Special Issue "10th Anniversary of Applied Sciences: Invited Papers in Applied Dentistry Section"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Dentistry and Oral Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: dental materials; dental surgery; restorative dentistry and endodontics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applied Sciences is going to reach a remarkable milestone by publishing its 10th volume, and in celebration of this special occasion, we have taken the initiative to launch a Special Issue called “10th Anniversary of Applied Sciences: Invited Papers in Applied Dentistry Section”.

In 2014, when we received our first impact factor for Applied Sciences, we published 35 manuscripts from 53 submissions, i.e., the acceptance rate was roughly 66%. However, we have now significantly improved our review quality; hence, in 2018, we published 2703 manuscripts from 9757 submissions, keeping the acceptance rate below 28%. This reasonably gave us an impact factor jump from 1.484 in 2014 to 2.217 in 2018. We have also reduced the manuscript turnaround time; presently, the median publication time is only 37 days, which will be further reduced in the coming months if not weeks, and we hope to increase the impact factor to above 3.0 for 2019.

This Special Issue aims to gather moderate-sized original research or review papers featuring important and recent developments or recent progress in Dentistry with a special emphasis on new techniques and their applications. The authors are well-known experts in their domain who are invited to submit their contribution at any moment from now to the end of January 2021. The papers can cover either experimental or clinical aspects or both.

The main topics, though not exclusively, include regenerative dentistry, dental materials, biomaterials, nanotechnologies, implantology, orthodontics, translational research in dentistry, operative dentistry, endodontics, interaction between oral and systemic diseases, oral medicine, and every subject related to Applied Dentistry.

Prof. Dr. Gianrico Spagnuolo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Age Estimation Based on Pulp–Tooth Volume Ratio of Anterior Teeth in Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Images in a Selected Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9984; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11219984 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 182
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between chronological age and pulp–tooth volume ratio in anterior teeth using cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images and provide equations for age estimation based on pulp–tooth volume ratio. In this cross-sectional study, CBCT images of [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between chronological age and pulp–tooth volume ratio in anterior teeth using cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images and provide equations for age estimation based on pulp–tooth volume ratio. In this cross-sectional study, CBCT images of 312 anterior teeth of the maxilla and mandible were examineαd. The chronological age and the sex of the patients were recorded. Tooth volume and pulp volume of the anterior teeth were measured using Mimics software, and then tooth–pulp volume ratio was calculated. Statistical analysis of data was performed using chi-square test, independent T-test, Pearson’s correlation, and linear regression (α = 0.05). Finally, equations were made based on the results of the regression analysis for age estimation in general and for males and females. The age of the subjects ranged between 16 and 69 years (mean 40.6 ± 12.74). The pulp–tooth volume ratio of the maxillary teeth was generally higher than the mandibular teeth. A significant inverse relationship between age and pulp–tooth volume ratio was observed for all anterior teeth. (p < 0.05). The strongest correlation between age and pulp–tooth volume ratio was reported for mandibular central incisor (r = −0.58, p < 0.001) and the weakest was for mandibular lateral incisor (r = −0.36, p = 0.012). Age estimation was most accurate among females using the maxillary central incisors (p < 0.001) and among males using the mandibular central incisors and maxillary canines (p = 0.003). Pulp–tooth volume ratio of mandibular central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, and maxillary canines in males and maxillary and mandibular central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, and maxillary and mandibular canines in females can be used for age estimation. Full article
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Article
Ectopic Eruption of the First Permanent Molar in the Maxilla: Cephalometric Features of 13 Pediatric Patients
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7869; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11177869 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar in the maxilla, generally characterized by the wrong axial positioning during eruption, is reported to occur in about 2–6% of children. Its incidence is surely under-estimated as it frequently remains undiagnosed and, additionally, becomes irreversible, resulting [...] Read more.
Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar in the maxilla, generally characterized by the wrong axial positioning during eruption, is reported to occur in about 2–6% of children. Its incidence is surely under-estimated as it frequently remains undiagnosed and, additionally, becomes irreversible, resulting in posterior crowding in such cases. This retrospective study aims to investigate the cephalometric features of patients affected by ectopic eruption of the maxillary first molar in comparison to a control group of patients. From a total of 1935 subjects, 13 patients were enrolled in the study group, while 26 patients were randomly selected as a control group. Lateral cephalometric teleradiographs obtained at the time of diagnosis were used to measure cephalometric values between study patients and controls. The prevalence of ectopic eruption of the first maxillary permanent molar in our patients was 1.14%. The mandibular angle (SN-GoMe) was found to be significantly greater in the study group than in control. The same statistical trend was observed for the inter-maxillary angle (SnaSnp-GoMe); also, the distance Sna-Me was greater in the study group. Differences between groups were statistically significant for the following distances: Snp-Sna, Ba-S and SOR-Sna, which were found to be, overall, greater in the study group. Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar in the maxilla seems to be associated with morphogenetic characteristics of patients, mainly with a dolichocephalic pattern. Full article
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Article
Functional Evaluation of a “Lingual Ring” Oral Device Applied on Patients Affected by Temporo-Mandibular Disorders TMDs: A Comparative Clinical Trial
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11114832 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the functional variations of the electromyographic response and clinical symptomatology in TMD patients. This study has been performed and compared before and after the application of a therapeutic protocol based on the use of an oral device working [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the functional variations of the electromyographic response and clinical symptomatology in TMD patients. This study has been performed and compared before and after the application of a therapeutic protocol based on the use of an oral device working on the proper mandibular repositioning through the proprioceptive-based lingual re-education called “Lingual Ring”. Between January to December 2016, 32 TMD patients have been recruited out of a series of 321 individuals recruited at the Neurosensorial and Motorial Surgery Department, in Palermo (Italy). All the patients underwent the Surface Electromyography (sEMG) of Masseter and Temporal muscles, with different registrations at T0, T1, T2, and T3; to evaluate the variations of the Electromyographic values, it was assigned the application of the Lingual Ring as the only therapy. The study demonstrated a neat rebalancing of the EMG tracks and important improvements with the TMD related issues. The clinical responses, due to the treatment at the end of the therapeutic protocol, were: absence or reduction of muscular or articular pain; absence or reduction of articular noises; absence or reduction of the cephalalgia. Hence, significant results, both clinical and in terms of instrumental EMG, were assessed. We can affirm that the adopted methodology allowed the monitoring of the Electromyographic variation and clinical symptoms. Moreover, the usage of the “Lingual Ring device” allowed to carry out a simple and immediate therapeutic protocol that is minimally invasive, ensuring a clear rebalancing of the EMG tracks as well as the TMD related pain. Full article
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Article
Sustained Antibacterial Effect and Wear Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Contact-Killing Dental Polymers after One-Year of Hydrolytic Degradation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3718; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11083718 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
This study intended to investigate the long-term antibacterial effect, mechanical performance, and surface topography of new anticaries dental composites. While most artificial aging studies of dental resins lasted for 30–90 days, this study prolonged the water-aging to one year to be more clinically [...] Read more.
This study intended to investigate the long-term antibacterial effect, mechanical performance, and surface topography of new anticaries dental composites. While most artificial aging studies of dental resins lasted for 30–90 days, this study prolonged the water-aging to one year to be more clinically relevant. The base resin was loaded with dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) at 3 or 5 wt.% and nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) at 20 wt.%. Composites were subjected to one-year water storage and wear. Following water aging, samples were evaluated for flexural strength, elastic modulus, and microbiological assays. Biofilm plate counting method, metabolic assay, colorimetric quantification of lactic acid, and Baclight bacterial viability assay were measured after one year. Topography changes (ΔRa, ΔRq, ΔRv, ΔRt) were examined after wear and observed by scanning electron microscopy. Biofilm assays and topography changes data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Mechanical properties and normalized data were verified using a t-test. The flexural strength values for the formulations that contained 5% DMAHDM-20% NACP, 3% DMAHDM, and 5% DMAHDM were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in relation to the baseline but the values were still above the ISO standards. No significant differences were observed between the groups concerning the topography changes, except for the ΔRt, where there was a significant increase in the 5% DMAHDM-20% NACP group. All the groups demonstrated robust biofilm-inhibition, with slightly reduced antibacterial properties following water aging. The aged samples reduced the total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci by 1.5 to 3-log, compared to the experimental control. The new formulations containing DMAHDM and NACP were able to sustain the antibacterial performance after one-year of aging. Mechanical properties and surface topography were slightly affected over time. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Citric Acid on Color Changes of Calcium Silicate-Based Cements an In Vitro Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11052339 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effects of 10% and 40% citric acid (CA) on the color of calcium silicate–based cements (CSCs) in comparison to the effects of common root canal irrigants. Samples of six CSCs ( [...] Read more.
The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effects of 10% and 40% citric acid (CA) on the color of calcium silicate–based cements (CSCs) in comparison to the effects of common root canal irrigants. Samples of six CSCs (n = 6)—ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), MTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc, by Prevest Denpro Limited, Jammu, India), MTA Repair HP (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), Ortho MTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea), and Retro MTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea)—were immersed in 10% and 40% CA as well as 15% EDTA, 2% NaOCl, 2% CHX, and 0.9% NaCl for 15 min, 1 h, and 24 h. ΔE values, representing the difference between the final and baseline values of the color components, were then determined using a VITA Easyshade Compact 5.0 spectrophotometer. Naked-eye evaluation of the changes in color and structures of the materials was performed using our own scale. Upon immersion of the materials in both 10% and 40% CA, there were statistically significant differences between spectrophotometric color measurement results for all CSCs (P < 0.05). However, CA does not cause dark discoloration, observable with the naked eye, of any of the materials, such as NaOCl and CHX. Significant statistical differences were also found between all CSCs in terms of submersion duration (P < 0.05). CA, which could be an alternative to EDTA use, caused greater CSCs discoloration and changed some of their structures. Unless required by the therapeutic procedure, clinicians should pay attention to the fact that the irrigant may affect the CSCs discoloration and minimize the contact time of irrigant with CSCs. Full article
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Article
Effect of Shrinking and No Shrinking Dentine and Enamel Replacing Materials in Posterior Restoration: A 3D-FEA Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11052215 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of shrinking and no shrinking dental filling materials combination in posterior restorations under the combined effects of polymerization shrinkage and occlusal load by means of 3D Finite Elements Analysis. Six computer-generated and [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of shrinking and no shrinking dental filling materials combination in posterior restorations under the combined effects of polymerization shrinkage and occlusal load by means of 3D Finite Elements Analysis. Six computer-generated and restored class I or class II cavities models of a lower molar were designed in the CAD software and evaluated according to the cavity and restorative procedure. Different shrinking and no shrinking adhesive materials combination with diverse Young’s modulus were considered. A food bolus was modeled on the occlusal surface replicating the chewing load using static linear analyses Polymerization shrinkage was simulated for the shrinking different restorative materials. The maximum principal stress was selected as analysis criteria. All models exhibited higher stresses along the dentine restoration interfaces with different magnitude and a similar stress trend along enamel restoration interface. Stress values up to 22 MPa and 19 MPa were recorded in the enamel and restoration, respectively. The use of elastic not shrinking material layer in combination with bulk fill composite reduced the stress magnitude in dentine and enamel to replace dental tissues. Class I and class II posterior cavities adhesively restored with shrinking filling material’s combination showed the most unfavorable stress concentrations and the multilayer technique is a promising restorative alternative in posterior adhesive restorations when deep dentin and enamel volumes are missing. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Miniscrews in Gaining Prosthetic Space for a Dental Implant to Replace the Mandibular First Molar: A Case Series
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11020607 - 10 Jan 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Background: The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of miniscrews to upright the lower second molar as a result of early loss of the lower first molar in order to permit rehabilitation by means of an implant-supported single crown. [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of miniscrews to upright the lower second molar as a result of early loss of the lower first molar in order to permit rehabilitation by means of an implant-supported single crown. Methods: The case series included ten patients who each received a miniscrew placed distal of the second molar in order to straighten the tooth; the prosthetic space gained (sufficient to allow implant placement in the edentulous space) and the change in angulation obtained were analyzed. The changes produced by miniscrews were evaluated in radiographs. Results: Statistical analysis identified significant improvements in angulation (p = 0.005) and significant amounts of space gained (p = 0.005) as well as a strong correlation between these two parameters (r = −0.93; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of miniscrews alone without the intervention of other orthodontic methods to straighten a mesialized lower second molar in order to replace a missing first molar with an implant significantly improves both the angulation of the molar and the prosthetic space available. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Digital Radiography in Detecting Separated Endodontic Files and Strip Perforation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8726; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10238726 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
The separation of endodontic files and strip perforation are among procedural intraoperative complications which may ultimately lead to the failure of root canal treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic potential of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and [...] Read more.
The separation of endodontic files and strip perforation are among procedural intraoperative complications which may ultimately lead to the failure of root canal treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic potential of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs in detecting separated rotary files and strip perforation in filled canals. Fifty human mandibular molars were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on endodontic errors (i.e., file separation and strip perforation). In each group, 25 of 50 mesial canals were randomly chosen for simulating the errors, while the other 25 canals were considered as the control group. In group one, a simulation of the separation of rotary files was performed using ProTaper F2 files. Strip perforation of the root canals in group two was achieved by number 2 and 3 Gates Glidden drills in the coronal third of the root canals. Digital periapical radiographs in two different horizontal angles and high-resolution CBCT scans were obtained from the teeth mounted on a dry human mandible with simulated soft tissue covering. Three experienced observers who were unaware of the study groups evaluated the digital periapical and CBCT image sets in two separate readings. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements, as well as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were calculated and compared. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements ranged from poor to excellent and poor to good, respectively. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for digital radiography in detecting separated files were 0.950, 0.813, 0.957, 0.929, and 0.880, respectively. The same values for CBCT were 0.747, 0.667, 0.900, 0.833, and 0.783, respectively. For the diagnosis of strip perforation, these values were 0.855, 0.800, 0.909, 0.889, and 0.833 for periapical radiography and 0.955, 1.000, 0.920, 0.926, and 1.000 for CBCT. In conclusion, CBCT was superior for diagnosing strip perforation of the filled root canals, while digital periapical radiographs performed better in the detection of separated rotary files. Full article
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Article
Effect of Low and High Viscosity Composites on Temperature Rise of Premolars Restored through the Bulk-Fill and the Incremental Layering Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10228041 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Background: Deep dental cavities can be restored through a single step according to the bulk-fill technique. Due to the great amount of resin to be cured, a main concern is the temperature rise occurring in the pulp chamber, potentially higher than that developed [...] Read more.
Background: Deep dental cavities can be restored through a single step according to the bulk-fill technique. Due to the great amount of resin to be cured, a main concern is the temperature rise occurring in the pulp chamber, potentially higher than that developed through the incremental layering technique. Temperature rise of bulk-fill composites have been evaluated. Methods: Bulk-fill composites, differing in material composition and viscosity, were used. Maximum temperature and temperature rate occurring in the composites were measured. Mesio-occlusal-distal cavities of human premolars were restored through the bulk-fill or the incremental layering techniques, and peak temperature and temperature rate occurring in the dentin, 1 mm below the cavity floor, were evaluated. Results: Temperature peak and temperature rise of flowable composites were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than packable composites. For both the techniques, higher temperature peaks were recorded in the dentin for flowable composites. Peak temperatures higher than 42 °C were recorded for the incremental layering technique considering flowable composites. Conclusions: For all the composites, the light curing modality of 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 s can be considered safe if the bulk-fill technique is performed. Instead, for the incremental layering technique, potentially dangerous temperature peaks have been recorded for flowable composites. Full article
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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Derived from Cockle Shells
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10207170 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Cockle shells are a natural reservoir of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is widely used in bone repair, tissue scaffolds, and the development of advanced drug delivery systems. Although many studies report on the preparation of CaCO3, the development of [...] Read more.
Cockle shells are a natural reservoir of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is widely used in bone repair, tissue scaffolds, and the development of advanced drug delivery systems. Although many studies report on the preparation of CaCO3, the development of a nanosized spherical CaCO3 precursor for calcium oxide (CaO) that is suitable to be incorporated in dental material was scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize a nanosized spherical CaCO3 precursor for CaO derived from cockle shells using a sol–gel method. Cockle shells were crushed to powder form and mixed with hydrochloric acid, forming calcium chloride (CaCl2). Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was then fed to the diluted CaCl2 to obtain CaCO3. The effect of experimental parameters on the morphology of CaCO3, such as volume of water, type of solvents, feeding rate of K2CO3, and drying method, were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Optimized CaCO3 was then calcined to form CaO. XRD analysis of CaCO3 nanoparticles was indicative of the formation of a calcite phase. The well-structured spherical shape of CaCO3 was obtained by the optimum condition of the addition of 50 mL of water into CaCl2 in ethanolic solution with a 1 h feeding rate of K2CO3. Less agglomeration of CaCO3 was obtained using a freeze-drying technique with the surface area of 26 m2/g and average particle size of 39 nm. Spherical shaped nanosized CaO (22–70 nm) was also synthesized. The reproducibility, low cost, and simplicity of the method suggest its potential applications in the large-scale synthesis of the nanoparticles, with spherical morphology in an industrial setting. Full article
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Review

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Review
Influencing Factors in Autotransplantation of Teeth with Open Apex: A Review of the Literature
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app11094037 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Dental autotransplantation is the process by which a tooth located in its natural socket is extracted and relocated to another socket in which the tooth is missing or has been extracted due to various reasons such as trauma, extensive caries or periapical pathology, [...] Read more.
Dental autotransplantation is the process by which a tooth located in its natural socket is extracted and relocated to another socket in which the tooth is missing or has been extracted due to various reasons such as trauma, extensive caries or periapical pathology, among other reasons. This proposed technique offers a more conservative alternative for patients in comparison with prosthetic or implant techniques, especially in young patients where implants are contraindicated until their maxillary bone system’s growth ends. Thus, the objective of this review was to present a qualitative synthesis of the risk factors that influence the results of open apex dental autotransplantation in humans. After confirming that there are various factors that influence dental autotransplantation, it was concluded that the extra-alveolar time of the donor tooth and the periodontal damage of the root of the donor tooth are the factors of greatest interest in the literature, both closely linked to the use of 3D replication of the transplanted tooth. Full article
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Review
Overview on Osteoporosis, Periodontitis and Oral Dysbiosis: The Emerging Role of Oral Microbiota
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 6000; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10176000 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Osteoporosis (OP) is a bone disease consisting of a progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and therefore resulting in greater susceptibility to fractures. OP shares a number of risk factors and demographic characteristics with periodontitis (PD), a bacteria-induced chronic inflammation of periodontal [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis (OP) is a bone disease consisting of a progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and therefore resulting in greater susceptibility to fractures. OP shares a number of risk factors and demographic characteristics with periodontitis (PD), a bacteria-induced chronic inflammation of periodontal structures that leads to loss of alveolar bone and teeth. In the last decade, with the advent of gut and oral microbiome studies and profiling, a growing diagnostic and prognostic significance has been attributed to dysbiosis associated with various systemic and organ-specific pathologies. This evidence has inspired research on modulating the microbiota to restore health by the use of prebiotics and probiotics. The aim of this work is to overview the bidirectional interrelationships between OP and PD, reporting the most recent evidence on triggering factors and, mainly, the role of gut and oral dysbiosis in the onset and progression of both OP and PD, with the perspective in their therapy. Full article
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Review
Root Canal Morphology of the Permanent Mandibular Incisors by Cone Beam Computed Tomography: A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4914; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/app10144914 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Knowledge of dental anatomy through the assessment of the anatomic variations of each tooth’s root canal system is essential to undertake endodontic therapy. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the different studies on the internal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors [...] Read more.
Knowledge of dental anatomy through the assessment of the anatomic variations of each tooth’s root canal system is essential to undertake endodontic therapy. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the different studies on the internal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors where Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) X-ray imaging is used. Pubmed, CENTRAL, Wiley Library and Web of Science electronic databases were searched for scientific studies included until March 2020. The terms used in the search were: “permanent mandibular incisors”, “root canal morphology” and “cone-beam computed tomography”. The search was limited to studies whose aim was the analysis of the morphology of the root canal system evaluating the parameters of methodology, population, sample, number and configuration. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a noticeable lack of unanimity in the setting adjustments of each of the CBCT devices used. The presence of two root canals varied from 0.4% to 45%. The most frequent configurations were Vertucci’s Types I, III, II, V, IV, VII and VI. Type VIII configuration was non-existent. CBCT revealed the existence of anatomical symmetry patterns, and there was no unanimity of criteria regarding the presence of a second root canal. Results concerning the presence of a second root canal in the mandibular incisors differ widely, with a possible influence of the geographic area where the study was conducted. The prevalence of a second canal is higher in mandibular lateral incisors than in mandibular central incisors. There was no direct relationship between voxel size (0.125–0.3 mm) and increased prevalence of a second canal. Full article
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