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Special Issue "Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multifunctional nanomaterials consist of smart nanoparticles with two or more engineered properties/characteristics. These multifunctional nanomaterials exhibit remarkable structural and physical properties, which have led to an increase in their industrial applications. In addition, biomolecules can be functionalized on the surface of nanoparticles for their potential applications in the biomedical field.

This Special Issue focuses on the development, characterization, and analysis of advanced multifunctional nanomaterials for various applications, including photocatalysts; anode materials for Li-ion batteries; supercapacitors; solar cells; photovoltaics; data storage; gas sensing; chemical sensors; biosensors; magnetoresistance; hyperthermia cancer treatment; drug delivery; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents; magnetic refrigeration (MR); spintronic devices; ferrofluids; microwave devices; water splitting for hydrogen production; the paint industry; electromagnetic interference shielding or microwave absorbers; etc. 

For this Special Issue, we would like to invite researchers to contribute original research articles as well as review articles on ‘‘Multifunctional Nanomaterials’’ focusing on synthesis, properties, and applications.

Dr. Raghvendra Singh Yadav
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photocatalysis
  • anode materials for Li-ion batteries
  • photovoltaics
  • sensors
  • biomedical applications
  • environmental applications
  • energy storage applications
  • energy harvesting applications
  • biomolecules functionalized on the surface of nanoparticles

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Feasibility of Monitoring Tumor Response by Tracking Nanoparticle-Labelled T Cells Using X-ray Fluorescence Imaging—A Numerical Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8736; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168736 - 14 Aug 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Immunotherapy has been a breakthrough in cancer treatment, yet only a subgroup of patients responds to these novel drugs. Parameters such as cytotoxic T-cell infiltration into the tumor have been proposed for the early evaluation and prediction of therapeutic response, demanded for non-invasive, [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has been a breakthrough in cancer treatment, yet only a subgroup of patients responds to these novel drugs. Parameters such as cytotoxic T-cell infiltration into the tumor have been proposed for the early evaluation and prediction of therapeutic response, demanded for non-invasive, sensitive and longitudinal imaging. We have evaluated the feasibility of X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) to track immune cells and thus monitor the immune response. For that, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations using a mouse voxel model. Spherical targets, enriched with gold or palladium fluorescence agents, were positioned within the model and imaged using a monochromatic photon beam of 53 or 85 keV. Based on our simulation results, XFI may detect as few as 730 to 2400 T cells labelled with 195 pg gold each when imaging subcutaneous tumors in mice, with a spatial resolution of 1 mm. However, the detection threshold is influenced by the depth of the tumor as surrounding tissue increases scattering and absorption, especially when utilizing palladium imaging agents with low-energy characteristic fluorescence photons. Further evaluation and conduction of in vivo animal experiments will be required to validate and advance these promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Zn Promoted Mg-Al Mixed Oxides-Supported Gold Nanoclusters for Direct Oxidative Esterification of Aldehyde to Ester
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168668 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The synthesis of ester compounds is one of the most important chemical processes. In this work, Zn-Mg-Al mixed oxides with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios were prepared via co-precipitation method and supported gold nanoclusters to study the direct oxidative esterification of [...] Read more.
The synthesis of ester compounds is one of the most important chemical processes. In this work, Zn-Mg-Al mixed oxides with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios were prepared via co-precipitation method and supported gold nanoclusters to study the direct oxidative esterification of aldehyde and alcohol in the presence of molecular oxygen. Various characterization techniques such as N2-physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and CO2 temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were utilized to analyze the structural and electronic properties. Based on the results, the presence of small amounts of Zn2+ ions (~5 wt.%) provoked a remarkable modification of the binary Mg-Al system, which enhanced the interaction between gold with the support and reduced the particle size of gold. For oxidative esterification reaction, the Au25/Zn0.05MgAl-400 catalyst showed the best performance, with the highest turnover frequency (TOF) of 1933 h−1. The active center was believed to be located at the interface between metallic gold with the support, where basic sites contribute a lot to transformation of the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Preparation and Size Control of Efficient and Safe Nanopesticides by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates-Assisted Method
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158348 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Efficient and safe nanopesticides play an important role in pest control due to enhancing target efficiency and reducing undesirable side effects, which has become a hot spot in pesticide formulation research. However, the preparation methods of nanopesticides are facing critical challenges including low [...] Read more.
Efficient and safe nanopesticides play an important role in pest control due to enhancing target efficiency and reducing undesirable side effects, which has become a hot spot in pesticide formulation research. However, the preparation methods of nanopesticides are facing critical challenges including low productivity, uneven particle size and batch differences. Here, we successfully developed a novel, versatile and tunable strategy for preparing buprofezin nanoparticles with tunable size via anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted method, which exhibited better reproducibility and homogeneity comparing with the traditional method. The storage stability of nanoparticles at different temperatures was evaluated, and the release properties were also determined to evaluate the performance of nanoparticles. Moreover, the present method is further demonstrated to be easily applicable for insoluble drugs and be extended for the study of the physicochemical properties of drug particles with different sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Modified ZnO Quantum Dots and Their In Vitro Photodynamic Tumor Suppressive Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158106 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Despite the numerous available treatments for cancer, many patients succumb to side effects and reoccurrence. Zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) are inexpensive inorganic nanomaterials with potential applications in photodynamic therapy. To verify the photoluminescence of ZnO QDs and determine their inhibitory effect [...] Read more.
Despite the numerous available treatments for cancer, many patients succumb to side effects and reoccurrence. Zinc oxide (ZnO) quantum dots (QDs) are inexpensive inorganic nanomaterials with potential applications in photodynamic therapy. To verify the photoluminescence of ZnO QDs and determine their inhibitory effect on tumors, we synthesized and characterized ZnO QDs modified with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The photoluminescent properties and reactive oxygen species levels of these ZnO/PVP QDs were also measured. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to test their photodynamic therapeutic effects in SW480 cancer cells and female nude mice. Our results indicate that the ZnO QDs had good photoluminescence and exerted an obvious inhibitory effect on SW480 tumor cells. These findings illustrate the potential applications of ZnO QDs in the fields of photoluminescence and photodynamic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Effect of ZnSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4 on the Partial Hydrogenation of Benzene over Nano Ru-Based Catalysts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7756; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147756 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Nano Ru-based catalysts, including monometallic Ru and Ru-Zn nanoparticles, were synthesized via a precipitation method. The prepared catalysts were evaluated on partial hydrogenation of benzene towards cyclohexene generation, during which the effect of reaction modifiers, i.e., ZnSO4, MnSO4, and [...] Read more.
Nano Ru-based catalysts, including monometallic Ru and Ru-Zn nanoparticles, were synthesized via a precipitation method. The prepared catalysts were evaluated on partial hydrogenation of benzene towards cyclohexene generation, during which the effect of reaction modifiers, i.e., ZnSO4, MnSO4, and FeSO4, was investigated. The fresh and the spent catalysts were thoroughly characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS, XRF, and DFT studies. It was found that Zn2+ or Fe2+ could be adsorbed on the surface of a monometallic Ru catalyst, where a stabilized complex could be formed between the cations and the cyclohexene. This led to an enhancement of catalytic selectivity towards cyclohexene. Furthermore, electron transfer was observed from Zn2+ or Fe2+ to Ru, hindering the catalytic activity towards benzene hydrogenation. In comparison, very few Mn2+ cations were adsorbed on the Ru surface, for which no cyclohexene could be detected. On the other hand, for Ru-Zn catalyst, Zn existed as rodlike ZnO. The added ZnSO4 and FeSO4 could react with ZnO to generate (Zn(OH)2)5(ZnSO4)(H2O) and basic Fe sulfate, respectively. This further benefited the adsorption of Zn2+ or Fe2+, leading to the decrease of catalytic activity towards benzene conversion and the increase of selectivity towards cyclohexene synthesis. When 0.57 mol·L−1 of ZnSO4 was applied, the highest cyclohexene yield of 62.6% was achieved. When MnSO4 was used as a reaction modifier, H2SO4 could be generated in the slurry via its hydrolysis, which reacted with ZnO to form ZnSO4. The selectivity towards cyclohexene formation was then improved by the adsorbed Zn2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Enhanced Sensing Ability of Brush-Like Fe2O3-ZnO Nanostructures towards NO2 Gas via Manipulating Material Synergistic Effect
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136884 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Brush-like α-Fe2O3–ZnO heterostructures were synthesized through a sputtering ZnO seed-assisted hydrothermal growth method. The resulting heterostructures consisted of α-Fe2O3 rod templates and ZnO branched crystals with an average diameter of approximately 12 nm and length of [...] Read more.
Brush-like α-Fe2O3–ZnO heterostructures were synthesized through a sputtering ZnO seed-assisted hydrothermal growth method. The resulting heterostructures consisted of α-Fe2O3 rod templates and ZnO branched crystals with an average diameter of approximately 12 nm and length of 25 nm. The gas-sensing results demonstrated that the α-Fe2O3–ZnO heterostructure-based sensor exhibited excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward low-concentration NO2 gas at an optimal temperature of 300 °C. The α-Fe2O3–ZnO sensor, in particular, demonstrated substantially higher sensitivity compared with pristine α-Fe2O3, along with faster response and recovery speeds under similar test conditions. An appropriate material synergic effect accounts for the considerable enhancement in the NO2 gas-sensing performance of the α-Fe2O3–ZnO heterostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Cu and Cu-SWCNT Nanoparticles’ Suspension in Pulsatile Casson Fluid Flow via Darcy–Forchheimer Porous Channel with Compliant Walls: A Prospective Model for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126494 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 510
Abstract
The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and [...] Read more.
The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and thermal radiation is a novelty of the current study. Heat and mass transfer analysis of the pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian Casson HNF via a Darcy–Forchheimer porous channel with compliant walls is presented. Such a problem offers a prospective model to study the blood flow via stenosed arteries. A finite-difference flow solver is used to numerically solve the system obtained using the vorticity stream function formulation on the time-dependent governing equations. The behavior of Cu-based NF and Cu-SWCNT-based HNF on the wall shear stress (WSS), velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are analyzed graphically. The influence of the Casson parameter, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Soret number, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and Peclet number on the flow profiles are analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the flow parameters on the non-dimensional numbers such as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number is also discussed. These quantities escalate as the Reynolds number is enhanced and reduce by escalating the porosity parameter. The Peclet number shows a high impact on the microorganism’s density in a blood NF. The HNF has been shown to have superior thermal properties to the traditional one. These results could help in devising hydraulic treatments for blood flow in highly stenosed arteries, biomechanical system design, and industrial plants in which flow pulsation is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Mg,Si—Co-Substituted Hydroxyapatite/Alginate Composite Beads Loaded with Raloxifene for Potential Use in Bone Tissue Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2933; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062933 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a worldwide chronic disease characterized by increasing bone fragility and fracture likelihood. In the treatment of bone defects, materials based on calcium phosphates (CaPs) are used due to their high resemblance to bone mineral, their non-toxicity, and their affinity to ionic [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a worldwide chronic disease characterized by increasing bone fragility and fracture likelihood. In the treatment of bone defects, materials based on calcium phosphates (CaPs) are used due to their high resemblance to bone mineral, their non-toxicity, and their affinity to ionic modifications and increasing osteogenic properties. Moreover, CaPs, especially hydroxyapatite (HA), can be successfully used as a vehicle for local drug delivery. Therefore, the aim of this work was to fabricate hydroxyapatite-based composite beads for potential use as local carriers for raloxifene. HA powder, modified with magnesium and silicon ions (Mg,Si-HA) (both of which play beneficial roles in bone formation), was used to prepare composite beads. As an organic matrix, sodium alginate with chondroitin sulphate and/or keratin was applied. Cross-linking of beads containing raloxifene hydrochloride (RAL) was carried out with Mg ions in order to additionally increase the concentration of this element on the material surface. The morphology and porosity of three different types of beads obtained in this work were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. The Mg and Si released from the Mg,Si-HA powder and from the beads were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In vitro RAL release profiles were investigated for 12 weeks and studied using UV/Vis spectroscopy. The beads were also subjected to in vitro biological tests on osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell lines. All the obtained beads revealed a spherical shape with a rough, porous surface. The beads based on chondroitin sulphate and keratin (CS/KER-RAL) with the lowest porosity resulted in the highest resistance to crushing. Results revealed that these beads possessed the most sustained drug release and no burst release effect. Based on the results, it was possible to select the optimal bead composition, consisting of a mixture of chondroitin sulphate and keratin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Article
Effective Elimination and Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Seawater through the Formation of Magnetic Microfibres
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010017 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Supramolecular aggregates formed between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and either naphthalene or perylene-derived diimides have been anchored in magnetite magnetic nanoparticles. The high affinity and stability of these aggregates allow them to capture and confine these extremely carcinogenic contaminants in a reduced space. In [...] Read more.
Supramolecular aggregates formed between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and either naphthalene or perylene-derived diimides have been anchored in magnetite magnetic nanoparticles. The high affinity and stability of these aggregates allow them to capture and confine these extremely carcinogenic contaminants in a reduced space. In some cases, the high cohesion of these aggregates leads to the formation of magnetic microfibres of several microns in length, which can be isolated from the solution by the direct action of a magnet. Here we show a practical application of bioremediation aimed at the environmental decontamination of naphthalene, a very profuse contaminant, based on the uptake, sequestration, and acceleration of the biodegradation of the formed supramolecular aggregate, by the direct action of a bacterium of the lineage Roseobacter (biocompatible with nanostructured receptors and very widespread in marine environments) without providing more toxicity to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Review

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Review
The Combination of Liposomes and Metallic Nanoparticles as Multifunctional Nanostructures in the Therapy and Medical Imaging—A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126229 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
Nanotechnology has introduced a new quality and has definitely developed the possibilities of treating and diagnosing various diseases. One of the scientists’ interests is liposomes and metallic nanoparticles (LipoMNPs)—the combination of which has introduced new properties and applications. However, the field of creating [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has introduced a new quality and has definitely developed the possibilities of treating and diagnosing various diseases. One of the scientists’ interests is liposomes and metallic nanoparticles (LipoMNPs)—the combination of which has introduced new properties and applications. However, the field of creating hybrid nanostructures consisting of liposomes and metallic nanoparticles is relatively little understood. The purpose of this review was to compile the latest reports in the field of treatment and medical imaging using of LipoMNPs. The authors focused on presenting this issue in the direction of improving the used conventional treatment and imaging methods. Most of all, the nature of bio-interactions between nanostructures and cells is not sufficiently taken into account. As a result, overcoming the existing limitations in the implementation of such solutions in the clinic is difficult. We concluded that hybrid nanostructures are used in a very wide range, especially in the treatment of cancer and magnetic resonance imaging. There were also solutions that combine treatments with simultaneous imaging, creating a theragnostic approach. In the future, researchers should focus on the description of the biological interactions and the long-term effects of the nanostructures to use LipoMNPs in the treatment of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Review
Prussian Blue: A Nanozyme with Versatile Catalytic Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5993; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115993 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Nanozymes, nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities, are becoming powerful competitors and potential substitutes for natural enzymes because of their excellent performance. Nanozymes offer better structural stability over their respective natural enzymes. In consequence, nanozymes exhibit promising applications in different fields such as the biomedical [...] Read more.
Nanozymes, nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities, are becoming powerful competitors and potential substitutes for natural enzymes because of their excellent performance. Nanozymes offer better structural stability over their respective natural enzymes. In consequence, nanozymes exhibit promising applications in different fields such as the biomedical sector (in vivo diagnostics/and therapeutics) and the environmental sector (detection and remediation of inorganic and organic pollutants). Prussian blue nanoparticles and their analogues are metal–organic frameworks (MOF) composed of alternating ferric and ferrous irons coordinated with cyanides. Such nanoparticles benefit from excellent biocompatibility and biosafety. Besides other important properties, such as a highly porous structure, Prussian blue nanoparticles show catalytic activities due to the iron atom that acts as metal sites for the catalysis. The different states of oxidation are responsible for the multicatalytic activities of such nanoparticles, namely peroxidase-like, catalase-like, and superoxide dismutase-like activities. Depending on the catalytic performance, these nanoparticles can generate or scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Review
Green Synthesis of Selenium and Tellurium Nanoparticles: Current Trends, Biological Properties and Biomedical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 989; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22030989 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
The synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles using green technology has been an excellent option in nanotechnology because they are easy to implement, cost-efficient, eco-friendly, risk-free, and amenable to scaling up. They also do not require sophisticated equipment nor well-trained professionals. Bionanotechnology involves various [...] Read more.
The synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles using green technology has been an excellent option in nanotechnology because they are easy to implement, cost-efficient, eco-friendly, risk-free, and amenable to scaling up. They also do not require sophisticated equipment nor well-trained professionals. Bionanotechnology involves various biological systems as suitable nanofactories, including biomolecules, bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and plants. Biologically inspired nanomaterial fabrication approaches have shown great potential to interconnect microbial or plant extract biotechnology and nanotechnology. The present article extensively reviews the eco-friendly production of metalloid nanoparticles, namely made of selenium (SeNPs) and tellurium (TeNPs), using various microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, and plants’ extracts. It also discusses the methodologies followed by materials scientists and highlights the impact of the experimental sets on the outcomes and shed light on the underlying mechanisms. Moreover, it features the unique properties displayed by these biogenic nanoparticles for a large range of emerging applications in medicine, agriculture, bioengineering, and bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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