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Special Issue "Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manfredi Rizzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro, 141, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Interests: diabetes; nutrition; metabolic diseases; atherosclerosis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism” aims to collect high-quality original research articles, communications, and comprehensive review papers (4000+ words) in the cutting-edge field of molecular endocrinology and metabolism science. We encourage Editorial Board Members of the Section of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences to contribute feature papers reflecting the latest progress in their research field or to invite relevant experts and colleagues to do so.

Prof. Dr. Manfredi Rizzo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Minor Changes in Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility in Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 5 (TAAR5) Knockout Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147307 - 07 Jul 2021
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Abstract
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, central nervous system, and periphery. TAAR family generally consists of nine types of receptors (TAAR1-9), which can detect biogenic amines. During the last 5 years, [...] Read more.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, central nervous system, and periphery. TAAR family generally consists of nine types of receptors (TAAR1-9), which can detect biogenic amines. During the last 5 years, the TAAR5 receptor became one of the most intriguing receptors in this subfamily. Recent studies revealed that TAAR5 is involved not only in sensing socially relevant odors but also in the regulation of dopamine and serotonin transmission, emotional regulation, and adult neurogenesis by providing significant input from the olfactory system to the limbic brain areas. Such results indicate that future antagonistic TAAR5-based therapies may have high pharmacological potential in the field of neuropsychiatric disorders. TAAR5 is known to be expressed in leucocytes as well. To evaluate potential hematological side effects of such future treatments we analyzed several hematological parameters in mice lacking TAAR5. In these mutants, we observed minor but significant changes in the osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes and hematocrit levels. At the same time, analysis of other parameters including complete blood count and reticulocyte levels showed no significant alterations in TAAR5 knockout mice. Thus, TAAR5 gene knockout leads to minor negative changes in the erythropoiesis or eryptosis processes, and further research in that field is needed. The impact of TAAR5 deficiency on other hematological parameters seems minimal. Such negative, albeit minor, effects of TAAR5 deficiency should be taken into account during future TAAR5-based therapy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
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Article
Selective Inhibition of Genomic and Non-Genomic Effects of Thyroid Hormone Regulates Muscle Cell Differentiation and Metabolic Behavior
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 7175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22137175 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of different biological processes. Their action involves genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, which together mediate the final effects of TH in target tissues. However, the proportion of the two processes and their contribution to the TH-mediated effects are [...] Read more.
Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of different biological processes. Their action involves genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, which together mediate the final effects of TH in target tissues. However, the proportion of the two processes and their contribution to the TH-mediated effects are still poorly understood. Skeletal muscle is a classical target tissue for TH, which regulates muscle strength and contraction, as well as energetic metabolism of myofibers. Here we address the different contribution of genomic and non-genomic action of TH in skeletal muscle cells by specifically silencing the deiodinase Dio2 or the β3-Integrin expression via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that myoblast proliferation is inversely regulated by integrin signal and the D2-dependent TH activation. Similarly, inhibition of the nuclear receptor action reduced myoblast proliferation, confirming that genomic action of TH attenuates proliferative rates. Contrarily, genomic and non-genomic signals promote muscle differentiation and the regulation of the redox state. Taken together, our data reveal that integration of genomic and non-genomic signal pathways finely regulates skeletal muscle physiology. These findings not only contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in TH modulation of muscle physiology but also add insight into the interplay between different mechanisms of action of TH in muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
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Review

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Review
What Are Reactive Oxygen Species, Free Radicals, and Oxidative Stress in Skin Diseases?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10799; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910799 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Oxygen in the atmosphere is a crucial component for life-sustaining aerobic respiration in humans. Approximately 95% of oxygen is consumed as energy and ultimately becomes water; however, the remaining 5% produces metabolites called activated oxygen or reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely [...] Read more.
Oxygen in the atmosphere is a crucial component for life-sustaining aerobic respiration in humans. Approximately 95% of oxygen is consumed as energy and ultimately becomes water; however, the remaining 5% produces metabolites called activated oxygen or reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely reactive. Skin, the largest organ in the human body, is exposed to air pollutants, including diesel exhaust fumes, ultraviolet rays, food, xenobiotics, drugs, and cosmetics, which promote the production of ROS. ROS exacerbate skin aging and inflammation, but also function as regulators of homeostasis in the human body, including epidermal keratinocyte proliferation. Although ROS have been implicated in various skin diseases, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Current knowledge on ROS-related and oxidative stress-related skin diseases from basic research to clinical treatment strategies are discussed herein. This information may be applied to the future treatment of skin diseases through the individual targeting of the ROS generated in each case via their inhibition, capture, or regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
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Review
Renin-Angiotensin System in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Treatment of CVD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136702 - 22 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis has complex pathogenesis, which involves at least three serious aspects: inflammation, lipid metabolism alterations, and endothelial injury. There are no effective treatment options, as well as preventive measures for atherosclerosis. However, this disease has various severe complications, the most severe of which [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis has complex pathogenesis, which involves at least three serious aspects: inflammation, lipid metabolism alterations, and endothelial injury. There are no effective treatment options, as well as preventive measures for atherosclerosis. However, this disease has various severe complications, the most severe of which is cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is important to note, that CVD is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important part of inflammatory response regulation. This system contributes to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injured site and stimulates the production of various cytokines, such as IL-6, TNF-a, and COX-2. There is also an association between RAAS and oxidative stress, which is also an important player in atherogenesis. Angiotensin-II induces plaque formation at early stages, and this is one of the most crucial impacts on atherogenesis from the RAAS. Importantly, while stimulating the production of ROS, Angiotensin-II at the same time decreases the generation of NO. The endothelium is known as a major contributor to vascular function. Oxidative stress is the main trigger of endothelial dysfunction, and, once again, links RAAS to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. All these implications of RAAS in atherogenesis lead to an explicable conclusion that elements of RAAS can be promising targets for atherosclerosis treatment. In this review, we also summarize the data on treatment approaches involving cytokine targeting in CVD, which can contribute to a better understanding of atherogenesis and even its prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
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Review
Thermogenic Fat: Development, Physiological Function, and Therapeutic Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5906; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115906 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The concerning worldwide increase of obesity and chronic metabolic diseases, such as T2D, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease, motivates further investigations into preventive and alternative therapeutic approaches. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence that the formation and activation of thermogenic adipocytes [...] Read more.
The concerning worldwide increase of obesity and chronic metabolic diseases, such as T2D, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease, motivates further investigations into preventive and alternative therapeutic approaches. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence that the formation and activation of thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige) may serve as therapy to treat obesity and its associated diseases owing to its capacity to increase energy expenditure and to modulate circulating lipids and glucose levels. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanism of brown and beige adipocytes formation and activation will facilitate the development of strategies to combat metabolic disorders. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of pathways and players involved in the development of brown and beige fat, as well as the role of thermogenic adipocytes in energy homeostasis and metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss the alterations in brown and beige adipose tissue function during obesity and explore the therapeutic potential of thermogenic activation to treat metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
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