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Special Issue "Antimicrobial Polymers 2016"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Iolanda Francolini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research concerning the development of antimicrobial polymers represents a great challenge for both the academic world and industry since microbial contamination is a serious issue that involves many areas such as the health and biomedical field, water purification systems, food packaging and storage. Microbial adhesion to surfaces results in the formation of a tick microbial biofilm, difficulty eradicable, in which microbes are protected from the action of common antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial polymers can help to prevent biofilm development and solve the problems associated with the use of conventional antimicrobial agents such as residual toxicity, short term antimicrobial activity and development of resistant microorganisms. The microbial adhesion is a problem particularly felt in the field of medical devices since it can lead to serious infections and device failure. Different types of polymer systems have been designed to prevent microbial adhesion among which the most investigated are: (a) antifouling polymers; (b) amphiphilic polymers mimicking antibacterial peptides occurring in nature; (c) functionalized polymers able to load and release bioactive molecules such as antibiotics, heavy metals  and other antiseptic agents. We particularly take an interest in manuscript that report relevance of antimicrobial polymers in the design and fabrication of medical devices, packaging materials and water purification systems.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Antimicrobial polymers for medical devices
  • Antimicrobial polymers for food packaging
  • Polymers made antimicrobial by silver loading
  • Release of antimicrobial agents from polymers
  • Biomimetic polymers
  • Antifouling polymers

Dr. Antonella Piozzi
Dr. Iolanda Francolini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • antimicrobial polymers
  • drug delivery systems
  • silver
  • microbial biofilms
  • medical devices
  • antimicrobial packaging
  • water purification systems

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antimicrobial, Optical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan–Starch Films with Natural Extracts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 997; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18050997 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 3089
Abstract
Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of [...] Read more.
Natural extracts possess several kinds of antioxidants (anthocyanins, betalains, thymol, carvacrol, and resveratrol) that have also demonstrated antimicrobial properties. In order to study these properties, extracts from cranberry, blueberry, beetroot, pomegranate, oregano, pitaya, and resveratrol (from grapes) were obtained. Growth inhibition tests of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and fungi were conducted in films prepared from the extracts in accordance with Mexican Official Norms (NOM). Optical properties such as transparency and opacity, mechanical properties, and pH were also analyzed in these materials. The films with beetroot, cranberry, and blueberry extracts demonstrated the best antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi in comparison with unmodified chitosan–starch film. This study shows that the addition of antioxidants improved the antimicrobial performance of these films. It was also found that antimicrobial properties are inherent to the films. These polymers combined with the extracts effectively inhibit or reduce microorganism growth from human and environmental contact; therefore, previous sterilization could be unnecessary in comparison with traditional plastics. The presence of extracts decreased transmittance percentages at 280 and 400 nm, as well as the transparency values, while increasing their opacity values, providing better UV–VIS light barrier properties. Despite diminished glass transition temperatures (Tg), the values obtained are still adequate for food packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Lysozyme Associated Liposomal Gentamicin Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 784; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18040784 - 09 Apr 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Bacteria on living or inert surfaces usually form biofilms which make them highly resistant to antibiotics and immune clearance. Herein, we develop a simple approach to overcome the above conundrum through lysozyme-associated liposomal gentamicin (LLG). The association of lysozyme to the surface of [...] Read more.
Bacteria on living or inert surfaces usually form biofilms which make them highly resistant to antibiotics and immune clearance. Herein, we develop a simple approach to overcome the above conundrum through lysozyme-associated liposomal gentamicin (LLG). The association of lysozyme to the surface of liposomes can effectively reduce the fusion of liposomes and undesirable payload release in regular storage or physiological environments. The LLG was more effective at damaging established biofilms and inhibiting biofilm formation of pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria than gentamicin alone. This strategy may provide a novel approach to treat infections due to bacterial biofilm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Chitosan-Recombinamer Layer-by-Layer Coatings for Multifunctional Implants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 369; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18020369 - 09 Feb 2017
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
The main clinical problems for dental implants are (1) formation of biofilm around the implant—a condition known as peri-implantitis and (2) inadequate bone formation around the implant—lack of osseointegration. Therefore, developing an implant to overcome these problems is of significant interest to the [...] Read more.
The main clinical problems for dental implants are (1) formation of biofilm around the implant—a condition known as peri-implantitis and (2) inadequate bone formation around the implant—lack of osseointegration. Therefore, developing an implant to overcome these problems is of significant interest to the dental community. Chitosan has been reported to have good biocompatibility and anti-bacterial activity. An osseo-inductive recombinant elastin-like biopolymer (P-HAP), that contains a peptide derived from the protein statherin, has been reported to induce biomineralization and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, chitosan/P-HAP bi-layers were built on a titanium surface using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The difference in the water contact angle between consecutive layers, the representative peaks in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the changes in the topography between surfaces with a different number of bi-layers observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), all indicated the successful establishment of chitosan/P-HAP LbL assembly on the titanium surface. The LbL-modified surfaces showed increased biomineralization, an appropriate mouse pre-osteoblastic cell response, and significant anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of tissues in the oral environment Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
High Specific Selectivity and Membrane-Active Mechanism of Synthetic Cationic Hybrid Antimicrobial Peptides Based on the Peptide FV7
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18020339 - 06 Feb 2017
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Hybrid peptides integrating different functional domains of peptides have many advantages, such as remarkable antimicrobial activity, lower hemolysis and ideal cell selectivity, compared with natural antimicrobial peptides. FV7 (FRIRVRV-NH2), a consensus amphiphilic sequence was identified as being analogous to host defense [...] Read more.
Hybrid peptides integrating different functional domains of peptides have many advantages, such as remarkable antimicrobial activity, lower hemolysis and ideal cell selectivity, compared with natural antimicrobial peptides. FV7 (FRIRVRV-NH2), a consensus amphiphilic sequence was identified as being analogous to host defense peptides. In this study, we designed a series of hybrid peptides FV7-LL-37 (17–29) (FV-LL), FV7-magainin 2 (9–21) (FV-MA) and FV7-cecropin A (1–8) (FV-CE) by combining the FV7 sequence with the small functional sequences LL-37 (17–29) (LL), magainin 2 (9–21) (MA) and cecropin A (1–8) (CE) which all come from well-described natural peptides. The results demonstrated that the synthetic hybrid peptides, in particular FV-LL, had potent antibacterial activities over a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with lower hemolytic activity than other peptides. Furthermore, fluorescent spectroscopy indicated that the hybrid peptide FV-LL exhibited marked membrane destruction by inducing outer and inner bacterial membrane permeabilization, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that FV-LL damaged membrane integrity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. Inhibiting biofilm formation assays also showed that FV-LL had similar anti-biofilm activity compared with the functional peptide sequence FV7. Synthetic cationic hybrid peptides based on FV7 could provide new models for combining different functional domains and demonstrate effective avenues to screen for novel antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Communication
Antimicrobial and Hemolytic Studies of a Series of Polycations Bearing Quaternary Ammonium Moieties: Structural and Topological Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18020303 - 30 Jan 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
A series of polycations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties have shown antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Different polymer topologies governed by a disubstituted aromatic core as well as different diamine-based linkers were found to influence the antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the hemolytic [...] Read more.
A series of polycations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties have shown antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Different polymer topologies governed by a disubstituted aromatic core as well as different diamine-based linkers were found to influence the antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the hemolytic activity against human red blood cells was measured and demonstrated good biocompatibility and selectivity of these polycations for bacteria over mammalian cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Assessment of Photodynamic Inactivation against Periodontal Bacteria Mediated by a Chitosan Hydrogel in a 3D Gingival Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1821; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17111821 - 01 Nov 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2886
Abstract
Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D [...] Read more.
Chitosan hydrogels containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and toluidine blue O were prepared and assessed for their mucoadhesive property and antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI). Increased HPMC content in the hydrogels resulted in increased mucoadhesiveness. Furthermore, we developed a simple In Vitro 3D gingival model resembling the oral periodontal pocket to culture the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). The PDI efficacy of chitosan hydrogel was examined against periodontal biofilms cultured in this 3D gingival model. We found that the PDI effectiveness was limited due to leaving some of the innermost bacteria alive at the non-illuminated site. Using this 3D gingival model, we further optimized PDI procedures with various adjustments of light energy and irradiation sites. The PDI efficacy of the chitosan hydrogel against periodontal biofilms can significantly improve via four sides of irradiation. In conclusion, this study not only showed the clinical applicability of this chitosan hydrogel but also the importance of the light irradiation pattern in performing PDI for periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Film-Forming Hydrosols Hydrolyzed by Cellulase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17091436 - 06 Sep 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cellulase (C) on the biological activity of chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (CH/HPMC) film-forming hydrosols. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase in two concentrations (0.05% and 0.1%) was verified by determination of the progress of polysaccharide hydrolysis, based on viscosity measurement and reducing sugar-ends assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging effect, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and microbial reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. During the first 3 h of reaction, relative reducing sugar concentration increased progressively, and viscosity decreased rapidly. With increasing amount of enzyme from 0.05% to 0.1%, the reducing sugar concentration increased, and the viscosity decreased significantly. The scavenging effect of film-forming solutions was improved from 7.6% at time 0 and without enzyme to 52.1% for 0.1% cellulase after 20 h of reaction. A significant effect of cellulase addition and reaction time on antioxidant power of the tested film-forming solutions was also reported. Film-forming hydrosols with cellulase exhibited a bacteriostatic effect on all tested bacteria, causing a total reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Communication
Poly-γ-glutamate-based Materials for Multiple Infection Prophylaxis Possessing Versatile Coating Performance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24588-24599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161024588 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2527
Abstract
Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs) using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP), dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. [...] Read more.
Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs) using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP), dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. We demonstrated their spontaneous coating performance to the surfaces of different materials (i.e., plastics, metals, and ceramics) as potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents. The tests against Staphylococcus aureus revealed that, regardless of a variety of materials, PGAICs maintained surface antimicrobial activity, even after the water-soaking treatment, whereas those against Candida albicans indicated that, among PGAICs, PGA/HDP complex is most useful as an anti-fungal agent because of its coating stability. Moreover, the log reduction values against Influenza A and B viruses of PGA/HDP-coated surfaces were estimated to be 5.4 and 3.2, respectively, suggesting that it can be dramatically suppressed the infection of influenza. This is to our knowledge the first observation of PGA-based antiviral coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 23867-23880; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161023867 - 09 Oct 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that [...] Read more.
Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structural variations in the positions of cationic centers relative to hydrophobic groups. The PEG side chains dramatically reduced the hemolytic activities in copolymers with hydrophobic hexyl and cationic groups on the same repeating unit. However, in case of terpolymers with cationic and lipophilic groups placed on separate repeating units, the presence of PEG has significantly lower effect on hemolytic activities of these copolymers. PEGylated terpolymers displayed substantially lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than Escherichia coli (E. coli) suggesting the deterring effect of S. aureus’ peptidoglycan cell wall against the penetration of PEGylated polymers. Time-kill studies confirmed the bactericidal activity of these copolymers and a 5 log reduction in E. coli colony forming units was observed within 2 h of polymer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Development of a New Monomer for the Synthesis of Intrinsic Antimicrobial Polymers with Enhanced Material Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 20050-20066; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms160820050 - 24 Aug 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
The use of biocidal compounds in polymers is steadily increasing because it is one solution to the need for safety and hygiene. It is possible to incorporate an antimicrobial moiety to a polymer. These polymers are referred to as intrinsic antimicrobial. The biocidal [...] Read more.
The use of biocidal compounds in polymers is steadily increasing because it is one solution to the need for safety and hygiene. It is possible to incorporate an antimicrobial moiety to a polymer. These polymers are referred to as intrinsic antimicrobial. The biocidal action results from contact of the polymer to the microorganisms, with no release of active molecules. This is particularly important in critical fields like food technology, medicine and ventilation technology, where migration or leaching is crucial and undesirable. The isomers N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-ethenyl-benzenamine and N-(1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)-3-ethenyl-benzenamine (TBAMS) are novel (Co-)Monomers for intrinsic anti-microbial polymers. The secondary amines were prepared and polymerized to the corresponding water insoluble polymer. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the test method JIS Z 2801:2000. Investigations revealed a high antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with a reduction level of >4.5 log10 units. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of E. coli. in contact with the polymer indicates a bactericidal action which is caused by disruption of the bacteria cell membranes, leading to lysis of the cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Reducing the Oxidation Level of Dextran Aldehyde in a Chitosan/Dextran-Based Surgical Hydrogel Increases Biocompatibility and Decreases Antimicrobial Efficacy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13798-13814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms160613798 - 16 Jun 2015
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3491
Abstract
A highly oxidized form of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel (CD-100) containing 80% oxidized dextran aldehyde (DA-100) was developed as a post-operative aid, and found to significantly prevent adhesion formation in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the CD-100 hydrogel showed moderate in vitro cytotoxicity to [...] Read more.
A highly oxidized form of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel (CD-100) containing 80% oxidized dextran aldehyde (DA-100) was developed as a post-operative aid, and found to significantly prevent adhesion formation in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the CD-100 hydrogel showed moderate in vitro cytotoxicity to mammalian cell lines, with the DA-100 found to be the cytotoxic component. In order to extend the use of the hydrogel to abdominal surgeries, reformulation using a lower oxidized DA (DA-25) was pursued. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy, in vitro biocompatibility and wound healing capacity of the highly oxidized CD-100 hydrogel with the CD-25 hydrogel. Antimicrobial studies were performed against a range of clinically relevant abdominal microorganisms using the micro-broth dilution method. Biocompatibility testing using human dermal fibroblasts was assessed via a tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and a wound healing model. In contrast to the original DA-100 formulation, DA-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic, and showed no overall impairment of cell migration, with wound closure occurring at 72 h. However, the lower oxidation level negatively affected the antimicrobial efficacy of the hydrogel (CD-25). Although the CD-25 hydrogel’s antimicrobial efficacy and anti-fibroblast activity is decreased when compared to the original CD-100 hydrogel formulation, previous in vivo studies show that the CD-25 hydrogel remains an effective, biocompatible barrier agent in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Article
Antimicrobial Action of Water-Soluble β-Chitosan against Clinical Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7995-8007; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms16047995 - 10 Apr 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Recently, the number of patients infected by drug-resistant pathogenic microbes has increased remarkably worldwide, and a number of studies have reported new antibiotics from natural sources. Among them, chitosan, with a high molecular weight and α-conformation, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity, but useful applications [...] Read more.
Recently, the number of patients infected by drug-resistant pathogenic microbes has increased remarkably worldwide, and a number of studies have reported new antibiotics from natural sources. Among them, chitosan, with a high molecular weight and α-conformation, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity, but useful applications as an antibiotic are limited by its cytotoxicity and insolubility at physiological pH. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of low molecular weight water-soluble (LMWS) α-chitosan (α1k, α5k, and α10k with molecular masses of 1, 5, and 10 kDa, respectively) and β-chitosan (β1k, β5k, and β10k) was compared using a range of pathogenic bacteria containing drug-resistant bacteria isolated from patients at different pH. Interestingly, β5k and β10k exhibited potent antibacterial activity, even at pH 7.4, whereas only α10k was effective at pH 7.4. The active target of β-chitosan is the bacterial membrane, where the leakage of calcein is induced in artificial PE/PG vesicles, bacterial mimetic membrane. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed that they caused significant morphological changes on the bacterial surfaces. An in vivo study utilizing a bacteria-infected mouse model found that LMWS β-chitosan could be used as a candidate in anti-infective or wound healing therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Review

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Review
Antimicrobial Dendrimeric Peptides: Structure, Activity and New Therapeutic Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18030542 - 03 Mar 2017
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 3170
Abstract
Microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics is one of the most outstanding medical and scientific challenges of our times. Despite the recognised need for new anti-infective agents, however, very few new drugs have been brought to the market and to the clinic in the [...] Read more.
Microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics is one of the most outstanding medical and scientific challenges of our times. Despite the recognised need for new anti-infective agents, however, very few new drugs have been brought to the market and to the clinic in the last three decades. This review highlights the properties of a new class of antibiotics, namely dendrimeric peptides. These intriguing novel compounds, generally made of multiple peptidic sequences linked to an inner branched core, display an array of antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities, usually coupled to low haemolytic activity. In addition, several peptides synthesized in oligobranched form proved to be promising tools for the selective treatment of cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Review
Antimicrobial Treatment of Polymeric Medical Devices by Silver Nanomaterials and Related Technology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 419; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18020419 - 15 Feb 2017
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 3333
Abstract
Antimicrobial biocompatible polymers form a group of highly desirable materials in medicinal technology that exhibit interesting thermal and mechanical properties, and high chemical resistance. There are numerous types of polymers with antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial properties conferred through their proper modification. In this [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial biocompatible polymers form a group of highly desirable materials in medicinal technology that exhibit interesting thermal and mechanical properties, and high chemical resistance. There are numerous types of polymers with antimicrobial activity or antimicrobial properties conferred through their proper modification. In this review, we focus on the second type of polymers, especially those whose antimicrobial activity is conferred by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology processing is a developing area that exploits the antibacterial effects of broad-scale compounds, both organic and inorganic, to form value-added medical devices. This work gives an overview of nanostructured antimicrobial agents, especially silver ones, used together with biocompatible polymers as effective antimicrobial composites in healthcare. The bactericidal properties of non-conventional antimicrobial agents are compared with those of conventional ones and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Review
Bacterial-Derived Polymer Poly-y-Glutamic Acid (y-PGA)-Based Micro/Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Antimicrobials and Other Biomedical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18020313 - 02 Feb 2017
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3811
Abstract
In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced [...] Read more.
In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by several gram-positive bacteria that, due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties, has been used successfully in the medical, food and wastewater industries. Moreover, its carboxylic group on the side chains can offer an attachment point to conjugate antimicrobial and various therapeutic agents, or to chemically modify the solubility of the biopolymer. The unique characteristics of γ-PGA have a promising future for medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present review, the structure, properties and micro/nanoparticle preparation methods of γ-PGA and its derivatives are covered. Also, we have highlighted the impact of micro/nanoencapsulation or immobilisation of antimicrobial agents and various disease-related drugs on biodegradable γ-PGA micro/nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Review
Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17091578 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 145 | Viewed by 5820
Abstract
Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting [...] Read more.
Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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Review
Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotics in Food Animal Industry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17050603 - 03 May 2016
Cited by 151 | Viewed by 8184
Abstract
Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a global concern, which has prompted the search for alternative antibacterial agents for use in food animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), produced by bacteria, insects, amphibians and mammals, as well as by chemical synthesis, are possible candidates for the design of new antimicrobial agents because of their natural antimicrobial properties and a low propensity for development of resistance by microorganisms. This manuscript reviews the current knowledge of the basic biology of AMPs and their applications in non-ruminant nutrition. Antimicrobial peptides not only have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also have the ability to bypass the common resistance mechanisms that are placing standard antibiotics in jeopardy. In addition, AMPs have beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and gut microbiota in pigs and broilers. Therefore, AMPs have good potential as suitable alternatives to conventional antibiotics used in swine and poultry industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers 2016)
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