ hydrogels. Hydrogels induced microvascularity in CAM assay this was confirmed by histology analyses. Hydrogels with lower concentration of Hep showed more efficiency in pro-angiogenic response. Thereof, novel injectable hydrogels inducing angiogenesis (CS/HA/Hep) are potential candidates for bone regeneration and drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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Review

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Review
Advances on Bone Substitutes through 3D Bioprinting
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7012; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21197012 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Reconstruction of bony defects is challenging when conventional grafting methods are used because of their intrinsic limitations (biological cost and/or biological properties). Bone regeneration techniques are rapidly evolving since the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Bone tissue engineering is a branch of regenerative [...] Read more.
Reconstruction of bony defects is challenging when conventional grafting methods are used because of their intrinsic limitations (biological cost and/or biological properties). Bone regeneration techniques are rapidly evolving since the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Bone tissue engineering is a branch of regenerative medicine that aims to find new solutions to treat bone defects, which can be repaired by 3D printed living tissues. Its aim is to overcome the limitations of conventional treatment options by improving osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques of bone bioprinting have been developed: inkjet, extrusion, and light-based 3D printers are nowadays available. Bioinks, i.e., the printing materials, also presented an evolution over the years. It seems that these new technologies might be extremely promising for bone regeneration. The purpose of the present review is to give a comprehensive summary of the past, the present, and future developments of bone bioprinting and bioinks, focusing the attention on crucial aspects of bone bioprinting such as selecting cell sources and attaining a viable vascularization within the newly printed bone. The main bioprinters currently available on the market and their characteristics have been taken into consideration, as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Materials and Biomaterials)
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