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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Biology of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) and Vitamin D"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrzej Slominski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
2. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Interests: dermatopathology; skin pigmentation; neuroendocrinology of the skin; photobiology; melanoma; steroidogenesis; vitamin D; sterols; melatonin; stress response mechanisms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Frank De Gruijl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600; 2300RC Leiden The Netherlands
Interests: ultraviolet; skin; carcinogenesis; Photoimmunology; vitamin

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

UVR in addition of inducing skin pathology including cancer and aging also exert positive homeostatic effects. The latter includes UVB induced production of vitamin D, which after enzymatic activation exert pleiotropic effects involving regulation of barrier function, of immune and endocrine activities with anticancer actions, aside of regulating body calcium homeostasis. New mechanisms of activation and action of vitamin D have been discovered and a role for UVB in health has been proposed. These advances open new possibilities for improving health or treatment of different diseases.

The Special Issue on “Recent advances in biology of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D and its role in health and diseases prevention” will publish the latest findings on broad range of actions of UVR that include negative or positive impact on health, on the role of vitamin D in regulation of local and global homeostasis and on the anti-cancer and/or chemopreventive functions of its metabolites. We welcome experimental research, review and perspective articles dealing with the biological action of UVR, its role in skin physiology and pathology and systemic regulation of body homeostasis. We also welcome articles on the role of vitamin D and its metabolites in the preventive healthcare and diseases treatment including cancer as well as on mechanism(s) of action of these molecules.

As our journal mainly focuses on the molecular mechanisms or pathophysiology implications including basic studies in biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular medicine, it is necessary that each manuscript focuses on molecular research.

Prof. Andrzej Slominski
Dr. Frank De Gruijl
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ultraviolet radiation
  • UVB
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin D receptors
  • melanoma
  • cancer
  • skin
  • photoprotection
  • chemoprevention
  • homeostasis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Sex Differences in Photoprotective Responses to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Mice Are Modulated by the Estrogen Receptor-β
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1962; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041962 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-β−/−) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D), applied topically protects against the [...] Read more.
Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-β−/−) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D), applied topically protects against the ultraviolet radiation (UV) induction of cutaneous cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in female mice. Here, we compare these responses in female versus male Skh:hr1 mice, in ER-β−/−/−− versus wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in female ER-blockaded Skh:hr1 mice. The induction of CPDs was significantly greater in male than female Skh:hr1 mice and was more effectively reduced by 1,25(OH)2D in female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice than in male Skh:hr1 or ER-β−/− mice, respectively. This correlated with the reduced sunburn inflammation due to 1,25(OH)2D in female but not male Skh:hr1 mice. Furthermore, although 1,25(OH)2D alone dose-dependently suppressed basal CHS responses in male Skh:hr1 and ER-β−/− mice, UV-induced immunosuppression was universally observed. In female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, the immunosuppression was decreased by 1,25(OH)2D dose-dependently, but not in male Skh:hr1, ER-β−/−, or ER-blockaded mice. These results reveal a sex bias in genetic, inflammatory, and immune photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D favoring female mice that is dependent on the presence of ER-β. Full article
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Article
Hydroxylumisterols, Photoproducts of Pre-Vitamin D3, Protect Human Keratinocytes against UVB-Induced Damage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249374 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Lumisterol (L3) is a stereoisomer of 7-dehydrocholesterol and is produced through the photochemical transformation of 7-dehydrocholesteol induced by high doses of UVB. L3 is enzymatically hydroxylated by CYP11A1, producing 20(OH)L3, 22(OH)L3, 20,22(OH)2L3, and 24(OH)L3. Hydroxylumisterols function as reverse agonists of the retinoic acid-related [...] Read more.
Lumisterol (L3) is a stereoisomer of 7-dehydrocholesterol and is produced through the photochemical transformation of 7-dehydrocholesteol induced by high doses of UVB. L3 is enzymatically hydroxylated by CYP11A1, producing 20(OH)L3, 22(OH)L3, 20,22(OH)2L3, and 24(OH)L3. Hydroxylumisterols function as reverse agonists of the retinoic acid-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα/γ) and can interact with the non-genomic binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). These intracellular receptors are mediators of photoprotection and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we show that L3-hydroxyderivatives significantly increase the expression of VDR at the mRNA and protein levels in keratinocytes, both non-irradiated and after UVB irradiation. L3-hydroxyderivatives also altered mRNA and protein levels for RORα/γ in non-irradiated cells, while the expression was significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated cells. In UVB-irradiated keratinocytes, L3-hydroxyderivatives inhibited nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 by enhancing levels of IκBα in the cytosol. This anti-inflammatory activity mediated by L3-hydroxyderivatives through suppression of NFκB signaling resulted in the inhibition of the expression of UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. The L3-hydroxyderivatives promoted differentiation of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes as determined from upregulation of the expression at the mRNA of involucrin (IVL), filaggrine (FLG), and keratin 14 (KRT14), downregulation of transglutaminase 1 (TGM1), keratins including KRT1, and KRT10, and stimulation of ILV expression at the protein level. We conclude that CYP11A1-derived hydroxylumisterols are promising photoprotective agents capable of suppressing UVB-induced inflammatory responses and restoring epidermal function through targeting the VDR and RORs. Full article
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Review

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Review
Vitamin D and COVID-19: An Overview of Recent Evidence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910559 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 868
Abstract
The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) has progressed rapidly from an outbreak to a global pandemic, with new variants rapidly emerging. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, can lead to multiorgan damage. Due to the [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) has progressed rapidly from an outbreak to a global pandemic, with new variants rapidly emerging. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, can lead to multiorgan damage. Due to the extremely contagious and fatal nature of the virus, it has been a priority of medical research to find effective means of treatment. Amid this search, the role of vitamin D in modulating various aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system has been discussed. This review aims to consolidate the research surrounding the role of vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. While there are some conflicting results reported, the consensus is that vitamin D has a host of immunomodulatory effects which may be beneficial in the context of COVID-19 and that low levels of vitamin D can result in dysfunction of crucial antimicrobial effects, potentially contributing to poor prognosis. Studies also show that the effects of low vitamin D can be mitigated via supplementation, although the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of COVID-19 remain controversial. Full article
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Review
The Impact of Vitamin D on Skin Aging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 9097; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22169097 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The active metabolites of vitamin D3 (D3) and lumisterol (L3) exert a variety of antiaging and photoprotective effects on the skin. These are achieved through immunomodulation and include anti-inflammatory actions, regulation of keratinocytes proliferation, and differentiation programs to [...] Read more.
The active metabolites of vitamin D3 (D3) and lumisterol (L3) exert a variety of antiaging and photoprotective effects on the skin. These are achieved through immunomodulation and include anti-inflammatory actions, regulation of keratinocytes proliferation, and differentiation programs to build the epidermal barrier necessary for maintaining skin homeostasis. In addition, they induce antioxidative responses, inhibit DNA damage and induce DNA repair mechanisms to attenuate premature skin aging and cancerogenesis. The mechanism of action would involve interaction with multiple nuclear receptors including VDR, AhR, LXR, reverse agonism on RORα and -γ, and nongenomic actions through 1,25D3-MARRS receptor and interaction with the nongenomic binding site of the VDR. Therefore, active forms of vitamin D3 including its canonical (1,25(OH)2D3) and noncanonical (CYP11A1-intitated) D3 derivatives as well as L3 derivatives are promising agents for the prevention, attenuation, or treatment of premature skin aging. They could be administrated orally and/or topically. Other forms of parenteral application of vitamin D3 precursor should be considered to avoid its predominant metabolism to 25(OH)D3 that is not recognized by CYP11A1 enzyme. The efficacy of topically applied vitamin D3 and L3 derivatives needs further clinical evaluation in future trials. Full article
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Review
Non-Musculoskeletal Benefits of Vitamin D beyond the Musculoskeletal System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042128 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is endogenously synthesized in response to sunlight or taken from dietary supplements. Since vitamin D receptors are present in most tissues and cells in the body, the mounting understanding of the role of vitamin D in humans indicates [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is endogenously synthesized in response to sunlight or taken from dietary supplements. Since vitamin D receptors are present in most tissues and cells in the body, the mounting understanding of the role of vitamin D in humans indicates that it does not only play an important role in the musculoskeletal system, but has beneficial effects elsewhere as well. This review summarizes the metabolism of vitamin D, the research regarding the possible risk factors leading to vitamin D deficiency, and the relationships between vitamin D deficiency and numerous illnesses, including rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, muscle weakness and falls, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, and neurological disorders. The system-wide effects of vitamin D and the mechanisms of the diseases are also discussed. Although accumulating evidence supports associations of vitamin D deficiency with physical and mental disorders and beneficial effects of vitamin D with health maintenance and disease prevention, there continue to be controversies over the beneficial effects of vitamin D. Thus, more well-designed and statistically powered trials are required to enable the assessment of vitamin D’s role in optimizing health and preventing disease. Full article
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