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Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 518 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Our study delineated cell targets and actions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that drive prostate carcinogenesis and promote tumor aggressiveness. Our studies using human benign and cancerous prostate cells demonstrate that PFAS exposures increase proliferation of benign and prostate cancer (PCa) cells and synergize with a high-fat diet (HFD) to enhance PCa tumor growth in mice. Further, our data indicate that PFAS enhances glucose metabolism and pyruvate production in PCa cells, modifies epigenetic marks, and alters the transcriptome related to proliferation and metabolism. Our paper shows that PFAS exposures together with HFD drive metabolic changes that reprogram prostate cells through epigenetic modifications that, independently or combined, initiate PCa and promote tumor progression.View this paper
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Article
Screening Practices for Disordered Eating in Paediatric Type 1 Diabetes Clinics
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114187 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Background: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased risk of eating disorders. This study aimed to (1) assess adherence of Australasian paediatric T1D clinics to international guidelines on screening for disordered eating and (2) identify barriers and enablers to the use of [...] Read more.
Background: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased risk of eating disorders. This study aimed to (1) assess adherence of Australasian paediatric T1D clinics to international guidelines on screening for disordered eating and (2) identify barriers and enablers to the use of screening tools for the identification of disordered eating. Methods: A 24-item survey covering five content domains: clinic characteristics, identification of disordered eating, screening tool use, training and competence, and pathways for referral, was sent to Australasian clinics caring for ≥150 children and adolescents with T1D. Results: Of 13 eligible clinics, 10 participated. Two reported rates of disordered eating of >20%, while eight reported rates < 5%. All clinics used the routine clinical interview as the primary method of screening for disordered eating. Only one used screening tools; these were not diabetes-specific or routinely used. Barriers to use of screening tools included shortage of time and lack of staff confidence around use (n = 7, 70%). Enablers included staff training in disordered eating. Conclusions: Screening tools for disordered eating are not utilised by most Australasian paediatric T1D clinics. Overall, low reported rates of disordered eating suggest that it may be undetected, potentially missing an opportunity for early intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Managing in Pediatric Diabetes: Aspects and Challenges)
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Article
Low- and No-Calorie Sweetener (LNCS) Presence and Consumption among the Portuguese Adult Population
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114186 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The use of low and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) in food and beverages has become increasingly common in the development and reformulation of products to reduce energy derived from added sugars. Our aim was to identify the presence and consumption of LNCS through food [...] Read more.
The use of low and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) in food and beverages has become increasingly common in the development and reformulation of products to reduce energy derived from added sugars. Our aim was to identify the presence and consumption of LNCS through food and beverages according to consumption patterns in a representative sample (n = 256) of the Portuguese adult population. The study had a descriptive cross-sectional observational design and was based on the application of a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Overall, it was found that 4.1% of the foods and 16.7% of the beverages consumed by the Portuguese adult population contained LNCS. Food groups mostly contributing to LNCS consumption were non-alcoholic beverages such as soft drinks and juices (34.2%); milk and dairy products (16.5%); appetizers such as chips (8.6%); sugars and sweets such as chocolates, candies, or chewing gums (6.1%); meat and derivative products (2.2%); cereals and derivatives (1.2%) and canned fruits (1.2%). Main LNCS consumed were acesulfame-K, sucralose, and aspartame, single or combined, although their prevalence of use differs greatly among foods, beverages, or tabletop sweeteners. In conclusion, LNCS were found across a wide variety of products available in the Portuguese market and their prevalence of inclusion in the diet of the population evidences the need to develop more studies on the evolution of LNCS intake and its impact on the full dietary model and health. Consequently, these food additives should be included in food composition databases and, periodically, updated to reflect the recurrent reformulation strategies adopted by the food industry in its efforts to reduce the energy contribution of added sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Flavonoid Phloretin Inhibits Adipogenesis and Increases OPG Expression in Adipocytes Derived from Human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal-Cells
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114185 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Phloretin (a flavonoid abundant in apple), has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glucose-transporter inhibitory properties. Thus, it has interesting pharmacological and nutraceutical potential. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have high differentiation capacity, being essential for maintaining homeostasis and regenerative capacity in the organism. Yet, they [...] Read more.
Phloretin (a flavonoid abundant in apple), has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and glucose-transporter inhibitory properties. Thus, it has interesting pharmacological and nutraceutical potential. Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have high differentiation capacity, being essential for maintaining homeostasis and regenerative capacity in the organism. Yet, they preferentially differentiate into adipocytes instead of osteoblasts with aging. This has a negative impact on bone turnover, remodeling, and formation. We have evaluated the effects of phloretin on human adipogenesis, analyzing MSC induced to differentiate into adipocytes. Expression of adipogenic genes, as well as genes encoding OPG and RANKL (involved in osteoclastogenesis), protein synthesis, lipid-droplets formation, and apoptosis, were studied. Results showed that 10 and 20 µM phloretin inhibited adipogenesis. This effect was mediated by increasing beta-catenin, as well as increasing apoptosis in adipocytes, at late stages of differentiation. In addition, this chemical increased OPG gene expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in adipocytes. These results suggest that this flavonoid (including phloretin-rich foods) has interesting potential for clinical and regenerative-medicine applications. Thus, such chemicals could be used to counteract obesity and prevent bone-marrow adiposity. That is particularly useful to protect bone mass and treat diseases like osteoporosis, which is an epidemic worldwide. Full article
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Review
Effects on Puberty of Nutrition-Mediated Endocrine Disruptors Employed in Agriculture
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114184 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Pesticide residues are largely found in daily consumed food because of their extensive use in farming and their long half-life, which prolongs their presence in the environment. Many of these pesticides act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals after pre- or postnatal exposure, significantly affecting, among [...] Read more.
Pesticide residues are largely found in daily consumed food because of their extensive use in farming and their long half-life, which prolongs their presence in the environment. Many of these pesticides act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals after pre- or postnatal exposure, significantly affecting, among other things, the time of puberty onset, progression, and completion. In humans, precocious or delayed puberty, and early or delayed sexual maturation, may entail several negative long-term health implications. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the impact of endocrine-disrupting pesticides upon the timing of the landmarks of female and male puberty in both animals (vaginal opening, first estrus, and balanopreputial separation) and humans (thelarche, menarche, gonadarche). Moreover, we explore the possible mechanisms of action of the reviewed endocrine-disrupting pesticides on the human reproductive system. Access to safe, healthy, and nutritious food is fundamental for the maintenance of health and wellbeing. Eliminating the presence of hazardous chemicals in largely consumed food products may increase their nutritional value and be proven beneficial for overall health. Consequently, understanding the effects of human exposure to hazardous endocrine-disrupting pesticides, and legislating against their circulation, are of major importance for the protection of health in vulnerable populations, such as children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Endocrine Disorders)
Article
The Fatty Acid Species and Quantity Consumed by the Breastfed Infant Are Important for Growth and Development
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4183; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114183 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The fatty acids (FAs) of human milk (HM) are the building blocks of the HM lipidome, contributing to infant health and development; however, this has not been comprehensively characterised with respect to infant intake. Eighteen Western Australian mother–infant dyads provided monthly longitudinal HM [...] Read more.
The fatty acids (FAs) of human milk (HM) are the building blocks of the HM lipidome, contributing to infant health and development; however, this has not been comprehensively characterised with respect to infant intake. Eighteen Western Australian mother–infant dyads provided monthly longitudinal HM samples during six months of exclusive breastfeeding. Monthly anthropometric measurements, health data and basic maternal food frequency data were also collected. At three months, infant 24 h milk intake and total lipid intake were measured. The FA profile was analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Linear regression and Pearson’s correlation were used to identify associations between HM FA composition, HM FA intake, maternal characteristics and infant growth and developmental outcomes. Mean infant intake of total lipids was 29.7 ± 9.4 g/day. HM FA composition exhibited wide variation between dyads and throughout lactation. Infant intake of a number of FAs, including C15:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C20:3, was positively related to infant growth (all p < 0.001). There were no relationships detected between C22:5 and C20:5 and infant head circumference. Infant total lipid intake and the infant intake of many FAs play essential roles in infant growth and development. This study highlights the important relationships of many HM FAs not previously described, including C15:0 and C18:2 species. Infant outcomes should be considered in the context of intake in future HM studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome Is Affected by Length of Daily Siesta: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114182 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Background: Siesta has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease but the mechanism remains unclear. New studies into the relationship between siesta and metabolic syndrome have identified siesta length as a crucial differential, suggesting that siesta less than 40 min is associated [...] Read more.
Background: Siesta has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease but the mechanism remains unclear. New studies into the relationship between siesta and metabolic syndrome have identified siesta length as a crucial differential, suggesting that siesta less than 40 min is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, while longer siesta is associated with increased risk. We aimed to investigate the effect of siesta duration on development of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population using a prospective cohort study design. Methods: Our sample consisted of 9161 participants of the SUN cohort without components of metabolic syndrome at baseline. Siesta exposure was assessed at baseline and the development of metabolic syndrome components was assessed after an average 6.8 years of follow-up. We estimated odds ratios and fitted logistic regression models to adjust for potential cofounders including night-time sleep duration and quality, as well as other diet, health, and lifestyle factors. Results: We observed a positive association between average daily siesta >30 min and development of metabolic syndrome (aOR = 1.39 CI: 1.03–1.88). We found no significant difference in risk of developing metabolic syndrome between the group averaging ≤30 min of daily siesta and the group not taking siesta (aOR = 1.07 CI: 0.83–1.37). Further analysis suggested that average daily siesta <15 min may reduce risk of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Our study supports the J-curve model of the association between siesta and risk of metabolic syndrome, but suggests the protective effect is limited to a shorter range of siesta length than previously proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
The Potential for Healthy Checkout Policies to Advance Nutrition Equity
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114181 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Background: As the only place in a store where all customers must pass through and wait, the checkout lane may be particularly influential over consumer purchases. Because most foods and beverages sold at checkout are unhealthy (e.g., candy, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and salty [...] Read more.
Background: As the only place in a store where all customers must pass through and wait, the checkout lane may be particularly influential over consumer purchases. Because most foods and beverages sold at checkout are unhealthy (e.g., candy, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and salty snacks), policymakers and advocates have expressed growing interest in healthy checkout policies. To understand the extent to which such policies could improve nutrition equity, we assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of purchasing items found at (i.e., from) checkout. Methods: We assessed self-reported checkout purchasing and sociodemographic characteristics in a national convenience sample of adults (n = 10,348) completing an online survey in 2021. Results: Over one third (36%) of participants reported purchasing foods or drinks from checkout during their last grocery shopping trip. Purchasing items from checkout was more common among men; adults < 55 years of age; low-income consumers; Hispanic, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, and non-Hispanic Black consumers; those with a graduate or professional degree; parents; and consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (p-values < 0.05). Conclusions: Purchasing foods or beverages from store checkouts is common and more prevalent among low-income and Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Black consumers. These results suggest that healthy checkout policies have the potential to improve nutrition equity. Full article
Editorial
Editorial: A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System—Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4180; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114180 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
The emergence of the SARS-CoV virus in December 2019 saw the beginning of an unprecedented pandemic that represents the most significant public health problem in recent memory [...] Full article
Article
A Cross-Sectional Study of Evening Hyperphagia and Nocturnal Ingestion: Core Constituents of Night Eating Syndrome with Different Background Factors
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114179 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
This web-based cross-sectional survey aimed to elucidate the differences between the two core symptoms of night eating syndrome (NES): evening hyperphagia and nocturnal ingestion in the general Japanese population aged 16–79 years. Participants who consumed at least 25% of daily calories after dinner [...] Read more.
This web-based cross-sectional survey aimed to elucidate the differences between the two core symptoms of night eating syndrome (NES): evening hyperphagia and nocturnal ingestion in the general Japanese population aged 16–79 years. Participants who consumed at least 25% of daily calories after dinner were defined as having evening hyperphagia. Those who consumed food after sleep initiation at least twice a week were determined to have nocturnal ingestion. Of the 8348 participants, 119 (1.5%) were categorized in the evening hyperphagia group, 208 (2.6%) in the nocturnal ingestion group, and 8024 in the non-NES group. Participants with evening hyperphagia and nocturnal ingestion had significantly higher anxiety scores (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) and depression (p < 0.001 for both) than those without NES. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that evening hyperphagia was significantly and independently associated with higher body mass index, shorter sleep duration, later sleep-wake schedule, and higher insomnia score, while nocturnal ingestion was significantly and independently associated with younger age, smoking habit, living alone, earlier sleep-wake schedule, and higher insomnia score. Sleep duration and sleep-wake schedule characteristics in the two groups were opposite, suggesting differences in the sleep pathophysiology mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Sleep: The Towers of Lifestyle, Wellness, and Survival)
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Review
The Effects of Shift Work on Cardio-Metabolic Diseases and Eating Patterns
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114178 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Energy metabolism is tightly linked with circadian rhythms, exposure to ambient light, sleep/wake, fasting/eating, and rest/activity cycles. External factors, such as shift work, lead to a disruption of these rhythms, often called circadian misalignment. Circadian misalignment has an impact on some physiological markers. [...] Read more.
Energy metabolism is tightly linked with circadian rhythms, exposure to ambient light, sleep/wake, fasting/eating, and rest/activity cycles. External factors, such as shift work, lead to a disruption of these rhythms, often called circadian misalignment. Circadian misalignment has an impact on some physiological markers. However, these proxy measurements do not immediately translate into major clinical health outcomes, as shown by later detrimental health effects of shift work and cardio-metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the effects of shift work on circadian rhythms and its implications in cardio-metabolic disorders and eating patterns. Shift work appears to be a risk factor of overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and the metabolic syndrome. However, past studies showed discordant findings regarding the changes of lipid profile and eating patterns. Most studies were either small and short lab studies, or bigger and longer cohort studies, which could not measure health outcomes in a detailed manner. These two designs explain the heterogeneity of shift schedules, occupations, sample size, and methods across studies. Given the burden of non-communicable diseases and the growing concerns about shift workers’ health, novel approaches to study shift work in real contexts are needed and would allow a better understanding of the interlocked risk factors and potential mechanisms involved in the onset of metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chrononutrition and Chronic Diseases)
Article
Blackcurrant Improves Diabetic Cardiovascular Dysfunction by Reducing Inflammatory Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114177 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction is a representative complication of diabetes. Inflammation associated with the onset and exacerbation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, which includes [...] Read more.
Diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction is a representative complication of diabetes. Inflammation associated with the onset and exacerbation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, which includes structural heart changes, myocardial cell death, and extracellular matrix protein accumulation. The mice groups in this study were divided as follows: Cont, control (db/m mice); T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus mice (db/db mice); Vil.G, db/db + vildagliptin 50 mg/kg/day, positive control, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor; Bla.C, db/db + blackcurrant 200 mg/kg/day. In this study, Bla.C treatment significantly improved the homeostatic model evaluation of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices and diabetic blood markers such as HbA1c in T2DM mice. In addition, Bla.C improved cardiac function markers and cardiac thickening through echocardiography. Bla.C reduced the expression of fibrosis biomarkers, elastin and type IV collagen, in the left ventricle of a diabetic cardiopathy model. Bla.C also inhibited TD2M-induced elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines in cardiac tissue (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β). Thus, Bla.C significantly improved cardiac inflammation and cardiovascular fibrosis and dysfunction by blocking inflammatory cytokine activation signals. This showed that Bla.C treatment could ameliorate diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications in T2DM mice. These results provide evidence that Bla.C extract has a significant effect on the prevention of cardiovascular fibrosis, inflammation, and consequent diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications, directly or indirectly, by improving blood glucose profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Berries and Human Health: Mechanisms and Evidence)
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Review
Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: From Childhood to Adulthood
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114176 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Obesity has become a major epidemic in the 21st century. It increases the risk of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, which are known cardiometabolic risk factors and components of the metabolic syndrome. Although overt cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as stroke or myocardial [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a major epidemic in the 21st century. It increases the risk of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, which are known cardiometabolic risk factors and components of the metabolic syndrome. Although overt cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction are the domain of adulthood, it is evident that the CV continuum begins very early in life. Recognition of risk factors and early stages of CV damage, at a time when these processes are still reversible, and the development of prevention strategies are major pillars in reducing CV morbidity and mortality in the general population. In this review, we will discuss the role of well-known but also novel risk factors linking obesity and increased CV risk from prenatal age to adulthood, including the role of perinatal factors, diet, nutrigenomics, and nutri-epigenetics, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The importance of ‘tracking’ of these risk factors on adult CV health is highlighted and the economic impact of childhood obesity as well as preventive strategies are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity: Through the Life Course)
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Article
Prevalence and Determinants of Vitamin D Deficiency in 9595 Mongolian Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114175 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Population-based data relating to vitamin D status of children in Northeast Asia are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in 9595 schoolchildren aged 6–13 years in Ulaanbaatar (UB), the capital city of Mongolia. [...] Read more.
Population-based data relating to vitamin D status of children in Northeast Asia are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in 9595 schoolchildren aged 6–13 years in Ulaanbaatar (UB), the capital city of Mongolia. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were collected by questionnaire, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, standardized and categorized as deficient (25[OH]D <10 ng/mL) or not. Odds ratios for associations between independent variables and risk of vitamin D deficiency were calculated using multivariate analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of vitamins D deficiency was 40.6% (95% CI 39.7% to 41.6%). It was independently associated with female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for girls vs. boys 1.23, 95% CI 1.11–1.35), month of sampling (aORs for December–February vs. June–November 5.28 [4.53–6.15], March–May vs. June–November 14.85 [12.46–17.74]), lower levels of parental education (P for trend <0.001), lower frequency of egg consumption (P for trend <0.001), active tuberculosis (aOR 1.40 [1.03–1.94]), household smoking (aOR 1.13 [1.02 to1.25]), and shorter time outdoors (P for trend <0.001). We report a very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Mongolian schoolchildren, which requires addressing as a public health priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Benefits of Food Fortification)
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Article
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Lockdown on Anthropometric Parameters in Children 11/12 Years Old
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114174 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Background: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric [...] Read more.
Background: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric parameters in children aged 11/12 years. Methods: Fifty Spanish children aged 11/12 years (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50) participated: 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. For data collection, we used an anthropometry kit; the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices; and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic and other data under investigation. Results: There were significant differences in the anthropometric parameters measured and in the results obtained for Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage pre- and post-lockdown in both boys and girls (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in waist-circumference measurements (p > 0.05). Conclusions: There is evidence of a significant impact of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on anthropometric parameters in boys and girls aged 11/12 years. Full article
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Review
Synthetic Microbiomes on the Rise—Application in Deciphering the Role of Microbes in Host Health and Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114173 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 407
Abstract
The intestinal microbiota conveys significant benefits to host physiology. Although multiple chronic disorders have been associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition and function, it is still unclear whether these changes are a cause or a consequence. Hence, to translate microbiome research [...] Read more.
The intestinal microbiota conveys significant benefits to host physiology. Although multiple chronic disorders have been associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition and function, it is still unclear whether these changes are a cause or a consequence. Hence, to translate microbiome research into clinical application, it is necessary to provide a proof of causality of host–microbiota interactions. This is hampered by the complexity of the gut microbiome and many confounding factors. The application of gnotobiotic animal models associated with synthetic communities allows us to address the cause–effect relationship between the host and intestinal microbiota by reducing the microbiome complexity on a manageable level. In recent years, diverse bacterial communities were assembled to analyze the role of microorganisms in infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. In this review, we outline their application and features. Furthermore, we discuss the differences between human-derived and model-specific communities. Lastly, we highlight the necessity of generating novel synthetic communities to unravel the microbial role associated with specific health outcomes and disease phenotypes. This understanding is essential for the development of novel non-invasive targeted therapeutic strategies to control and modulate intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Connection between Microbiome, Lifestyle and Diet)
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Article
Improved Quality of Life, Fitness, Mental Health and Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Publicly Funded Bariatric Lifestyle Intervention for Adults with Severe Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114172 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
Background: Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of management for patients with severe and complicated obesity, but the effects of structured lifestyle programmes on quality of life, anxiety and depression scores and cardiovascular risk factors are not well-described. We sought to describe changes in [...] Read more.
Background: Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of management for patients with severe and complicated obesity, but the effects of structured lifestyle programmes on quality of life, anxiety and depression scores and cardiovascular risk factors are not well-described. We sought to describe changes in self-reported quality of life and mental health-related outcomes as well as cardiovascular risk factors in patients completing a 10-week multidisciplinary lifestyle-modification programme. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients referred from our bariatric service who completed the programme between 2013 and 2019. In addition to weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, HbA1c, lipid profile and functional capacity, we quantified health-related quality of life using the Dartmouth COOP Questionnaire and the European Quality of Life Questionnaire Visual Analogue Scale (EQVAS) and mental health using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Of 1122 patients who started the programme, 877 (78.2%) completed it and were included in per protocol analyses. Mean age was 47.3 ± 11.9 years, 66.9% were female, 34.8% were in full- or part-time employment and 69.4% were entitled to state-provided medical care. BMI decreased from 47.0 ± 7.8 to 46.2 ± 7.8 kg m−2 and weight decreased from 131.6 ± 25.5 to 129.5 ± 25.4 kg (both p < 0.001). There were significant reductions in anxiety and depression scores and improvements in all Dartmouth COOP domains. The EQVAS score increased from 52 ± 22 to 63 ± 19 (p < 0.001). Small but statistically significant reductions in LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and HBA1c were also observed. Conclusions: Adults with severe and complicated obesity completing a specialised bariatric lifestyle-modification programme showed significant improvements in self-reported mental health and quality of life, in addition to reductions in cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Brief Report
Baseline Predictors of Adherence in a Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Group Psychological Intervention for People with Recurrent Binge Eating Episodes Associated to Overweight or Obesity
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114171 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Purpose: Understanding the high rate of treatment adherence in trials of people with eating disorders is important as it can compromise the quality of the trials. In clinical practice, it may also contribute to illness chronicity, relapse, and costs. Thus, we investigated factors [...] Read more.
Purpose: Understanding the high rate of treatment adherence in trials of people with eating disorders is important as it can compromise the quality of the trials. In clinical practice, it may also contribute to illness chronicity, relapse, and costs. Thus, we investigated factors associated with adherence to a new treatment HAPIFED, which integrates cognitive behavioural therapy having extended sessions with body weight loss therapy compared to cognitive behavioural therapy with extended sessions alone, for individuals with Bulimia Nervosa or Binge Eating Disorder or other eating disorders comorbid with overweight or obesity. Methods: In total, 98 participants having bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and other specified and unspecified eating disorders were recruited with 50 randomised to HAPIFED and 48 to the control intervention CBT-E, all administered in groups of up to 10 participants. An investigator external to the site conducted the random allocation, which was concealed from the statistician involved in the analysis, and known only to the therapists until the finalization of the 12-month follow-up after the end of active treatment. Three scenarios in the timeline treatment of a total of 30 sessions were assessed: 33% or 60% or 75% of presence. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was performed to find the correlates of adherence after adjusting for clustering by number of group participants. To account for heterogeneity by types of eating disorders in the sample, the latter variable was considered as a control factor in the models. A subgroup analysis was performed for those with binge eating disorder as this was the largest (N = 66) eating disorder group. Results: None of the six variables—frequency of binge eating episodes, purging, eating disorder symptom severity, weight, illness duration and mental health-related quality of life—significantly predicted adherence at 33%, but longer illness duration predicted higher treatment adherence at both 60% and 75% presence of the interventions. Also for 75% presence, higher body weight predicted lower treatment adherence. For the subgroup analysis, those having higher illness duration had significantly higher odds of treatment adherence for 60% and 75% of the sessions. Conclusions: Higher adherence due to late treatment completion was associated with longer binge eating illness length and a lower body weight. More research is needed to recognize factors that may interfere with engagement in treatments aiming to avoid early dropout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Review
Recommendations for Integrating Evidence-Based, Sustainable Diet Information into Nutrition Education
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114170 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The adoption of more sustainable diets (SD) has the capacity to meet the needs of individuals without compromising future generations’ abilities to do the same. Nutrition educators are ideal candidates for delivering SD education to consumers, yet evidence-based recommendations for the profession have [...] Read more.
The adoption of more sustainable diets (SD) has the capacity to meet the needs of individuals without compromising future generations’ abilities to do the same. Nutrition educators are ideal candidates for delivering SD education to consumers, yet evidence-based recommendations for the profession have not been crafted. The results of a thorough, narrative review of the literature performed in 2021 suggest there are five well-supported recommendations nutrition educators should consider incorporating in their work. They are (1) shift towards a plant-based diet, (2) mitigate food waste, (3) limit consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF), (4) engage in local food systems, and (5) choose sustainable seafood. Each recommendation is discussed below in detail, to provide nutrition educators with a nuanced scope of the issue, after which suggestions for the inclusion of these recommendations, using an example of the authors’ experiences from the US Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Food Environment and Diet Diversity)
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Article
Association between Water and Energy Requirements with Physical Activity and Fat-Free Mass in Preschool Children in Japan
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114169 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Water and energy are essential for the human body. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures water turnover (WT) and total energy expenditure (TEE), which serves as a benchmark for the adequate intake (AI) of water and estimated energy requirements (EER). The objective [...] Read more.
Water and energy are essential for the human body. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures water turnover (WT) and total energy expenditure (TEE), which serves as a benchmark for the adequate intake (AI) of water and estimated energy requirements (EER). The objective of the current study was to examine the association of WT and TEE with physical activity and body composition in Japanese preschool children. We included 41 preschool children (22 girls, 19 boys) aged 3–6 in this study. WT, TEE, and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained using DLW. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer and categorized as light (LPA; 1.5–2.9 Metabolic equivalents, METs) and of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA; ≥3.0 METs). Exercise duration (Ex) was defined as ≥4.0 METs of physical activity. WT and TEE moderately positively correlated with Ex, but not with LPA. WT moderately positively correlated with BW and FFM while TEE strongly. We established predictive equations for WT and TEE using body weight (BW), FFM, step count, and Ex to guide the AI of water and EER in Japanese preschool children. We found that FFM and step count are the determinants of TEE, and that BW and Ex are the determinants of WT in preschool children. Full article
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Article
The Association between Daily Total Dietary Nutrient Intake and Recent Glycemic Control States of Non-Pregnant Adults 20+ Years Old from NHANES 1999–2018 (Except for 2003–2004)
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114168 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Background: Although daily total dietary nutrient intakes were potentially important factors in maintaining glycemic balance, their overall effect on glycemic control was still unclear among American adults. Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between daily total dietary nutrient intake and recent glycemic [...] Read more.
Background: Although daily total dietary nutrient intakes were potentially important factors in maintaining glycemic balance, their overall effect on glycemic control was still unclear among American adults. Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between daily total dietary nutrient intake and recent glycemic control status (RGCS). Methods: This cohort was composed of 41,302 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The daily total intake of dietary nutrients and RGCS were independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate their association, we carried out binary logistic regression, model fitting, linear discriminant analysis, and the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The result of robust check model showed that only the daily total dietary vitamin B6 intake (adjusted OR = 0.848; 95% CI: 0.738, 0.973; p-value = 0.019) was significantly negatively correlated with RGCS. When daily total dietary vitamin B6 intake and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were used as independent variables and dependent variables, respectively, to fit the curves and lines, the established robust check model could distinguish American adults with different RGCS well. Moreover, the robust check model results of ROC analysis indicated that daily total dietary vitamin B6 intake might be a potential predictor for RGCS (AUC = 0.977; 95% CI: 0.974, 0.980; p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that only daily total dietary vitamin B6 intake was a beneficial factor in RGCS, but it might need further multicenter or prospective studies to verify whether vitamin B6 had biological implications and public health meaning for glycemic control among American adults (specifically referred to non-pregnant participants over 20 years old). Full article
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Article
Association between Dietary Pattern and Periodontitis—A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114167 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between specific known dietary patterns and the prevalence of periodontal disease in a northern population-based cohort study. We evaluated data from 6209 participants of the Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS). The HCHS is [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between specific known dietary patterns and the prevalence of periodontal disease in a northern population-based cohort study. We evaluated data from 6209 participants of the Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS). The HCHS is a prospective cohort study and is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT03934957). Dietary intake was assessed with the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ2). Periodontal examination included probing depth, gingival recession, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Descriptive analyses were stratified by periodontitis severity. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to determine the association. Ordinal regression analyses revealed a significant association between higher adherence to the DASH diet/Mediterranean diet and lower odds to be affected by periodontal diseases in an unadjusted model (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; p < 0.001/OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96; p < 0.001) and an adjusted model (age, sex, diabetes) (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.00; p < 0.0365/OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; p < 0.0359). The current cross-sectional study identified a significant association between higher adherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets and lower odds to be affected by periodontal diseases (irrespective of disease severity). Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate to which extent macro- and micronutrition can affect periodontitis initiation/progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
Article
The Influence of Age and Oral Health on Taste Perception in Older Adults: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114166 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Declining gustatory function, nutrition, and oral health are important elements of health in older adults that can affect the aging process. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of age and oral status on taste discrimination in two different [...] Read more.
Declining gustatory function, nutrition, and oral health are important elements of health in older adults that can affect the aging process. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of age and oral status on taste discrimination in two different groups of elderly subjects living either in an Italian residential institution (TG) or in the community (CG). A total of 90 subjects were enrolled in the study (58 CG vs. 32 TG). Masticatory performance (MP) was assessed using the two-color mixing ability test. Taste function was evaluated using cotton pads soaked with six taste stimuli (salty, acid, sweet, bitter, fat and water). A positive correlation between age and missing teeth (r = 0.51, C.I. [0.33; 0.65], p < 0.0001), and a negative correlation between age and MP (r = −0.39, C.I. [−0.56; −0.20], p < 0.001) were found. Moreover, significant differences for salty taste, between TG and CG were detected (p < 0.05). Significant differences in bitter taste sensitivity between subjects wearing removable and non-removable prosthesis were also determined (p < 0.05). In addition, significant gender differences and between males in TG and CG were identified (p < 0.05). The best understanding of the relationship between MP, taste sensitivity, and nutritional factors is a necessary criterion for the development of new therapeutic strategies to address more effectively the problems associated with malnutrition in elderly subjects. Full article
Article
Characterization of Individualized Glycemic Excursions during a Standardized Bout of Hypoglycemia-Inducing Exercise and Subsequent Hypoglycemia Treatment—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114165 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the [...] Read more.
The glycemic response to ingested glucose for the treatment of hypoglycemia following exercise in type 1 diabetes patients has never been studied. Therefore, we aimed to characterize glucose dynamics during a standardized bout of hypoglycemia-inducing exercise and the subsequent hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of glucose. Ten male patients with type 1 diabetes performed a standardized bout of cycling exercise using an electrically braked ergometer at a target heart rate (THR) of 50% of the individual heart rate reserve, determined using the Karvonen equation. Exercise was terminated when hypoglycemia was reached, followed by immediate hypoglycemia treatment with the oral ingestion of 20 g of glucose. Arterialized blood glucose (ABG) levels were monitored at 5 min intervals during exercise and for 60 min during recovery. During exercise, ABG decreased at a mean rate of 0.11 ± 0.03 mmol/L·min−1 (minimum: 0.07, maximum: 0.17 mmol/L·min−1). During recovery, ABG increased at a mean rate of 0.13 ± 0.05 mmol/L·min−1 (minimum: 0.06, maximum: 0.19 mmol/L·min−1). Moreover, 20 g of glucose maintained recovery from hypoglycemia throughout the 60 min postexercise observation window. Full article
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Article
Salicylic Acid and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114164 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA [...] Read more.
Salicylic acid (SA) has observationally been shown to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, that rapidly deacetylates to SA) is an effective primary and secondary chemopreventive agent. Through a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, we aimed to address whether levels of SA affected CRC risk, stratifying by aspirin use. A two-sample MR analysis was performed using GWAS summary statistics of SA (INTERVAL and EPIC-Norfolk, N = 14,149) and CRC (CCFR, CORECT, GECCO and UK Biobank, 55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). The DACHS study (4410 cases and 3441 controls) was used for replication and stratification of aspirin-use. SNPs proxying SA were selected via three methods: (1) functional SNPs that influence the activity of aspirin-metabolising enzymes; (2) pathway SNPs present in enzymes’ coding regions; and (3) genome-wide significant SNPs. We found no association between functional SNPs and SA levels. The pathway and genome-wide SNPs showed no association between SA and CRC risk (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.84–1.27 and OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.86–1.34, respectively). Results remained unchanged upon aspirin use stratification. We found little evidence to suggest that an SD increase in genetically predicted SA protects against CRC risk in the general population and upon stratification by aspirin use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) Developed for Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Semarang, Indonesia
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114163 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 653
Abstract
We assessed the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among middle-aged and older adults in Semarang, Indonesia. A total of 259 subjects aged 40–80 years completed two FFQs (nine-month apart) and nine 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs, as a reference [...] Read more.
We assessed the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among middle-aged and older adults in Semarang, Indonesia. A total of 259 subjects aged 40–80 years completed two FFQs (nine-month apart) and nine 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs, as a reference method). The reproducibility of the FFQ was analyzed using correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), weighted kappa statistics and misclassification analysis. The validity was estimated by comparing the data acquired from FFQ1 and 24HDRs. The crude Pearson’s correlation coefficients and ICC for total energy and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.50 to 0.81 and 0.44 to 0.78, respectively. Energy adjustment decreased the correlation coefficients for most nutrients. The crude, energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlation coefficients for FFQ1 and 24HDRs ranged from 0.41 to 0.70, 0.31 to 0.89 and 0.54 to 0.82, respectively. The agreement rates for the same or adjacent quartile classifications were 81.1–94.6% for two FFQs and 80.7–89.6% for FFQ1 and 24HDRs. The weighted kappa values were 0.21 to 0.42 for two FFQs and 0.20 to 0.34 for FFQ1 and 24HDRs. A positive mean difference was found in the Bland–Altman analyses for energy and macronutrients. The FFQ could be acceptable for nutritional epidemiology study among Indonesians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Assessment Methodology: Current Update and Practice)
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Article
Association between Diet Quality Indices and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114162 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common condition whose incidence is increasing worldwide, and for which obesity and diet are important risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess the association of three diet quality scores with diabetes risk and how [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common condition whose incidence is increasing worldwide, and for which obesity and diet are important risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess the association of three diet quality scores with diabetes risk and how much of the association was mediated through body size. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study recruited 41,513 men and women aged 40–69 years during 1990–1994. At baseline, data were collected on lifestyle and diet, anthropometric measures were performed. Incident diabetes was assessed by self-report at follow-up surveys in 1994–1998 and 2003–2007. The associations between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index—2010 and incident diabetes were assessed using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, socio-economic status (area based) and family history of diabetes. Data from 39,185 participants were included in the analysis and 1989 cases of diabetes were identified. Both DII and AHEI-2010 were associated with diabetes incidence, but MDS was not. In the top quintile of DII (most pro-inflammatory) vs. the least inflammatory quintile IRR was 1.49 95% CI (1.30, 1.72), p trend across quintiles <0.001. For AHEI-2010 the IRR was 0.67 (0.58, 0.78), p trend <0.001 for the healthiest vs. the least healthy quintile. Mediation analysis indicated that body size (body mass index/waist to hip ratio) mediated 35–48% of the association with incident diabetes for the AHEI and DII. Healthier diets may reduce risk of diabetes both by reducing weight gain and other mechanisms such as reducing inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Review
Trends in the Number of Behavioural Theory-Based Healthy Eating Interventions Inclusive of Dietitians/Nutritionists in 2000–2020
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114161 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Nutrition interventions developed using behaviour theory may be more effective than those without theoretical underpinnings. This study aimed to document the number of theory-based healthy eating interventions, the involvement of dietitians/nutritionists and the behaviour theories employed from 2000 to 2020. We conducted a [...] Read more.
Nutrition interventions developed using behaviour theory may be more effective than those without theoretical underpinnings. This study aimed to document the number of theory-based healthy eating interventions, the involvement of dietitians/nutritionists and the behaviour theories employed from 2000 to 2020. We conducted a review of publications related to healthy eating interventions that used behaviour change theories. Interventional studies published in English between 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from searching Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psycinfo and Cochrane Central. Citation, country of origin, presence or absence of dietitian/nutritionist authors, participants, dietary behaviours, outcomes, theories and any behaviour change techniques (BCTs) stated were extracted. The publication trends on a yearly basis were recorded. A total of 266 articles were included. The number of theory-based interventions increased over the two decades. The number of studies conducted by dietitians/nutritionists increased, but since 2012, increases have been driven by other researchers. Social cognitive theory was the most used behaviour theory. Dietitians/nutritionists contributed to growth in publication of theory-based healthy eating interventions, but the proportion of researchers from other professions engaged in this field increased markedly. The reasons for this growth in publications from other professions is unknown but conjectured to result from greater prominence of dietary behaviours within the context of an obesity epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Comparing Assessment Tools as Candidates for Personalized Nutritional Evaluation of Senior Citizens in a Nursing Home
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114160 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Nutrition is an important health issue for seniors. In nursing homes, simple, inexpensive, fast, and validated tools to assess nutritional risk/status are indispensable. A multisurvey cross-sectional study with a convenient sample was created, comparing five nutritional screening/assessment tools and the time required for [...] Read more.
Nutrition is an important health issue for seniors. In nursing homes, simple, inexpensive, fast, and validated tools to assess nutritional risk/status are indispensable. A multisurvey cross-sectional study with a convenient sample was created, comparing five nutritional screening/assessment tools and the time required for each, in order to identify the most useful instrument for a nursing home setting. Nutrition risk/status was evaluated using the following tools: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), and calf girth (CG). The time spent completing each tool was recorded. Eighty-three subjects were included. MNA-SF and CG were the screening tools that ranked highest with regards to malnutrition identification. CG failed to identify nutritional risk/malnutrition in seniors with lower limb edema. CG was the fastest tool while SGA was the slowest. This was the first study comparing non-invasive nutritional tools with time expended as a consideration in the implementation. CG is responsive, fast, and reliable in elders without edema. MNA-SF was more efficient at detecting malnutrition cases in the elderly population. Both MNA-SF and CG are considered the most suitable for the nursing home setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Assessment Methodology: Current Update and Practice)
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Article
Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Incidence of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Essential Hypertension
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114159 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
(1) Background: Our previous study found that the dietary fiber supplement in patients with hypertension increased SCFA-producers, Bififidobacterium and Spirillum in the gut microbiota, which may be associated with improvement of depression and anxiety through the gut–brain axis. However, only a few studies [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Our previous study found that the dietary fiber supplement in patients with hypertension increased SCFA-producers, Bififidobacterium and Spirillum in the gut microbiota, which may be associated with improvement of depression and anxiety through the gut–brain axis. However, only a few studies have explored the association between dietary fiber intake (DFI) and the incidence of depression and anxiety in hypertensive patients. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in one comprehensive hospital and one community clinic aimed at understanding the status of DFI and the association between DFI and incidences of depression and anxiety in hypertensive patients. Levels of DFI were obtained through a two-24 h diet recall. According to the levels of DFI from low to high, the participants were divided into Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 groups. The Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form v1.0-Depression 8b and Anxiety 8a were used to assess patients’ levels of depression and anxiety. (3) Results: A total of 459 hypertensive patients were recruited and the daily DFI was 10.4 g. The incidences of hypertension combined with depression and anxiety were 19.6% and 18.5%, respectively. Regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between DFI and depression (B = −0.346, p = 0.001) and anxiety score (B = −0.565, p < 0.001). In logistic regression, after the covariates were adjusted, DFI was associated with the incidence of depression in Q3 (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.050–6.640) and with that of anxiety in Q1 (OR 2.757, 95% CI 1.035–7.346), compared with Q4. (4) Conclusions: A higher consumption of DF was a protective factor for depression and anxiety in hypertensive patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
Review
Ketamine as a Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114158 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly complex disorder to treat, especially in severe and enduring cases. Whilst the precise aetiology of the disorder is uncertain, malnutrition and weight loss can contribute to reductions in grey and white matter of the brain, impairments in [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly complex disorder to treat, especially in severe and enduring cases. Whilst the precise aetiology of the disorder is uncertain, malnutrition and weight loss can contribute to reductions in grey and white matter of the brain, impairments in neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and difficulties with cognitive flexibility, memory and learning. Depression is highly comorbid in AN and may be a barrier to recovery. However, traditional antidepressants are often ineffective in alleviating depressive symptoms in underweight patients with AN. There is an urgent need for new treatment approaches for AN. This review gives a conceptual overview for the treatment of AN with ketamine. Ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects, which are hypothesised to occur via increases in glutamate, with sequelae including increased neuroplasticity, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. This article provides an overview of the use of ketamine for common psychiatric comorbidities of AN and discusses particular safety concerns and side effects. Potential avenues for future research and specific methodological considerations are explored. Overall, there appears to be ample theoretical background, via several potential mechanisms, that warrant the exploration of ketamine as a treatment for adults with AN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders and Obesity: Through the Life Course)
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