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Special Issue "Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).
Related Special Issue: Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials, Volume II in Materials

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: dental materials; dental surgery; restorative dentistry and endodontics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the last years, dental biomaterials have been improved following specific clinical needs. Typically, biomaterials have been used as scaffolds in reconstructive oral surgery, or as filling materials in order to repair/restore damaged tooth tissues. The latest trends in the scientific community are mainly focused on the development of bioactive dental materials, with a specific requirement to be active players in the regenerative process. Nowadays, the most frequently used dental materials include resin composite, polymers, glass ionomers, ceramics, titanium, zirconia and silicate cement. Biomaterials for tissue engineering are also frequently used for the regeneration of hard and soft oral tissue: the continuous development of additive technologies makes such biomaterials able to interact with different interfaces on the same surface. Moreover, the recent progress in software-based manufacturing, the use of biomimetic coatings and the most recent nanotechnologies are significantly improving the biological and clinical performance of future dental materials.

Comprehensive knowledge of the biological, chemical, physical and mechanical proprieties of dental materials requires a multidisciplinary approach; therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to stimulate worldwide researchers to share their most interesting and promising works. We strive to publish innovative results on several aspects of the biomaterials used in various dental applications. For this purpose, original research articles, review articles, and significant preliminary communications are invited, with particular interest in articles describing current research trends and future perspectives in the dental sciences.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • resin-based dental materials
  • dental alloys
  • dental composite
  • nanomaterials
  • metamaterials
  • tissue engineering devices and scaffolds
  • orthodontic alloys
  • dental adhesion
  • biocompatibility and toxicity of dental materials
  • endodontic cements and materials
  • dental irrigants
  • luting cements
  • impression materials
  • zirconia
  • bioceramics
  • silicate cements
  • dental polymers
  • dental implants
  • dentin bondings

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • resin composite
  • endodontic cement
  • titanium implant
  • prosthetic dentistry
  • orthodontic materials
  • regenerative dentistry

Published Papers (50 papers)

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Research

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Article
Resistance to Fracture of Lithium Disilicate Feldspathic Restorations Manufactured Using a CAD/CAM System and Crystallized with Different Thermal Units and Programs
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14123215 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 738
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the resistance to fracture of feldspathic restorations with lithium disilicate and crystallized with different ovens and programs. Methods: Sixty monolithic restorations (LD) (EMAX CAD™ LT, Ivoclar-Vivadent™) were designed with the same parameters and milled with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the resistance to fracture of feldspathic restorations with lithium disilicate and crystallized with different ovens and programs. Methods: Sixty monolithic restorations (LD) (EMAX CAD™ LT, Ivoclar-Vivadent™) were designed with the same parameters and milled with a CAD/CAM system (CEREC SW 5.1, CEREC MCXL, Dentsply-Sirona™, Bensheim). Each restoration was randomly assigned by randomization software (RANDNUM) to one of the three groups: (a) (NF) Oven P310 (Ivoclar, Vivadent) normal crystallization program, (b) (FF) Ivoclar P310 oven (Ivoclar-Vivadent™) rapid crystallization program, or (c) (SF) SpeedFire oven (Dentsply-Sirona™). Results: There were statistically significant differences between the groups (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The NF and FF groups showed the highest values of resistance to fracture, with statistically significant differences with the SF group. Conclusions: Using a furnace from the same dental company with predetermined programs from the material manufacturer, as well as using a predetermined program for rapid crystallization, has no effect on fracture resistance, and would save clinical time when performing ceramic restorations with lithium disilicate, while keeping their mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Flowability, Tear Strength, and Hydrophilicity of Current Elastomers for Dental Impressions
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2994; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14112994 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study investigates 2 polyethers (PE), 2 polyvinylsiloxanethers (VXSE), and 10 polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS), seven of which had a corresponding light-body consistency and seven of which had a corresponding heavy-body consistency. Each light-body elastomer underwent a flowability test using the shark fin method 20, [...] Read more.
This study investigates 2 polyethers (PE), 2 polyvinylsiloxanethers (VXSE), and 10 polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS), seven of which had a corresponding light-body consistency and seven of which had a corresponding heavy-body consistency. Each light-body elastomer underwent a flowability test using the shark fin method 20, 50, and 80 s after mixing. The tear strength test DIN 53504 was used after setting the time (T0). Next, 24 h later (T1), hydrophilicity testing was used with static contact angles in water drops during polymerization (20, 50, and 80 s, as well as after 10 min). The heavy-body elastomers underwent shark fin testing with a corresponding light-body material at 50 and 80 s after mixing. The results of light-body testing were combined in a score to describe their performance. The highest differences were detected within flowability in shark fin heights between PE and a PVS (means of 15.89 and 6.85 mm) within the maximum tear strengths at T0 between a PVS and PE (3.72 and 0.75 MPa), as well as within hydrophilicity during setting between VXSE and a PVS (15.09° and 75.5°). The results indicate that VSXE and novel PVS materials can significantly compensate shortcomings in PE towards tear strength and hydrophilicity, but not flowability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Fibrin Biopolymer Incorporated with Antimicrobial Agents: A Proposal for Coating Denture Bases
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1618; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14071618 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
The characteristics of the denture base surface, in combination with the oral environment, promote the colonization and development of Candida albicans biofilm, which is the main cause of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the effectiveness of fibrin biopolymer with digluconate chlorhexidine or Punica [...] Read more.
The characteristics of the denture base surface, in combination with the oral environment, promote the colonization and development of Candida albicans biofilm, which is the main cause of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the effectiveness of fibrin biopolymer with digluconate chlorhexidine or Punica granatum alcoholic extract to prevent C. albicans biofilm. Conventional heat polymerized and pre-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) circular specimens (10 × 2 mm) were fabricated (n = 504) and randomly divided into groups: no treatment (control—CT), fibrin biopolymer coating (FB), fibrin biopolymer with P. granatum (FBPg), or digluconate of chlorhexidine (FBCh) coating. The specimens were inoculated with C. albicans SC5314 (1 × 107 cells/mL) and incubated for 24, 48, and 72 h. Crystal violet and colony-forming unit assays were used to quantify the total biofilm biomass and biofilm-living cells. A qualitative analysis was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data obtained are expressed as means and standard deviations and were statistically analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The FBPg and FBCh groups inhibited the growth of C. albicans biofilm in both PMMA materials analyzed, with FBCh performing better in all periods evaluated (p < 0.0001). The colony forming unit (CFU) assay showed that the FB group favored the C. albicans biofilm growth at 24 h and 48 h (p < 0.0001), with no differences with CT group at 72 h (p = 0.790). All groups showed an enhancement in biofilm development up to 72 h (p < 0.0001), except the FBCh group (p = 0.100). No statistical differences were found between the PMMA base materials (p > 0.050), except in the FB group (p < 0.0001). Fibrin biopolymer, albeit a scaffold for the growth of C. albicans, when combined with chlorhexidine digluconate or P. granatum, demonstrated excellent performance as a drug delivery system, preventing and controlling the formation of denture biofilm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Micromorphology of the Adhesive Interface of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements to Enamel and Dentin
Materials 2021, 14(3), 492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14030492 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
Interfaces between dentin, enamel and luting agents were characterized using low vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After smear layer creation, one of three luting agents (RelyX Unicem 2, Clearfil SA Cement and Panavia F 2.0/ED Primer II) was applied on 60 enamel-dentin specimens [...] Read more.
Interfaces between dentin, enamel and luting agents were characterized using low vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After smear layer creation, one of three luting agents (RelyX Unicem 2, Clearfil SA Cement and Panavia F 2.0/ED Primer II) was applied on 60 enamel-dentin specimens and dual-cured or self-cured. Specimens were polished (Experiment 1) and subsequently demineralized and deproteinized (Experiment 2). Adhesive interfaces were analyzed (low vacuum SEM, ×3000). Presence of an interdiffusion zone, tag-like structures (dentin) and marginal gaps (enamel) were assessed. Non-parametrical tests (χ2-test, α = 0.05) were performed. The first null-hypothesis was that the adhesive interface micromorphology between enamel and dentin and self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) is similar with conventional resin cement used with a self-etch adhesive (CRC+SE). The second null-hypothesis was that the micromorphology is not influenced by curing modes. Interdiffusion zones and tag-like structures (dentin) were observed more frequently for CRC+SE compared to SARCs. For each luting agent, there was a non-significant (p > 0.05) tendency for interdiffusion zone and tag-like structures detectable in more specimens after self-curing compared to dual-curing. Marginal gaps (enamel) were found only for SARCs. The first null-hypothesis was not rejected fully: Tag-like structures and interdiffusion zones in dentin were found for CRC+SE and SARCs. The second null-hypothesis was not rejected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Cuspal Deflection and Temperature Rise of MOD Cavities Restored through the Bulk-Fill and Incremental Layering Techniques Using Flowable and Packable Bulk-Fill Composites
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13245664 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate cuspal deflection caused by material shrinkage and temperature rise occurring in the pulp chamber during photopolymerization. The aim of this study was also to investigate the effect of flowable and packable bulk-fill composites [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate cuspal deflection caused by material shrinkage and temperature rise occurring in the pulp chamber during photopolymerization. The aim of this study was also to investigate the effect of flowable and packable bulk-fill composites on cuspal deflection occurring in mesio-occlusal–distal (MOD) cavities restored through the bulk-fill or through the incremental layering technique. Additionally, mechanical and thermal properties of bulk-fill composites were considered. Methods: Two bulk-fill composites (high-viscosity and low-viscosity), largely differing in material composition, were used. These composites were characterized through linear shrinkage and compressive test. Cuspal deformation during restoration of mesio-occlusal–distal cavities of human premolars was evaluated using both the bulk-fill and the incremental layering techniques. Temperature rise was measured through thermocouples placed 1 mm below the cavity floor. Results: Shrinkage of the flowable composite was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of packable composite, while mechanical properties were significantly lower (p < 0.05). For cusp distance variation, no significant difference was observed in cavities restored through both restorative techniques, while temperature rise values spanned from 8.2 °C to 11.9 °C. Conclusions: No significant difference in cusp deflection between the two composites was observed according to both the restorative techniques. This result can be ascribed to the Young’s modulus suggesting that the packable composite is stiffer, while the flowable composite is more compliant, thus balancing the cusp distance variation. The light curing modality of 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 s can be considered thermally safe for the pulp chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Finishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Gloss of Full-Body Bulk-Fill Resin Composites
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13245657 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Background: In this study, we assess the effect produced on roughness and gloss of full-body bulk-fill materials by different finishing and polishing systems. Methods: Four full-body bulk-fill materials were tested: SonicFill2 (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative (FB), Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill (EC), and [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, we assess the effect produced on roughness and gloss of full-body bulk-fill materials by different finishing and polishing systems. Methods: Four full-body bulk-fill materials were tested: SonicFill2 (SF), Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative (FB), Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill (EC), and Fill-Up! (FU). Sixty discs per material (2 mm in thickness and 7 mm in diameter) were obtained and randomly assigned (n = 15) to four finishing and polishing methods: Sof-Lex Spiral Wheels (SW), HiLusterPLUS (HL), Astropol (AP), and Opti1Step (OS). Surface roughness and gloss were then measured. Results: For roughness, material and surface treatment were significant factors (p < 0.001) with SF = FB = EC < FU and AP < SW < HL = OS. Material and surface treatment had a significant effect also on gloss (p < 0.001), with SF > FB = EC > FU and SW > AP > HL > OS. Conclusions: The tested combinations of bulk-fill and polishing systems provided clinically acceptable results with regard to roughness, while the outcome was poor for gloss. Multistep finishing/polishing systems were able to produce smoother surfaces on full-body bulk-fill materials compared to simplified ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Diffusion of MTA Cement into the Root Canal Dentin
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13235472 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
(1) Aim: This study aims to analyze the in vitro infiltration of a silicate root canal sealer into dentinal tubules after using different endodontic irrigating solutions. (2) Methods: Twenty-nine teeth with single roots were separated into three groups according to the final irrigation [...] Read more.
(1) Aim: This study aims to analyze the in vitro infiltration of a silicate root canal sealer into dentinal tubules after using different endodontic irrigating solutions. (2) Methods: Twenty-nine teeth with single roots were separated into three groups according to the final irrigation protocol: G1 n = 10) = 17% EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) + 3.0% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2 (n = 10) = 17% EDTA + 2.0% chlorhexidine and G3 (Control group, n = 9) = 17% EDTA + saline solution. Root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction technique with MTA Fillapex sealer and gutta-percha. The sealer was labeled with rhodamine B. The teeth were segmented at the middle and third apical sections, which were visualized using 10× confocal laser microscopy to determine the sealer penetration percentage. (3) Results: In the apical section, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding sealer penetration. In the middle section, Group 1 obtained the highest percentage, and Group 2 the lowest (p = 0.004). Group 1 also presented statistically significant differences in the Control Group (p = 0.031) and had close sealer penetration values. Meanwhile, the Control Group (p = 0.023) and Group 2 (p = 0.029) revealed a significant decrease of sealer penetration between the apical and middle sections. (4) Conclusion: The obtained results support that final irrigation with NaOCl promoted similar sealer penetration in the apical and middle sections. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the sealer penetration of the middle section was observed for the chlorhexidine and saline groups. Compared to other irrigant solutions, NaOCl promotes more uniform sealer penetration, which can correlate with better sealing and, consequently, higher endodontic treatment success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Designing and Fabricating Nano-Structured and Micro-Structured Radiation Shields for Protection against CBCT Exposure
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13194371 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Researchers have always been interested in finding new and effective materials for protection against radiation. This experimental study aimed to design and fabricate new types of nano-material and micro-material based shields against the ionizing effect of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) X-rays. To [...] Read more.
Researchers have always been interested in finding new and effective materials for protection against radiation. This experimental study aimed to design and fabricate new types of nano-material and micro-material based shields against the ionizing effect of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) X-rays. To fabricate a flexible prototype, we added dioctyl phthalate (DOP) oil to emulsion polyvinyl chloride (PVC) powder. The paste was mixed and dispersed. Then, nano- and micro-powders of WO3 and Bi2O3 were added to the paste, with the weight ratio of 20% PVC, 20% DOP, and 60% nano- and micro-metals. Using an ultrasonic mixer, the polymer matrix and metals were mixed and a paste with a thick texture was developed. The resultant paste was poured into glass molds and the molds were then heated in an oven. After cooling, the resultant sheets were selected for further experiments. A CBCT unit and dosimeter were used to evaluate the characterization and X-ray shielding properties of the fabricated prototypes. The half-value layers (HVL) for nano-WO3, micro-WO3, nano-Bi2O3, and micro-Bi2O3 were 0.0390, 0.0524, 0.0351, and 0.0374 cm, respectively. In addition, the linear attenuation coefficient (µ) for these materials were 17.77, 13.20, 19.71, and 18.5 cm−1, respectively. The findings indicate that nano-structured samples are more effective in the attenuation of X-ray energy. The nano-structured WO3 prototype was nearly 34% more efficient in attenuating radiation compared to the micro-structured WO3 prototype. This difference in nano- and micro-structured Bi2O3 prototypes was 6.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Comparison of Dental Stone Models and Their 3D Printed Acrylic Replicas for the Accuracy and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13184066 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
This study was conducted to test possibilities of application of 3D printed dental models (DMs) in terms of their accuracy and physical properties. In this work, stone models of mandibles were cast from alginate impressions of 10 patients and scanned in order to [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to test possibilities of application of 3D printed dental models (DMs) in terms of their accuracy and physical properties. In this work, stone models of mandibles were cast from alginate impressions of 10 patients and scanned in order to obtain 3D printed acrylic replicas. The diagnostic value was tested as matching of model scans on three levels: peak of cusps, occlusal surface, and all teeth surfaces. The mechanical properties of acrylic and stone samples, specifically the impact strength, shore D hardness, and flexural and compressive strength were investigated according to ISO standards. The matching of models’ surfaces was the highest on the level of peaks of cusps (average lack of deviations, 0.21 mm) and the lowest on the level of all teeth surfaces (average lack of deviations, 0.64 mm). Acrylic samples subjected to mechanical testing, as expected, showed higher mechanical properties as compared to the specimens made of dental stone. In the present study we demonstrated that 3D printed acrylic models could be ideal representatives in the case of use as a diagnostic tool and as a part of medical records. The acrylic samples exhibited not only higher mechanical properties, but also showed better accuracy comparing to dental stone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Magnet Position on Tipping and Bodily Tooth Movement in Magnetic Force-Driven Orthodontics
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13163588 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
The goal of our study is to launch magnetic force-driven orthodontics. This continuous study investigated the influence of magnet position on tipping and bodily tooth movement, using 3D printing technology and digital analysis. Orthodontic typodont models (TMs) for space-closure were 3D printed to [...] Read more.
The goal of our study is to launch magnetic force-driven orthodontics. This continuous study investigated the influence of magnet position on tipping and bodily tooth movement, using 3D printing technology and digital analysis. Orthodontic typodont models (TMs) for space-closure were 3D printed to mimic maxillary central incisors. Nd-Fe-B magnets were placed in the middle third (Model-M), and the cervical third (Model-C), of the tooth. TMs, before and after movement, were digitally scanned and superimposed. The 3D digital coordinates (X, Y, and Z axes), and rotations (yaw, pitch, and roll) of the tooth crown and root, were calculated and compared between the two magnet position settings. Model-M showed higher rates of movement, but more rotation than Model-C (p < 0.01). The root apex of Model-M moved in the opposite direction of the crown (R = −0.29), indicating tipping movement. In contrast, the crown and root apex moved in the same direction (R = 0.56) in Model-C, indicating bodily movement. These patterns were confirmed in a typodont model of a moderate crowding case. The results validated that modifying the magnet position increased the amount of bodily tooth movement, and decreased rotation/tipping in an ex vivo setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Bioenergetic Impairment of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate- (TEGDMA-) Treated Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Isolated Brain Mitochondria are Amended by Redox Compound Methylene Blue
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3472; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13163472 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Background: Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers released from resin matrix are toxic to dental pulp cells, induce apoptosis, oxidative stress and decrease viability. Recently, mitochondrial complex I (CI) was identified as a potential target of TEGDMA. In isolated mitochondria supported by CI, substrates [...] Read more.
Background: Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers released from resin matrix are toxic to dental pulp cells, induce apoptosis, oxidative stress and decrease viability. Recently, mitochondrial complex I (CI) was identified as a potential target of TEGDMA. In isolated mitochondria supported by CI, substrates oxidation and ATP synthesis were inhibited, reactive oxygen species production was stimulated. Contrary to that, respiratory Complex II was not impaired by TEGDMA. The beneficial effects of electron carrier compound methylene blue (MB) are proven in many disease models where mitochondrial involvement has been detected. In the present study, the bioenergetic effects of MB on TEGDMA-treated isolated mitochondria and on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were analyzed. Methods: Isolated mitochondria and DPSC were acutely exposed to low millimolar concentrations of TEGDMA and 2 μM concentration of MB. Mitochondrial and cellular respiration and glycolytic flux were measured by high resolution respirometry and by Seahorse XF extracellular analyzer. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured fluorimetrically. Results: MB partially restored the mitochondrial oxidation, rescued membrane potential in isolated mitochondria and significantly increased the impaired cellular O2 consumption in the presence of TEGDMA. Conclusion: MB is able to protect against TEGDMA-induced CI damage, and might provide protective effects in resin monomer exposed cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Comparative Surface Morphology, Chemical Composition, and Cytocompatibility of Bio-C Repair, Biodentine, and ProRoot MTA on hDPCs
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2189; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13092189 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Biocompatibility is an essential property for any vital pulp material that may interact with the dental pulp tissues. Accordingly, this study aimed to compare the chemical composition and ultrastructural morphology of Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson [...] Read more.
Biocompatibility is an essential property for any vital pulp material that may interact with the dental pulp tissues. Accordingly, this study aimed to compare the chemical composition and ultrastructural morphology of Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN, USA), and Bio-C Repair (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), as well as their biological effects on human dental pulp cells. Chemical element characterization of the materials was undertaken using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The cytotoxicity was assessed by analyzing the cell viability (MTT assay), cell morphology (immunofluorescence assay), and cell attachment (flow cytometry assay). The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). EDX revealed that ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were mostly composed of calcium, carbon, and oxygen (among others), whereas Bio-C Repair evidenced a low concentration of calcium and the highest concentration of zirconium. SEM showed adequate attachment of human dental pulp cells (hDPCS) to vital pulp materials and cytoskeletal alterations were not observed in the presence of material eluates. Remarkably, the undiluted Biodentine group showed higher viability than the control group cells (without eluates) at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h (p < 0.001). Based on the evidence derived from an in vitro cellular study, it was concluded that Bio-C Repair showed excellent cytocompatibility that was similar to Biodentine and ProRoot MTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Synthetic Hydroxyapatite Inhibits Bisphosphonate Toxicity to the Oral Mucosa In Vitro
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2086; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13092086 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, characterised by exposed necrotic bone. The soft tissues of the oral mucosa no longer provide a protective barrier and MRONJ patients experience pain, infections and difficulties eating. We hypothesised that [...] Read more.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, characterised by exposed necrotic bone. The soft tissues of the oral mucosa no longer provide a protective barrier and MRONJ patients experience pain, infections and difficulties eating. We hypothesised that hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) could reduce bisphosphonate concentrations and protect the oral mucosa by exploiting bisphosphonate’s calcium binding affinity. The effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) and pamidronic acid (PA) on the metabolism of oral fibroblasts, oral keratinocytes and three-dimensional oral mucosa models was investigated and then repeated in the presence of hydroxyapatite granules. Without hydroxyapatite, ZA and PA significantly reduced the metabolic activity of oral cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both drugs reduced epithelial thickness and 30 µM ZA resulted in loss of the epithelium. Hydroxyapatite granules had a protective effect on oral cells, with metabolic activity retained. Oral mucosa models retained their multi-layered epithelium when treated with ZA in the presence of hydroxyapatite granules and metabolic activity was comparable to controls. These results demonstrate hydroxyapatite granules protected oral soft tissues from damage caused by bisphosphonate exposure. Porous hydroxyapatite granules are currently used for socket preservation and this data suggests their potential to prevent MRONJ in at-risk patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
3-D Printed Protective Equipment during COVID-19 Pandemic
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1997; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081997 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3925
Abstract
While the number of coronavirus cases from 2019 continues to grow, hospitals are reporting shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) for frontline healthcare workers. Furthermore, PPE for the eyes and mouth, such as face shields, allow for additional protection when working with aerosols. [...] Read more.
While the number of coronavirus cases from 2019 continues to grow, hospitals are reporting shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) for frontline healthcare workers. Furthermore, PPE for the eyes and mouth, such as face shields, allow for additional protection when working with aerosols. 3-D printing enables the easy and rapid production of lightweight plastic frameworks based on open-source data. The practicality and clinical suitability of four face shields printed using a fused deposition modeling printer were examined. The weight, printing time, and required tools for assembly were evaluated. To assess the clinical suitability, each face shield was worn for one hour by 10 clinicians and rated using a visual analogue scale. The filament weight (21–42 g) and printing time (1:40–3:17 h) differed significantly between the four frames. Likewise, the fit, wearing comfort, space for additional PPE, and protection varied between the designs. For clinical suitability, a chosen design should allow sufficient space for goggles and N95 respirators as well as maximum coverage of the facial area. Consequently, two datasets are recommended. For the final selection of the ideal dataset to be used for printing, scalability and economic efficiency need to be carefully balanced with an acceptable degree of protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Digitization of One-Piece Oral Implants: A Feasibility Study
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1990; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081990 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
For digital impression-making of two-piece oral implants, scan bodies are used to transfer the exact intraoral implant position to the dental laboratory. In this in vitro investigation, the accuracy of digitizing a one-piece ceramic oral implant without a scan body (OC) was compared [...] Read more.
For digital impression-making of two-piece oral implants, scan bodies are used to transfer the exact intraoral implant position to the dental laboratory. In this in vitro investigation, the accuracy of digitizing a one-piece ceramic oral implant without a scan body (OC) was compared to that of a standard two-piece titanium implant with a scan body (TT) and a preparation of a natural single tooth (ST). Furthermore, incomplete scans of OC simulating clinical compromising situations (OC1–4) were redesigned using a virtual reconstruction tool (RT) and superimposed to OC. OC and TT oral implants and one ST were inserted into a mandible typodont model and digitized (N = 13) using two different intraoral scanners. The resulting virtual datasets were superimposed onto a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner-based reference. Test and reference groups were aligned using an inspection software according to a best-fit algorithm, and circumferential as well as marginal discrepancies were measured. For the statistical evaluation, multivariate analyses of variance with post-hoc Tukey tests and students t-tests to compare both scanners were performed. A total of 182 datasets were analyzed. For circumferential deviations, no significant differences were found between ST, TT, and OC (p > 0.964), but increased deviations for OC1–4 (p < 0.001) were observed. The measurements of the marginal deviations revealed that ST had the smallest deviations, and that there were no significant differences between TT, OC, and OC1–4 (p > 0.979). Except for marginal deviation of OC (p < 0.001), the outcome was not affected by the scanner. Within the limitations of this study, digitization of OC is as accurate as that of TT, but less than that of ST. In the case of known geometries, post-processing of compromised scans with a virtual reconstruction results in accurate data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of A Rapid-Cooling Protocol on the Optical and Mechanical Properties of Dental Monolithic Zirconia Containing 3–5 mol% Y2O3
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1923; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081923 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Many attempts have been made to improve the translucency of zirconia in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rapid-cooling heat treatment on the optical and mechanical properties of dental monolithic zirconia. Zirconia containing 3, 4, and [...] Read more.
Many attempts have been made to improve the translucency of zirconia in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a rapid-cooling heat treatment on the optical and mechanical properties of dental monolithic zirconia. Zirconia containing 3, 4, and 5 mol% Y2O3 were sintered, sectioned, and polished. The specimens were rapidly cooled from high temperature inducing a diffusionless cubic-to-metastable tetragonal (t’) phase transformation. The changes in L*a*b* color coordinates, translucency parameter (TP), and total transmittance (T%) were measured. Three-point bending strength, Vickers hardness, and indentation fracture toughness tests were performed. Quantitative phase analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained. With increasing Y2O3 contents, TP and T% values increased while strength and toughness decreased. The Rietveld analysis showed that the amount of t’-phase increased after rapid-cooling and annealed 5Y-partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) contained the highest amount of t’-phase (64.4 wt%). Rapid-cooling improved translucency but the translucency of annealed 5Y-PSZ did not approach that of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Rapid-cooling decreased flexural strength significantly, being 306.1 ± 61.8 MPa for annealed 5Y-PSZ. SEM revealed that grains tended to get larger after rapid-cooling. A rapid-cooling treatment can produce t’-phase which can contribute to an increase in translucency but has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of zirconia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Morpho-Chemical Observations of Human Deciduous Teeth Enamel in Response to Biomimetic Toothpastes Treatment
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1803; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081803 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Today, biomaterial research on biomimetic mineralization strategies represents a new challenge in the prevention and cure of enamel mineral loss on delicate deciduous teeth. Distinctive assumptions about the origin, the growth, and the functionalization on the biomimetic materials have been recently proposed by [...] Read more.
Today, biomaterial research on biomimetic mineralization strategies represents a new challenge in the prevention and cure of enamel mineral loss on delicate deciduous teeth. Distinctive assumptions about the origin, the growth, and the functionalization on the biomimetic materials have been recently proposed by scientific research studies in evaluating the different clinical aspects of treating the deciduous tooth. Therefore, appropriate morpho-chemical observations on delivering specific biomaterials to enamel teeth is the most important factor for controlling biomineralization processes. Detailed morpho-chemical investigations of the treated enamel layer using three commercial toothpastes (Biorepair, F1400, and F500) were performed through variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on deciduous teeth in their native state. A new microscopy methodology allowed us to determine the behaviors of silicate, phosphate, and calcium contents from the early stage, as commercially available toothpastes, to the final stage of delivered diffusion, occurring within the enamel layer together with their penetration depth properties. The reported results represent a valuable background towards full comprehension of the role of organic–inorganic biomaterials for developing a controlled biomimetic toothpaste in biofluid media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Cytotoxic Effects of Zoom® Whitening Product in Human Fibroblasts
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13071491 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Tooth whitening procedures are increasing; however, side effects can occur, such as damage to pulp cells, by the whitening products. This study aims to assess the cellular effects promoted by a whitening product, namely, the oxidative stress fostered by the active agent hydrogen [...] Read more.
Tooth whitening procedures are increasing; however, side effects can occur, such as damage to pulp cells, by the whitening products. This study aims to assess the cellular effects promoted by a whitening product, namely, the oxidative stress fostered by the active agent hydrogen peroxide, with and without photoactivation. Additionally, if cellular recovery occurred, we intended to determine the time point where cells recover from the tooth whitening induced damage. Human fibroblasts were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, Zoom®, Zoom® + irradiation, and irradiation alone. The following analysis was performed: metabolic activity evaluation by the MTT assay; cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, peroxides production, superoxide radical production, and reduced glutathione expression by flow cytometry. We determined the IC50 value for all groups, and a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect was verified. At the times analyzed, hydrogen peroxide groups showed no metabolic activity recovery while a cell recovery was observed after 24 h (Zoom®) and 48 h (Zoom® + irradiation). Cell death was seen in hydrogen peroxide and Zoom® + irradiation groups, mainly by apoptosis, and the irradiation had a cytotoxic effect per se. This in vitro study supports that whitening products with moderate hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentration have a temporary effect on cells, allowing a cellular recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
VEGF/VEGF-R/RUNX2 Upregulation in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Seeded on Dual Acid Etched Titanium Disk
Materials 2020, 13(3), 706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13030706 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
In restorative dentistry, the main implants characteristic is the ability to promote the osseointegration process as the result of interaction between angiogenesis and osteogenesis events. On the other hand, implants cytocompatibility remains a necessary feature for the success of surgery. The purpose of [...] Read more.
In restorative dentistry, the main implants characteristic is the ability to promote the osseointegration process as the result of interaction between angiogenesis and osteogenesis events. On the other hand, implants cytocompatibility remains a necessary feature for the success of surgery. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interaction between human periodontal stem cells and two different types of titanium surfaces, to verify their cytocompatibility and cell adhesion ability, and to detect osteogenic and angiogenic markers, trough cell viability assay (MTT), Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gene expression (RT-PCR). The titanium surfaces, machined (CTRL) and dual acid etched (TEST), tested in culture with human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), were previously treated in two different ways, in order to evaluate the effects of CTRL and TEST and define the best implant surface. Furthermore, the average surface roughness (Ra) of both titanium surfaces, CTRL and TEST, has been assessed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expressions have been analyzed by RT-PCR, WB analysis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Data evidenced that the different morphology and topography of the TEST disk increased cell growth, cell adhesion, improved osteogenic and angiogenic events, as well osseointegration process. For this reason, the TEST surface was more biocompatible than the CTRL disk surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Self-Etch Silane Primer: Reactivity and Bonding with a Lithium Disilicate Ceramic
Materials 2020, 13(3), 641; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13030641 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the stability, reactivity, and bond strength with a lithium disilicate ceramic of a self-etch silane primer (Monobond Etch and Prime/MEP). The stability was evaluated by 1H-,31P-NMR spectroscopy (before/after aging), and the reactivity [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the stability, reactivity, and bond strength with a lithium disilicate ceramic of a self-etch silane primer (Monobond Etch and Prime/MEP). The stability was evaluated by 1H-,31P-NMR spectroscopy (before/after aging), and the reactivity by micro MIR-FTIR spectroscopy on Ge surfaces (0, 1, 24 h) using a prehydrolyzed silane primer (Calibra Silane Coupling Agent/CLB), as a control. The effect of MEP vs. 5% HF-etching on ceramic roughness was assessed by optical profilometry. The shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin composite bonded to polished ceramic surfaces treated with MEP, HF without silane (HF+NS), HF+CLB, and HF+MEP (n = 20) was evaluated after storage in water (A: 37 °C/1 week, B: 5000×/5–55 °C and C: 100 °C/24 h). Aging did not affect the silanol groups of MEP, but only the phosphate co-monomer. Silanols were reactive forming siloxanes, but exhibited lower consumption rate than CLB. HF-etching induced significantly higher values than MEP, in all the roughness parameters tested (Sa, Sz, Sdr, Sc, Sv), with the greatest differences found in Sdr and Sv. For SBS, MEP was inferior to all treatments/storage conditions, except of HF+NS in A, where the values were similar. However, on a HF-etched substrate, MEP provided highest strength and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Accuracy of Three Impression Materials on the Totally Edentulous Maxilla: In Vitro/In Silico Comparative Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(3), 515; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13030515 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Background: This study was aimed at comparing the accuracy of impressions of a reference typodont (RT) reproducing a totally edentulous maxilla made with three impression materials: polysulfide, polyether, and polyvinyl-siloxane. Methods: The RT was scanned using a desktop scanner, obtaining a reference scan. [...] Read more.
Background: This study was aimed at comparing the accuracy of impressions of a reference typodont (RT) reproducing a totally edentulous maxilla made with three impression materials: polysulfide, polyether, and polyvinyl-siloxane. Methods: The RT was scanned using a desktop scanner, obtaining a reference scan. Ten impressions for each of the three tested materials were made using a mechanical device with a standardized and consistent modality. A laboratory scanner performed the digitization of each impression. We produced digital models by processing “in reverse” the scans of the physical impressions using a dedicated software, obtaining three groups (n = 10), respectively. The groups were titled: “polysulfide,” “polyvinyl-siloxane,” and “polyether”. The scans in .stl format were imported into Geomagic Control X and then compared to RT to evaluate the accuracy of each scan by calculating trueness and precision in µm. Recorded data were subjected to descriptive statistics. Results: Trueness (arithmetic proximity) values (95%CI) were: polysulfide = 249.9 (121.3–378.5), polyvinyl-siloxane = 216.8 (123.1–310.6), polyether = 291.1 (219.9–362.3). Precision values (95% CI) were: polysulfide = 261.9 (108.8–415), polyvinyl-siloxane = 209.4 (111.9–306.8), polyether = 283 (227.9–338.1). Statistically significant differences were not detected between the means of the experimental groups, both for trueness and precision. Conclusions: The accuracy of the scans obtained from polyvinyl-siloxane, polysulfide, and polyether impressions can be considered comparable in a fully edentulous maxilla. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Denture Base Composites: Effect of Surface Modified Nano- and Micro-Particulates on Mechanical Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate
Materials 2020, 13(2), 307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13020307 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
The most commonly used denture base material, polymethyl methacrylate, lacks ideal mechanical properties, which are reflected in its relatively high failure rate. Several methods have been explored to reinforce the material and reduce the cost of denture repair and replacement. In this study, [...] Read more.
The most commonly used denture base material, polymethyl methacrylate, lacks ideal mechanical properties, which are reflected in its relatively high failure rate. Several methods have been explored to reinforce the material and reduce the cost of denture repair and replacement. In this study, various surface modified filler particles at different concentrations were dispersed in conventional and high-impact denture base materials and tested for their improvement in mechanical properties. Inorganic filler particles were coated with different silane coupling agents using an ultrasonic device. The particulates were dispersed in the resin and the composites polymerised through an innovative dual-cure technique. Charpy impact test, single-edge notch three-point bend fracture toughness test and Biaxial Flexural Strength (BFS) were performed on the specimens. The results showed that mechanical properties of the denture base resin can be improved by incorporating filler particles; however, the surface characteristics, quantity and level of dispersion of the particles play critical role in the mechanical behaviour of the composites. The results of this study are a promising step towards developing more fracture-resistant denture base materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
A Novel Role of Ascorbic Acid in Anti-Inflammatory Pathway and ROS Generation in HEMA Treated Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Materials 2020, 13(1), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13010130 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Resin (co)monomers issued from restorative dental materials are able to distribute in the dental pulp or the gingiva, to get to the saliva and to the flowing blood. Many authors have recently shown that methacrylate-based resins, in particular 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), are responsible of [...] Read more.
Resin (co)monomers issued from restorative dental materials are able to distribute in the dental pulp or the gingiva, to get to the saliva and to the flowing blood. Many authors have recently shown that methacrylate-based resins, in particular 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), are responsible of inflammatory and autophagic processes in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) while ascorbic acid (AS), an antioxidant molecule, can assume a protective role in cell homeostasis. The purpose of the current work was to study if 50 µg/mL AS can affect the inflammatory status induced by 2 mM HEMA in hDPSCs, a tissue–specific cell population. Cell proliferation, cytokine release, morphological arrangement and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation were determined respectively by MTT, ELISA, morphological analysis and dichlorofluorescein assay. The hDPSCs exposed to HEMA let to an increment of ROS formation and in the expression of high levels of inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor-κB (NFkB), inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL6, IL8, interferon (IFN)ɣ and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1. Moreover, HEMA induced the up-regulation of pospho-extracellular signal–regulated kinases (pERK)/ERK signaling pathway associated to the nuclear translocation. AS treatment significantly down-regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Then, the natural product AS reduced the detrimental result promoted by methacrylates in clinical dentistry, in fact restore cell proliferation, reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine, downregulate ROS production and of NFkB/pERK/ERK signaling path. In synthesis, AS, could improve the quality of dental care and play a strategic role as innovative endodontic compound easy to use and with reasonable cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Bond Strength and Failure Pattern of Orthodontic Tubes Adhered to a Zirconia Surface Submitted to Different Modes of Application of a Ceramic Primer
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3922; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12233922 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic tubes adhered to ceramics with the Transbond™ XT bonding resin (3M, Maplewood, MN, USA) while varying the surface treatment. Then, the adhesive remaining index (ARI) was verified, and the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic tubes adhered to ceramics with the Transbond™ XT bonding resin (3M, Maplewood, MN, USA) while varying the surface treatment. Then, the adhesive remaining index (ARI) was verified, and the representative fracture patterns were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy. Forty-eight zirconia blocks were divided into three groups, varying the number of layers of the 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) primer: one, two, or three applications. In addition, 16 lithium disilicate IPS E.max ceramic disks (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) were conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and underwent a single-layer primer application regimen. The four groups were further stratified to undergo bond testing after either 24 h (control) or 5000 cycles in a thermocycling machine. A shear bond strength test was performed (0.5 mm/min), and the MPa values obtained were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. There was no statistical difference among the control group ceramics that received the varying surface treatments. After thermocycling, it was verified that both the E.max disks and the zirconia ceramics with three primer applications obtained the highest bond strength values. In the 24 h groups, a total displacement of the resin from the orthodontic tubes was observed (ARI of 1). After thermocycling, the highest prevalence of an ARI of 5 (adhesive failure) was observed among the zirconia ceramics with single-coat primer application, followed by those with triple-coat primer application (mixed failure). Three applications of the MDP-containing ceramic primer achieved the best result in the present study. Zirconia surface should be treated with three coats of MDP primer to achieve a level of bond strength similar to silica-rich phase ceramic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
A Comparative Study of Shock Absorption Capacities of Custom Fabricated Mouthguards Using a Triangulation Sensor
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12213535 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
This in-vitro study compares the shock absorption qualities of five mouthguard designs measured with a triangulation laser sensor during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate the impact of different labial designs on mouthguard performance. Methods: Five different custom-fabricated ethylene vinyl [...] Read more.
This in-vitro study compares the shock absorption qualities of five mouthguard designs measured with a triangulation laser sensor during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate the impact of different labial designs on mouthguard performance. Methods: Five different custom-fabricated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) types of mouthguards with varying thickness and different labial inserts (polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG), nylon mesh, air space) were tested with a triangulation laser sensor during different energy blows, generated with a pendulum testing device. The pendulum hits were applied to the center of a pivoted tooth crown in a custom-built upper jaw model. Measurements were executed with the mouthguards on the model and with no mouthguard as a negative control. Results: Tooth deflection was reduced with all mouthguards in comparison to no mouthguard. Increasing mouthguard thickness improved the mouthguards’ shock absorption capacities. Also, adding labial inserts increased their preventive qualities in ascending order: Mouthguard with a soft insert (nylon mesh), a hard insert (PETG), air space plus a hard insert (PETG). Conclusion: Increasing EVA foil thickness of a mouthguard, increasing labial thickness, and adding labial inserts (soft, stiff and air space) improve mouthguard shock absorption capabilities during small hard object collisions, thereby improving dental trauma prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Direct Pulp Capping: Which is the Most Effective Biomaterial? A Retrospective Clinical Study
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12203382 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
(1) Background: Recently, tricalcium silicate cements, such as Biodentine™, have emerged. This biomaterial has a calcium hydroxide base and characteristics like mineral aggregate trioxide cements, but has tightening times that are substantially more suitable for their application and other clinical advantages. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recently, tricalcium silicate cements, such as Biodentine™, have emerged. This biomaterial has a calcium hydroxide base and characteristics like mineral aggregate trioxide cements, but has tightening times that are substantially more suitable for their application and other clinical advantages. (2) Methods: A retrospective clinical study was conducted with 20 patients, which included a clinical evaluation of the presence or absence of pulp inflammation compatible symptoms, radiographic evaluation of the periapical tissues, and structural alterations of the coronary restoration that supports pulp capping therapies with Biodentine™ and WhiteProRoot®MTA. (3) Results: This clinical study revealed similar success rates between mineral trioxide cement and tricalcium silicates cements at 6 months, with 100% and 95% success rates, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between both biomaterials and between these and the various clinical circumstances, namely the absolute isolation of the operating field, exposure size, the aetiology of exposure, and even the type of restorative material used. (4) Conclusions: Biodentine™ demonstrated a therapeutic effect on the formation of a dentin bridge accompanied by slight inflammatory signs, with a high clinical success rate, indicating the possibility of its effective and safe use in dental pulp direct capping in humans, similar to the gold standard material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Pure Mandibular Incisor Intrusion: A Finite Element Study to Evaluate the Segmented Arch Technique
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12172784 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Leveling the curve of Spee is a commonly-used strategy to correct deep bites. Although several techniques have been proposed to intrude mandibular incisors (MI), flaring of these teeth is often observed and in many instances undesired. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) [...] Read more.
Leveling the curve of Spee is a commonly-used strategy to correct deep bites. Although several techniques have been proposed to intrude mandibular incisors (MI), flaring of these teeth is often observed and in many instances undesired. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) was used to locate the ideal point of force application (PFA) to achieve pure MI intrusion with the three-piece arches’ technique. It comprised (1) a 0.021 × 0.025 in. stainless steel (SS) wire that passively filled the slots of the canine and premolar brackets and the first and second molar tubes, bilaterally; (2) a 0.0215 × 0.0275 in. SS intrusion base arch (IBA) inserted into the MI brackets, that presented a step down distal to the lateral incisors brackets and a posterior extension arm; (3) titanium-molybdenum tip-back springs designed to apply the intrusion force, fitted inside the first molar gingival tube. Four PFA on the IBA were simulated (FEM 1, 2, 3, and 4). FEM 3 resulted in pure MI and was considered the ideal PFA. FEM1 and 2 showed intrusion and buccal crown flaring of the MI, whereas FEM4 resulted in intrusion and lingual crown flaring of those teeth. Clinicians may consider three-piece arch mechanics to achieve pure MI intrusion. However, they must be aware that when force was applied anteriorly or posteriorly to the ideal PFA, the incisors would incline labially or lingually, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Role of the Flat-Designed Surface in Improving the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Endodontic NiTi Rotary Instruments
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12162523 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the flat-designed surface in improving the resistance to cyclic fatigue by comparing heat-treated F-One (Fanta Dental, Shanghai, China) nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments and similar prototypes, differing only by the absence of the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the flat-designed surface in improving the resistance to cyclic fatigue by comparing heat-treated F-One (Fanta Dental, Shanghai, China) nickel–titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments and similar prototypes, differing only by the absence of the flat side. The null hypothesis was that there were no differences between the two tested instruments in terms of cyclic fatigue lifespan. A total of 40 new NiTi instruments (20 F-One and 20 prototypes) were tested in the present study. The instruments were rotated with the same speed (500 rpm) and torque (2 N) using an endodontic motor (Elements Motor, Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) in the same stainless steel, artificial canal (90° angle of curvature and 5 mm radius). A Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was performed to assess the differences in terms of time to fracture and the length of the fractured segment between the flat- and non-flat-sided instruments. Significance was set at p = 0.05. The differences in terms of time to fracture between non-flat and flat were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition, the differences in terms of fractured segment length were statistically significant (p = 0.034). The results of this study highlight the importance of flat-sided design in increasing the cyclic fatigue lifespan of NiTi rotary instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Changes in Roughness and Mechanical Properties of Invisalign® Appliances after One- and Two-Weeks Use
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2406; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12152406 - 28 Jul 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the possible changes of surface roughness and the mechanical properties of Invisalign® appliances over one- and two-week of service. Forty appliances with attachments were retrieved after the end of orthodontic treatment from different patients. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate the possible changes of surface roughness and the mechanical properties of Invisalign® appliances over one- and two-week of service. Forty appliances with attachments were retrieved after the end of orthodontic treatment from different patients. Half of them had been used for one week (1W), and the rest for two weeks (2W). Ten unused Invisalign® appliances were used as the control (CON). An equal number of teeth possessing attachments were cut of aligners deriving from all groups (1W, 2W, and CON), and the Sa, Sq, Sz, Sc, and Sv roughness parameters of the internal surface of the aligner attachment area and the opposite lingual side (which was in contact to enamel) were determined by optical profilometry. Then, ten first molars originating from all groups were embedded in acrylic resin, and were ground and polished. Instrumented indentation testing (IIT) was performed in order to determine the Martens hardness (HM), indentation modulus (EIT), and relaxation index (RIT), according to ISO 14577-2002. The produced data were statistically processed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison post-hoc tests (a = 0.05). Both the surface roughness and mechanical properties of the retrieved groups (1W and 2W) showed statistically significant differences compared with CON, but without statistically significant differences between each other. The roughness variables of the as-received material were shown to be reduced after intraoral service demonstrating a wear effect. Ageing has a detrimental effect on the surface roughness and mechanical properties of Invisalign® appliances, although this effect is restricted to the first week of clinical usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
HEMA Effects on Autophagy Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12142285 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Autophagy is a complex mechanism that permits the degradation of cellular components in order to enhance cell homeostasis, recycling the damaged, dysfunctional, or unnecessary components. In restorative dentistry practice, free resin monomers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) can be released. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a complex mechanism that permits the degradation of cellular components in order to enhance cell homeostasis, recycling the damaged, dysfunctional, or unnecessary components. In restorative dentistry practice, free resin monomers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) can be released. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HEMA on proliferation and autophagy in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Human DPSCs were treated with different concentrations of HEMA (3 and 5 mmol L−1). To evaluate the proliferation rate, MTT and trypan blue assays were used. Autophagic markers such as microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I/II) and ubiquitin-binding protein (p62) were analyzed through immunofluorescence observations. Beclin1, LC3-I/II, and p62 were evaluated by means of Western blotting detection. Considering that activity of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and its phosphorylated form (pERK) mediates several cellular processes, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence, the involvement of ERK/pERK signaling was also evaluated. Obtained results showed a decreased cell proliferation associated with morphological changes in HEMA-treated cells. The Western blot results showed that the expression levels of Beclin1, LC3-I/II, and ERK were significantly elevated in HEMA-treated cells and in cells co-treated with rapamycin, an autophagic promoter. The expression levels of p62 were significantly reduced compared to the untreated samples. Protein levels to the autophagic process, observed at confocal microscopy confirmed the data obtained from the Western blot. The up-regulation of ERK and pERK levels, associated with nuclear translocation, revealed that ERK pathway signaling could act as a promoter of autophagy in dental pulp stem cells treated with HEMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
A Study of Laser Micromachining of PM Processed Ti Compact for Dental Implants Applications
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12142246 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
The paper deals with the experimental study of laser beam micromachining of the powder metallurgy processed Ti compacts applying the industrial grade fibre nanosecond laser operating at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The influence of the laser energy density on the surface roughness, [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the experimental study of laser beam micromachining of the powder metallurgy processed Ti compacts applying the industrial grade fibre nanosecond laser operating at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The influence of the laser energy density on the surface roughness, surface morphology and surface elements composition was investigated and evaluated by means of surface roughness measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The different laser treatment parameters resulted in the surfaces of very different characteristics of the newly developed biocompatible material prepared by advanced low temperature technology of hydride dehydride (HDH) titanium powder compactation. The results indicate that the laser pulse energy has remarkable effects on the machined surface characteristics which are discussed from the point of view of application in dental implantology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of a Hollow Endodontic Post by Three Point Test and SEM Analysis: A Pilot Study
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1983; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12121983 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a fiber hollow endodontic post characterized by the presence of an empty central cylindrical channel extended along the whole length. This particular shape allows clinicians to use the post also as [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of a fiber hollow endodontic post characterized by the presence of an empty central cylindrical channel extended along the whole length. This particular shape allows clinicians to use the post also as a cementation resin carrier. Ten hollow posts were divided in two groups: the control group (unfilled hollow posts) (Group 0) and hollow posts filled with dual resin cement (Group 1). The samples of both groups were subjected to mechanical and micromorphological analysis by performing a three-point test and SEM observations. In the three-point test, the Group 1 samples exhibited a fracture load of 57.09 ± 5.06 N, a flexural strength of 1323.53 ± 110.09 MPa, and a Young’s modulus of 42.87 ± 0.86 GPa. The samples of Group 2 exhibited a fracture load of 38.17 ± 1.7 N, a flexural strength of 908.87 ± 30.98 MPa, and a Young’s modulus of 40.33 ± 1.9 GPa. The difference between fracture load, flexural strength, and deflection between the two groups was statistically highly significant (p < 0.01). Further, the difference between the Young’s modulus of the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The values obtained are similar to those of other posts available on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Sonic Application of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements on Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts to Root Dentin
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1930; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12121930 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a sonic application of self-adhesive resin cements on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10). Four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a sonic application of self-adhesive resin cements on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10). Four self-adhesive resin cements were used—RelyX U200 (3M/ESPE), Bifix SE (Voco), seT PP (SDI), and Panavia SA (Kuraray). The cements were inserted into the root canal in two different modes—Centrix syringe (control) or with a sonic device (Sonic Smart). The roots were sectioned and taken to a universal test machine (Instron 3342) to perform the push-out test. The fracture pattern was evaluated by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. The bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). The interaction between the main factors was significant (p = 0.002). The sonic application increased the bond strength in comparison with the conventional application for the RelyX U200 (p < 0.001) and Bifix SE (p < 0.017) cements. However, for the seT PP and Panavia SA cements, the bond strength values did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The fracture pattern showed adhesive at the interface between the luting cement and the dentin. Using a sonic device in the application of self-adhesive resin cement helpedpromote an increase in the bond strength for RelyX U200 and Bifix SE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Fracture Resistance of Monolithic Zirconia Crowns in Implant Prostheses in Patients with Bruxism
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1623; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12101623 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The aim of this study is to determine the minimum required thickness of a monolithic zirconia crown in the mandibular posterior area for patients with bruxism. Forty-nine full zirconia crowns, with seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to determine the minimum required thickness of a monolithic zirconia crown in the mandibular posterior area for patients with bruxism. Forty-nine full zirconia crowns, with seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm, were made by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system (CAD/CAM). Seven crowns in each group were subjected to cyclic loading at 800 N and 5 Hz in a servohydraulic testing machine until fracture or completion of 100,000 cycles. Seven finite element models comprising seven different occlusal thicknesses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm were simulated using three different loads of vertical 800 N, oblique 10 degrees 800 N, and vertical 800 N + x N torque (x = 10, 50, and 100). The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the fracture resistance of the crown was positively associated with thickness. Specimen breakage differed significantly according to the different thicknesses of the prostheses (p < 0.01). Lowest von Mises stress values were determined for prostheses with a minimal thickness of 1.0 mm in different loading directions and with different forces. Zirconia specimens of 1.0 mm thickness had the lowest stress values and high fracture resistance and under 800 N of loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
In Vitro Physico-Chemical Characterization and Standardized In Vivo Evaluation of Biocompatibility of a New Synthetic Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12071186 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
This study’s aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility and bioabsorption of a new membrane for guided bone regeneration (polylactic-co-glycolic acid associated with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate) with three thicknesses (200, 500, and 700 µm) implanted in mice subcutaneously. Scanning electron [...] Read more.
This study’s aim was to evaluate the biocompatibility and bioabsorption of a new membrane for guided bone regeneration (polylactic-co-glycolic acid associated with hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate) with three thicknesses (200, 500, and 700 µm) implanted in mice subcutaneously. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the quantification of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen were used to characterize the physico-chemical properties. One hundred Balb-C mice were divided into 5 experimental groups: Group 1—Sham (without implantation); Group 2—200 μm; Group 3—500 μm; Group 4—700 μm; and Group 5—Pratix®. Each group was subdivided into four experimental periods (7, 30, 60 and 90 days). Samples were collected and processed for histological and histomorphometrical evaluation. The membranes showed no moderate or severe tissue reactions during the experimental periods studied. The 500-μm membrane showed no tissue reaction during any experimental period. The 200-μm membrane began to exhibit fragmentation after 30 days, while the 500-μm and 700-µm membranes began fragmentation at 90 days. All membranes studied were biocompatible and the 500 µm membrane showed the best results for absorption and tissue reaction, indicating its potential for clinical guided bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effects of Finish Line Design and Fatigue Cyclic Loading on Phase Transformation of Zirconia Dental Ceramics: A Qualitative Micro-Raman Spectroscopic Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(6), 863; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12060863 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Objectives: Stresses produced during the fabrication of copings and by chewing activity can induce a tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t–m) transformation of zirconia. As a consequence, in the m-phase, the material is not able to hinder possible cracks by the favorable mechanism known as “transformation toughening”. [...] Read more.
Objectives: Stresses produced during the fabrication of copings and by chewing activity can induce a tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t–m) transformation of zirconia. As a consequence, in the m-phase, the material is not able to hinder possible cracks by the favorable mechanism known as “transformation toughening”. This study aimed at evaluating if different marginal preparations of zirconia copings can cause a premature phase transformation immediately after manufacturing milling and after chewing simulation. Methods: Ninety copings using three commercial zirconia ceramics (Nobel Procera Zirconia, Nobel Biocare Management AG; Lava Classic, 3M ESPE; Lava Plus, 3M ESPE) were prepared with deep-chamfer, slight-chamfer, or feather-edge finish lines (n = 10). Specimens were tested in a chewing simulator (CS-4.4, SD Mechatronik) under cyclic occlusal loads simulating one year of clinical service. Raman spectra were acquired and analyzed for each specimen along the finish lines and at the top of each coping before and after chewing simulation, respectively. Results: Raman analysis did not show any t–m transformation both before and after chewing simulation, as the typical monoclinic bands at 181 cm−1 and 192 cm−1 were not detected in any of the tested specimens. Conclusions: After a one-year simulation of chewing activity, irrespective of preparation geometry, zirconia copings did not show any sign of t–m transformation, either in the load application areas or at the margins. Consequently, manufacturing milling even in thin thickness did not cause any structural modification of zirconia ceramics “as received by manufacturers” both before and after chewing simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
Effect of Different Surface Treatments on Titanium Dental Implant Micro-Morphology
Materials 2019, 12(5), 733; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12050733 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Background: Titanium dental implants are today widely used with osseointegration mainly dependently on the implant surface properties. Different processing routes lead to different surface characteristics resulting, of course, in different in situ behaviors of the implants. Materials: The effect of different treatments, whether [...] Read more.
Background: Titanium dental implants are today widely used with osseointegration mainly dependently on the implant surface properties. Different processing routes lead to different surface characteristics resulting, of course, in different in situ behaviors of the implants. Materials: The effect of different treatments, whether mechanical or chemical, on the surface morphology of titanium implants were investigated. To this aim, various experimental methods, including roughness analysis as well scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, were applied. Results: The results showed that, in contrast to the mechanical treatments, the chemical ones gave rise to a more irregular surface. SEM observations suggested that where commercial pure titanium was used, the chemical treatments provided implant surfaces without contaminations. In contrast, sandblasted implants could cause potential risks of surface contamination because of the presence of blasting particles remnants. Conclusions: The examined implant surfaces showed different roughness levels in relation to the superficial treatment applied. The acid-etched surfaces were characterized by the presence of deeper valleys and higher peaks than the sandblasted surfaces. For this reason, acid-etched surfaces can be more easily damaged by the stress produced by the peri-implant bone during surgical implant placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
PLA-Based Mineral-Doped Scaffolds Seeded with Human Periapical Cyst-Derived MSCs: A Promising Tool for Regenerative Healing in Dentistry
Materials 2019, 12(4), 597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12040597 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs) are a newly discovered cell population innovatively collected from inflammatory periapical cysts. The use of this biological waste guarantees a source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues, presenting a valuable potential [...] Read more.
Human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs) are a newly discovered cell population innovatively collected from inflammatory periapical cysts. The use of this biological waste guarantees a source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues, presenting a valuable potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In the present study, hPCy-MSCs were collected, isolated, and seeded on three experimental mineral-doped porous scaffolds produced by the thermally-induced phase-separation (TIPS) technique. Mineral-doped scaffolds, composed of polylactic acid (PLA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), and/or hydraulic calcium silicate (CaSi), were produced by TIPS (PLA-10CaSi, PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD, PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD). Micro-CT analysis evaluated scaffolds micromorphology. Collected hPCy-MSCs, characterized by cytofluorimetry, were seeded on the scaffolds and tested for cell proliferation, cells viability, and gene expression for osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation (DMP-1, OSC, RUNX-2, HPRT). Micro-CT revealed an interconnected highly porous structure for all the scaffolds, similar total porosity with 99% open pores. Pore wall thickness increased with the percentage of CaSi and DCPD. Cells seeded on mineral-doped scaffolds showed a superior proliferation compared to pure PLA scaffolds (control), particularly on PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD at day 12. A higher number of non-viable (red stained) cells was observable on PLA scaffolds at days 14 and 21. DMP-1 expression increased in hPCy-MSCs cultured on all mineral-doped scaffolds, in particular on PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD and PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD. In conclusion, the innovative combination of experimental scaffolds colonized with autologous stem cells from periapical cyst represent a promising strategy for regenerative healing of periapical and alveolar bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Article
FEM Analysis of Dental Implant-Abutment Interface Overdenture Components and Parametric Evaluation of Equator® and Locator® Prosthodontics Attachments
Materials 2019, 12(4), 592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12040592 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the mechanical features of two different prosthetic retention devices. By applying engineering tools like the finite element method (FEM) and Von Mises analyses, we investigated how dental implant devices hold out against masticatory strength during [...] Read more.
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the mechanical features of two different prosthetic retention devices. By applying engineering tools like the finite element method (FEM) and Von Mises analyses, we investigated how dental implant devices hold out against masticatory strength during chewing cycles. Two common dental implant overdenture retention systems were analyzed and then compared with a universal—common dental abutment. The Equator® attachment system and the Locator® arrangement were processed using the FEM Ansys® Workbench. The elastic features of the materials used in the study were taken from recent literature. Results revealed different responses for both the devices, and both systems guaranteed a perfect fit over the axial load. However, the different design and shape involves the customized use of each device for a typical clinical condition of applying overdenture systems over dental implants. The data from this virtual model showed different features and mechanical behaviors of the overdenture prosthodontics attachments. A three-dimensional system involved the fixture, abutment, and passant screws of three different dental implants that were created and analyzed. Clinicians should find the best prosthetic balance to better distribute the stress over the component, and to guarantee the patients clinical long-term results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Recent Advances in the Development of Antimicrobial and Antifouling Biocompatible Materials for Dental Applications
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14123167 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
The risk of secondary bacterial infections resulting from dental procedures has driven the design of antimicrobial and antifouling dental materials to curb pathogenic microbial growth, biofilm formation and subsequent oral and dental diseases. Studies have investigated approaches based primarily on contact-killing or release-killing [...] Read more.
The risk of secondary bacterial infections resulting from dental procedures has driven the design of antimicrobial and antifouling dental materials to curb pathogenic microbial growth, biofilm formation and subsequent oral and dental diseases. Studies have investigated approaches based primarily on contact-killing or release-killing materials. These materials are designed for addition into dental resins, adhesives and fillings or as immobilized coatings on tooth surfaces, titanium implants and dental prosthetics. This review discusses the recent developments in the different classes of biomaterials for antimicrobial and antifouling dental applications: polymeric drug-releasing materials, polymeric and metallic nanoparticles, polymeric biocides and antimicrobial peptides. With modifications to improve cytotoxicity and mechanical properties, contact-killing and anti-adhesion materials show potential for incorporation into dental materials for long-term clinical use as opposed to short-lived antimicrobial release-based coatings. However, extended durations of biocompatibility testing, and adjustment of essential biomaterial features to enhance material longevity in the oral cavity require further investigations to confirm suitability and safety of these materials in the clinical setting. The continuous exposure of dental restorative and regenerative materials to pathogenic microbes necessitates the implementation of antimicrobial and antifouling materials to either replace antibiotics or improve its rational use, especially in the day and age of the ever-increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Alloplastic Bone Substitutes for Periodontal and Bone Regeneration in Dentistry: Current Status and Prospects
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma14051096 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Various bone graft products are commercially available worldwide. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the appropriate bone graft products in different clinical situations. This review is intended to summarize bone graft products, especially alloplastic bone substitutes that are available in multiple countries. [...] Read more.
Various bone graft products are commercially available worldwide. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the appropriate bone graft products in different clinical situations. This review is intended to summarize bone graft products, especially alloplastic bone substitutes that are available in multiple countries. It also provides dental clinicians with detailed and accurate information concerning these products. Furthermore, it discusses the prospects of alloplastic bone substitutes based on an analysis of the current market status, as well as a comparison of trends among countries. In this review, we focus on alloplastic bone substitutes approved in the United States, Japan, and Korea for use in periodontal and bone regeneration. According to the Food and Drug Administration database, 87 alloplastic bone graft products have been approved in the United States since 1996. According to the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency database, 10 alloplastic bone graft products have been approved in Japan since 2004. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare database, 36 alloplastic bone graft products have been approved in Korea since 1980. The approved products are mainly hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, and biphasic calcium phosphate. The formulations of the products differed among countries. The development of new alloplastic bone products has been remarkable. In the near future, alloplastic bone substitutes with safety and standardized quality may be the first choice instead of autologous bone; they may offer new osteoconductive and osteoinductive products with easier handling form and an adequate resorption rate, which can be used with growth factors and/or cell transplantation. Careful selection of alloplastic bone graft products is necessary to achieve predictable outcomes according to each clinical situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Moving Towards a Finer Way of Light-Cured Resin-Based Restorative Dental Materials: Recent Advances in Photoinitiating Systems Based on Iodonium Salts
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4093; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13184093 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The photoinduced polymerization of monomers is currently an essential tool in various industries. The photopolymerization process plays an increasingly important role in biomedical applications. It is especially used in the production of dental composites. It also exhibits unique properties, such as a short [...] Read more.
The photoinduced polymerization of monomers is currently an essential tool in various industries. The photopolymerization process plays an increasingly important role in biomedical applications. It is especially used in the production of dental composites. It also exhibits unique properties, such as a short time of polymerization of composites (up to a few seconds), low energy consumption, and spatial resolution (polymerization only in irradiated areas). This paper describes a short overview of the history and classification of different typical monomers and photoinitiating systems such as bimolecular photoinitiator system containing camphorquinone and aromatic amine, 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione, phosphine derivatives, germanium derivatives, hexaarylbiimidazole derivatives, silane-based derivatives and thioxanthone derivatives used in the production of dental composites with their limitations and disadvantages. Moreover, this article represents the challenges faced when using the latest inventions in the field of dental materials, with a particular focus on photoinitiating systems based on iodonium salts. The beneficial properties of dental composites cured using initiation systems based on iodonium salts have been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Biological and Chemo-Physical Features of Denture Resins
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13153350 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
In the dental field, the study of materials has always been the basis of the clinical practice. Over the years, with the evolution of materials, it has been possible to produce safe and predictable prosthetic devices, with ever better aesthetic features, biocompatibility and [...] Read more.
In the dental field, the study of materials has always been the basis of the clinical practice. Over the years, with the evolution of materials, it has been possible to produce safe and predictable prosthetic devices, with ever better aesthetic features, biocompatibility and patient satisfaction. This review briefly analyzes the features of dental resin materials to underline the biological, microbiological and chemo-physical characteristics. The main aim of prosthodontics is to rehabilitate patients and therefore improve their quality of life. Dental resins are the main materials used for the production of dentures. Once solidified, these polymers have different mechanical or surface characteristics. The results of the literature on these characteristics were analyzed and some new brand dental resins, known as modern resin, were subsequently evaluated. The new materials are undoubtedly a step forward in the creation of dental prostheses, and also in all subsequent maintenance phases. This review shows how changing the chemical structure of the resins could have microbiological influences on the growth and management of the biofilm, and also physical influences in terms of its mechanical characteristics. The development of new materials is a constant goal in dentistry in order to obtain increasingly predictable rehabilitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Validated Finite Element Models of Premolars: A Scoping Review
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13153280 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Finite element (FE) models are widely used to investigate the biomechanics of reconstructed premolars. However, parameter identification is a complex step because experimental validation cannot always be conducted. The aim of this study was to collect the experimentally validated FE models of premolars, [...] Read more.
Finite element (FE) models are widely used to investigate the biomechanics of reconstructed premolars. However, parameter identification is a complex step because experimental validation cannot always be conducted. The aim of this study was to collect the experimentally validated FE models of premolars, extract their parameters, and discuss trends. A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Records were identified in three electronic databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], Scopus, The Cochrane Library) by two independent reviewers. Twenty-seven parameters dealing with failure criteria, model construction, material laws, boundary conditions, and model validation were extracted from the included articles. From 1306 records, 214 were selected for eligibility and entirely read. Among them, 19 studies were included. A heterogeneity was observed for several parameters associated with failure criteria and model construction. Elasticity, linearity, and isotropy were more often chosen for dental and periodontal tissues with a Young’s modulus mostly set at 18–18.6 GPa for dentine. Loading was mainly simulated by an axial force, and FE models were mostly validated by in vitro tests evaluating tooth strains, but different conditions about experiment type, sample size, and tooth status (intact or restored) were reported. In conclusion, material laws identified herein could be applied to future premolar FE models. However, further investigations such as sensitivity analysis are required for several parameters to clarify their indication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Particulate Production and Composite Dust during Routine Dental Procedures. A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2513; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13112513 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Composite dust generation is most likely a continuous and daily procedure in dental practice settings. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, compile and evaluate existing evidence on interventions and composite material properties related to the production of aerosolized dust during [...] Read more.
Composite dust generation is most likely a continuous and daily procedure in dental practice settings. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, compile and evaluate existing evidence on interventions and composite material properties related to the production of aerosolized dust during routine dental procedures. Seven electronic databases were searched, with no limits, supplemented by a manual search, on 27 April 2020 for published and unpublished research. Eligibility criteria comprised of studies of any design, describing composite dust production related to the implementation of any procedure in dental practice. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias (RoB) assessment was undertaken independently either in duplicate, or confirmed by a second reviewer. Random effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (SMD) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed where applicable. A total of 375 articles were initially identified, resulting in 13 articles being included in the qualitative synthesis, of which 5 contributed to meta-analyses overall. Risk of bias recordings ranged between low and high, pertaining to unclear/raising some concerns, in most cases. All types of composites, irrespective of the filler particles, released significant amounts of nano-sized particles after being ground, with potentially disruptive respiratory effects. Evidence supported increased % distribution of particles < 100 nm for nanocomposite Filtek Supreme XTE compared to both conventional hybrid Z100MP (SMD: 1.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 3.07; p-value; 0.001) and nano- hybrid Tetric EvoCeram (SMD: 1.62, 95% CI: 0.56, 2.68; p-value: 0.003). For cytotoxicity considerations of generated aerosolized particles, both nanocomposites Filtek Supreme XTE and nanohybrid GradiO revealed negative effects on bronchial epithelial cell viability, as represented by % formazan reduction at 330–400 μg/mL for 24 hours, with no recorded differences between them (SMD: 0.19; 95% CI: −0.17, 0.55; p-value: 0.30). Effective and more rigorous management of dental procedures potentially liable to the generation of considerable amounts of aerosolized composite dust should be prioritized in contemporary dental practice. In essence, protective measures for the clinician and the practices’ personnel should also be systematically promoted and additional interventions may be considered in view of the existing evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Safety Considerations for Thermoplastic-Type Appliances Used as Orthodontic Aligners or Retainers. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical and In-Vitro Research
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1843; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13081843 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Use of thermoplastic material in orthodontics, either as aligner or as retainer appliances, is common practice and is likely to increase in the years to come. However, no systematic assessment on safety considerations of these adjuncts has been implemented up to date. The [...] Read more.
Use of thermoplastic material in orthodontics, either as aligner or as retainer appliances, is common practice and is likely to increase in the years to come. However, no systematic assessment on safety considerations of these adjuncts has been implemented up to date. The aim of this systematic review was to collectively appraise the existing evidence from both clinical and laboratory studies, on whether these appliances are associated with any estrogenic/cytotoxic effects or bisphenol-A (BPA) and monomer leaching. Eight electronic databases were searched with no limits in December 22, 2019, for published and unpublished research. Eligibility criteria comprised of studies of any design, describing use of any type of thermoplastic aligner. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias (RoB) assessment was done independently, either in duplicate or confirmed by a second reviewer. Random effects meta-analyses of weighted mean differences (WMD) with associated 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were planned. Quality of the evidence was evaluated with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). A total of 58 articles were initially identified, while 5 were included in qualitative synthesis and 2 of those contributed to the quantitative syntheses. Four studies were in-vitro, while one was a randomized controlled trial; all assessed some type of orthodontic aligner or retainer, either as-received or retrieved. Risk of bias recordings ranged between unclear and high for all studies. Proliferation induction capacity of thermoplastic appliances’ eluents on MCF-7 cells failed to be confirmed compared to beta-estradiol (2 studies: 5% v/v, WMD: −182.08; 95% CI: −198.83, −165.33; p-value < 0.001; and 20% v/v, WMD: −184.53; 95% CI: −206.17, −162.88; p-value < 0.001). No cytotoxic activity was detected as well. In addition, although evidence from in-vitro studies was indicative of no traceable detection of BPA or other monomers, the findings from a single clinical trial were allied to increased levels of BPA in whole stimulated saliva, after up to 30 days of thermoplastic retainer usage, compared to standard Hawley retainer. The quality of the evidence overall was low to medium. Current data from in-vitro research are indicative of an absence of an estrogenic or cytotoxic effect of thermoplastic aligners or retainers. Regarding BPA or monomer release, evidence from clinical and laboratory studies appear inconsistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Glass–Ceramics in Dentistry: A Review
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1049; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma13051049 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3342
Abstract
In this review, we first briefly introduce the general knowledge of glass–ceramics, including the discovery and development, the application, the microstructure, and the manufacturing of glass–ceramics. Second, the review presents a detailed description of glass–ceramics in dentistry. In this part, the history, property [...] Read more.
In this review, we first briefly introduce the general knowledge of glass–ceramics, including the discovery and development, the application, the microstructure, and the manufacturing of glass–ceramics. Second, the review presents a detailed description of glass–ceramics in dentistry. In this part, the history, property requirements, and manufacturing techniques of dental glass–ceramics are reviewed. The review provided a brief description of the most prevalent clinically used examples of dental glass–ceramics, namely, mica, leucite, and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. In addition, we also introduce the newly developed ZrO2–SiO2 nanocrystalline glass–ceramics that show great potential as a new generation of dental glass–ceramics. Traditional strengthening mechanisms of glass–ceramics, including interlocking, ZrO2–reinforced, and thermal residual stress effects, are discussed. Finally, a perspective and outlook for future directions in developing new dental glass–ceramics is provided to offer inspiration to the dental materials community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
In Vitro Simulation and In Vivo Assessment of Tooth Wear: A Meta-Analysis of In Vitro and Clinical Research
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12213575 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Tooth wear may be described as a side-effect of occlusal forces that may be further induced by the common use of contemporary prosthetic materials in practice. The purpose of this systematic review was to appraise existing evidence on enamel wear from both in [...] Read more.
Tooth wear may be described as a side-effect of occlusal forces that may be further induced by the common use of contemporary prosthetic materials in practice. The purpose of this systematic review was to appraise existing evidence on enamel wear from both in vitro and clinical research and explore whether evidence from these study designs lies on the same direction. Five databases of published and unpublished research were searched without limitations in August 2019 and study selection criteria included in vitro and clinical research on enamel tooth wear. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were done independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (SMDs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were conducted while a Monte Carlo permutation test for meta-regression on the exploration of the effect of the study design on the reported outcomes was planned. A total of 27 studies (23 in vitro and 4 clinical) were eligible while 12 contributed to meta-analyses. Overall, some concerns were raised for the quality of the existing evidence and the potential for risk of bias. Enamel wear (mm) of antagonist teeth was more pronounced when opposed to conventional porcelain compared to machinable ceramics (SMD = 2.18; 95%CIs: 1.34, 3.02; p < 0.001). Polished zirconia resulted in decreased volumetric enamel wear (mm3) of opposing teeth compared to pure natural enamel (SMD = –1.06; 95%CIs: –1.73, –0.39; p = 0.002). Monolithic zirconia showed evidence of enhanced potential for antagonist wear (μm) compared to natural teeth (WMD = 107.38; 95%CIs: 30.46, 184.30; p = 0.01). Study design did not reveal an effect on the tooth wear outcome for the latter comparison when both clinical and in vitro studies were considered (three studies; Monte Carlo test, p = 0.66). In conclusion, there is an overriding need for additional evidence from clinical research to substantiate the findings from the already existing laboratory simulation studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
Shape-Memory Polymers in Dentistry: Systematic Review and Patent Landscape Report
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12142216 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Objective: To perform a systematic review (SR) of existing literature and a patent landscape report (PLR) regarding the potential applications of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) in dentistry. Search strategy: Clinical and Biomedical online databases (Pubmed, Medline via Embase, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science, Cochrane [...] Read more.
Objective: To perform a systematic review (SR) of existing literature and a patent landscape report (PLR) regarding the potential applications of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) in dentistry. Search strategy: Clinical and Biomedical online databases (Pubmed, Medline via Embase, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science, Cochrane Library), Materials Science and Engineering databases (IEEE Explore, Compendex, Proquest), Material Science and Chemical database (Reaxys) so as Patents databases (Questel-Orbit, Espacenet, Patentscope) were consulted as recently as January 2019 to identify all papers and patents potentially relevant to the review. The reference lists of all eligible studies were hand searched for additional published work. Results: After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, 6 relevant full-text articles from the initial 302 and 45 relevant patents from 497 were selected. A modified Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist of 14 items for reporting pre-clinical in-vitro studies was used to rate the methodological quality of the selected papers. The overall quality was judged low. Conclusions: Despite the great potential and versatility of SMPs, it was not possible to draw evidence-based conclusions supporting their immediate employment in clinical dentistry. This was due to the weak design and a limited number of studies included within this review and reflects the fact that additional research is mandatory to determine whether or not the use of SMPs in dentistry could be effective. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of selected papers and patents indicate that SMPs are promising materials in dentistry because of their programmable physical properties. These findings suggest the importance of furtherly pursuing this line of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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Review
10-MDP Based Dental Adhesives: Adhesive Interface Characterization and Adhesive Stability—A Systematic Review
Materials 2019, 12(5), 790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ma12050790 - 07 Mar 2019
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
The incorporation of functional monomers in dental adhesive systems promotes chemical interaction with dental substrates, resulting in higher adhesion forces when compared to micromechanical adhesion only. The 10-MDP monomer, whose chemical structure allows for a polar behavior which is favorable to adhesion, also [...] Read more.
The incorporation of functional monomers in dental adhesive systems promotes chemical interaction with dental substrates, resulting in higher adhesion forces when compared to micromechanical adhesion only. The 10-MDP monomer, whose chemical structure allows for a polar behavior which is favorable to adhesion, also promotes the protection of collagen fibers through the formation of MDP-calcium salts. This systematic review aimed to characterize the interface created by 10-MDP containing adhesive systems through an evaluation of the following parameters: Formation of nano-layered structures, capacity to produce an acid-base resistant zone, and adhesion stability. The research was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Embase, limited to English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles. The research was done according to the PICO strategy. The 10-MDP monomer has the capacity to produce an acid-base resistant zone on the adhesive interface, which increases the response to acid-base challenges. The adhesion established by these systems is stable over time. To have the best of these adhesive solutions, a scrubbing technique must be used to apply the adhesive system on dental substrates, in order to improve monomers infiltration and to create a stable bond. Time must be given for the solution to infiltrate, hybridize and form the MDP-Ca, improving adhesive stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Trends in Dental Materials)
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