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Special Issue "The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Roberto Bei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: cancer immunotherapy; natural compounds and cancer; cancer vaccines; cancer prevention and treatment in preclinical models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Monica Benvenuto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
Interests: cancer cell lines; polyphenols; dietary compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Valerio Izzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Interests: matrisome; extracellular matrix; tumors; tumor microenvironment; tumor immunology; system biology; tumor biology; bioinformatics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer progression is a result of genetic, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Dietary components with biological activities have been shown to modulate the major signaling transduction pathways that are altered in cancer. This Special Issue is focused on the effects of dietary factors on cancer. The submission of original research articles or reviews related to the role of dietary factors on cancer is encouraged.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to, the following:·       Research on in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of dietary factors on cancer cells;·       Studies on novel methods to enhance the bioavailability of dietary components with anticancer activities; ·       Research on the effects of diet composition on nutritional biomarkers;·       Epidemiological investigations on the role of diet with respect to cancer risk and survival;·       Studies on novel strategies for extraction, purification, and characterization of dietary components with anticancer activities;·       Studies on the development of food products enriched with dietary components with anticancer activities.

Prof. Dr. Roberto Bei
Dr. Monica Benvenuto
Dr. Valerio Izzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary factors
  • Cancer
  • Biological activities
  • Molecular targets
  • in vitro assays
  • in vivo studies
  • Human studies
  • Bioavailability.

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dietary Salt Administration Decreases Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF)-Promoted Tumorigenesis via Inhibition of Colonic Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8034; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218034 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Consumption of a Western-type diet has been linked to gut-microbiota-mediated colon inflammation that constitutes a risk factor for colorectal cancer. A high salt diet (HSD) exacerbates IL-17A-induced inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune diseases. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a gut [...] Read more.
Consumption of a Western-type diet has been linked to gut-microbiota-mediated colon inflammation that constitutes a risk factor for colorectal cancer. A high salt diet (HSD) exacerbates IL-17A-induced inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune diseases. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a gut commensal bacterium and reported to be a potent initiator of colitis via secretion of the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT). BFT induces ectodomain cleavage of E-cadherin in colonic epithelial cells, consequently leading to cell rounding, epithelial barrier disruption, and the secretion of IL-8, which promotes tumorigenesis in mice via IL-17A-mediated inflammation. A HSD is characteristic of the Western-type diet and can exhibit inflammatory effects. However, a HSD induces effects in ETBF-induced colitis and tumorigenesis remain unknown. In this study, we investigated HSD effects in ETBF-colonized mice with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced tumorigenesis as well as ETBF colitis mice. Unexpectedly, ETBF-infected mice fed a HSD exhibited decreased weight loss and splenomegaly and reduction of colon inflammation. The HSD significantly decreased the expression of IL-17A and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colonic tissues of ETBF-infected mice. In addition, serum levels of IL-17A and nitric oxide (NO) were also diminished. However, HT29/C1 colonic epithelial cells treated with sodium chloride showed no changes in BFT-induced cellular rounding and IL-8 expression. Furthermore, HSD did not affect ETBF colonization in mice. In conclusion, HSD decreased ETBF-induced tumorigenesis through suppression of IL-17A and iNOS expression in the colon. HSD also inhibited colonic polyp numbers in the ETBF-infected AOM/DSS mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that a HSD consumption inhibited ETBF-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice, indicating that a HSD could have beneficial effects under certain conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Chemopreventive Agent 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Inhibits MDM2 in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4642; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21134642 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally derived chemopreventive compound. It comes from glucobrassicin, an indole glucosinolate enriched in cruciferous vegetables, and is formed in the acidic environment of the stomach after ingestion. Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) is an important, multi-functional oncogenic protein [...] Read more.
3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally derived chemopreventive compound. It comes from glucobrassicin, an indole glucosinolate enriched in cruciferous vegetables, and is formed in the acidic environment of the stomach after ingestion. Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) is an important, multi-functional oncogenic protein and it has been well recognized for its negative regulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. We discovered a novel mechanism of action of DIM, that it directly inhibits MDM2 in multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Treatment with DIM decreased MDM2 at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, inhibited cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. DIM-induced decrease of MDM2 is p53-independent and is partly mediated by proteasome degradation of MDM2, as blocking of the proteasome activity reversed MDM2 protein inhibition. Overexpression of MDM2 blocked DIM’s effects in growth suppression and apoptosis induction. When combined with imidazoline MDM2 inhibitors (Nutlin-3a and Idasanutlin/RG-7388), synergism was observed in cancer cell growth inhibition. In summary, our data support a new mechanism of action for DIM in direct inhibition of MDM2. The identification of MDM2 as a novel DIM target may help develop a new strategy in CRC prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Resveratrol Suppresses Prostate Cancer Epithelial Cell Scatter/Invasion by Targeting Inhibition of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) Secretion by Prostate Stromal Cells and Upregulation of E-cadherin by Prostate Cancer Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1760; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051760 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Cancer mortality is primarily attributed to metastasis and the resulting compromise of organs secondary to the initial tumor site. Metastasis is a multi-step process in which the tumor cells must first acquire a migratory phenotype and invade through the surrounding tissue for spread [...] Read more.
Cancer mortality is primarily attributed to metastasis and the resulting compromise of organs secondary to the initial tumor site. Metastasis is a multi-step process in which the tumor cells must first acquire a migratory phenotype and invade through the surrounding tissue for spread to distant organs in the body. The ability of malignant cells to migrate and breach surrounding tissue/matrix barriers is among the most daunting challenges to disease management for men in the United States diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP), especially since, at diagnosis, a high proportion of patients already have occult or clinically-detectable metastasis. The interaction between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secreted by the stroma, with its receptor c-Met located in the epithelium, must occur for epithelial CaP cells to become migratory. We studied the effects of grape-derived phytochemical resveratrol on the transition of epithelial tumor cells from sedentary to a mobile, penetrant phenotype. A time lapse microscopy assay was used to monitor the acquisition of the migratory phenotype by resveratrol. The results show that resveratrol inhibits HGF-mediated interaction between the stroma and epithelium and suppresses epithelial CaP cell migration by attenuating the control of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Characterization of Glyceollins as Novel Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands and Their Role in Cell Migration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041368 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Recent studies strongly support the use of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a therapeutic target in breast cancer. Glyceollins, a group of soybean phytoalexins, are known to exert therapeutic effects in chronic human diseases and also in cancer. To investigate the interaction [...] Read more.
Recent studies strongly support the use of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a therapeutic target in breast cancer. Glyceollins, a group of soybean phytoalexins, are known to exert therapeutic effects in chronic human diseases and also in cancer. To investigate the interaction between glyceollin I (GI), glyceollin II (GII) and AhR, a computational docking analysis, luciferase assays, immunofluorescence and transcriptome analyses were performed with different cancer cell lines. The docking experiments predicted that GI and GII can enter into the AhR binding pocket, but their interactions with the amino acids of the binding site differ, in part, from those interacting with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Both GI and GII were able to weakly and partially activate AhR, with GII being more potent. The results from the transcriptome assays showed that approximately 10% of the genes regulated by TCDD were also modified by both GI and GII, which could have either antagonistic or synergistic effects upon TCDD activation. In addition, we report here, on the basis of phenotype, that GI and GII inhibit the migration of triple-negative (ER-, PgR-, HER2NEU-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and that they inhibit the expression of genes which code for important regulators of cell migration and invasion in cancer tissues. In conclusion, GI and GII are AhR ligands that should be further investigated to determine their usefulness in cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Protective Effects of Zerumbone on Colonic Tumorigenesis in Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF)-Colonized AOM/DSS BALB/c Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 857; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030857 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Chronic inflammation has been linked to colitis-associated colorectal cancer in humans. The human symbiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), a pro-carcinogenic bacterium, has the potential to initiate and/or promote colorectal cancer. Antibiotic treatment of ETBF has shown promise in decreasing colonic polyp formation in [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation has been linked to colitis-associated colorectal cancer in humans. The human symbiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), a pro-carcinogenic bacterium, has the potential to initiate and/or promote colorectal cancer. Antibiotic treatment of ETBF has shown promise in decreasing colonic polyp formation in murine models of colon cancer. However, there are no reported natural products that have shown efficacy in decreasing polyp burden. In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of oral administration of zerumbone in ETBF-colonized mice with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced tumorigenesis. Zerumbone significantly reduced the severity of disease activity index (DAI) scores as well as several parameters of colonic inflammation (i.e., colon weight, colon length, cecum weight and spleen weight). In addition, inflammation of the colon and cecum as well as hyperplasia was reduced. Zerumbone treatment significantly inhibited colonic polyp numbers and prevented macroadenoma progression. Taken together, these findings suggest that oral treatment with zerumbone inhibited ETBF-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice indicating that zerumbone could be employed as a promising protective agent against ETBF-mediated colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Curcumin-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells through Targeting of the JAK/STAT3 Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020438 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
The constitutive activation of Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signal transduction is well elucidated in STAT3-mediated oncogenesis related to thyroid cancer and is considered to be a plausible therapeutic target. Hence, we investigated whether curcumin, a natural compound, can target [...] Read more.
The constitutive activation of Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signal transduction is well elucidated in STAT3-mediated oncogenesis related to thyroid cancer and is considered to be a plausible therapeutic target. Hence, we investigated whether curcumin, a natural compound, can target the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway to induce cytotoxic effects in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cell lines (BCPAP and TPC-1) and derived thyroid cancer stem-like cells (thyrospheres). Curcumin suppressed PTC cell survival in a dose-dependent manner via the induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis and caused the attenuation of constitutively active STAT3 (the dephosphorylation of Tyr705–STAT3) without affecting STAT3. Gene silencing with STAT3-specific siRNA showed the modulation of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation. The cotreatment of PTC cell lines with curcumin and cisplatin synergistically potentiated cytotoxic effects via the suppression of JAK/STAT3 activity along with the inhibition of antiapoptotic genes and the induction of proapoptotic genes, and it also suppressed the migration of PTC cells by downregulating matrix metalloproteinases and the inhibition of colony formation. Finally, thyrospheres treated with curcumin and cisplatin showed suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation, a reduced formation of thyrospheres, and the downregulated expression of stemness markers, in addition to apoptosis. The current study’s findings suggest that curcumin synergistically enhances the anticancer activity of cisplatin in PTC cells as well as in cancer stem-like cells by targeting STAT3, which suggests that curcumin combined with chemotherapeutic agents may provide better therapeutic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Crocetin Extracted from Saffron Shows Antitumor Effects in Models of Human Glioblastoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020423 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Over recent years, many authors discussed the effects of different natural compounds on glioblastoma (GBM). Due to its capacity to impair survival and progression of different cancer types, saffron extract (SE), named crocetin (CCT), is particularly noteworthy. In this work, we elucidated the [...] Read more.
Over recent years, many authors discussed the effects of different natural compounds on glioblastoma (GBM). Due to its capacity to impair survival and progression of different cancer types, saffron extract (SE), named crocetin (CCT), is particularly noteworthy. In this work, we elucidated the antitumor properties of crocetin in glioma in vivo and in vitro models for the first time. The in vitro results showed that the four tumor cell lines observed in this study (U251, U87, U138, and U373), which were treated with increasing doses of crocetin, showed antiproliferative and pro-differentiative effects as demonstrated by a significant reduction in the number of viable cells, deep changes in cell morphology, and the modulation of mesenchymal and neuronal markers. Indeed, crocetin decreased the expression of Cluster of Differentiation CD44, CD90, CXCR4, and OCT3/4 mesenchymal markers, but increased the expression of βIII-Tubulin and neurofilaments (NFH) neuronal linage-related markers. Epigenetic mechanisms may modulate these changes, since Histone Deacetylase, HDAC1 and HDAC3 were downmodulated in U251 and U87 cells, whereas HDAC1 expression was downmodulated in U138 and U373 cells. Western blotting analyses of Fatty Acid Synthase, FASN, and CD44 resulted in effective inhibition of these markers after CCT treatment, which was associated with important activation of the apoptosis program and reduced glioma cell movement and wound repair. The in vivo studies aligned with the results obtained in vitro. Indeed, crocetin was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of U251 and U87 cells that were subcutaneously injected into animal models. In particular, the Tumor To Progression or TTP values and Kaplan–Meier curves indicated that crocetin had more major effects than radiotherapy alone, but similar effects to temozolomide (TMZ). An intra-brain cell inoculation of a small number of luciferase-transfected U251 cells provided a model that was able to recapitulate recurrence after surgical tumor removal. The results obtained from the orthotopic intra-brain model indicated that CCT treatment increased the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates, inducing a delay in appearance of a detectable bioluminescent lesion. CCT showed greater efficacy than Radio Therapy (RT) but comparable efficacy to temozolomide in xenograft models. Therefore, we aimed to continue the study of crocetin’s effects in glioma disease, focusing our attention on the radiosensitizing properties of the natural compound and highlighting the ways in which this was realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Article
Oral Administration of Microencapsulated B. Longum BAA-999 and Lycopene Modulates IGF-1/IGF-1R/IGFBP3 Protein Expressions in a Colorectal Murine Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20174275 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The Insulin-like growth factor-I/Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R) system is a major determinant in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, BF) and lycopene (LYC) have been individually researched for their beneficial effects in the prevention of CRC. However, the effect [...] Read more.
The Insulin-like growth factor-I/Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R) system is a major determinant in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis. Probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, BF) and lycopene (LYC) have been individually researched for their beneficial effects in the prevention of CRC. However, the effect of a combined treatment of microencapsulated BF and LYC on IGF-1/IGF-1R/IGFBPs (Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins) expression in an azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced CRC model have not been demonstrated. BF was microencapsulated by the spray drying technique, with high viability, and daily gavaged with LYC for 16 weeks to CD-1 mice in an AOM-DSS model. The results indicated that BF- and BF + LYC-treated groups had significantly lower inflammation grade, tumor incidence (13–38%) and adenocarcinoma (13–14%) incidence compared to the AOM + DSS group (80%), whereas LYC treatment only protected against inflammation grade and incidence. Caecal, colonic and fecal pH and β-glucuronidase (β-GA) values were significantly normalized by BF and LYC. Similarly, BF and BF + LYC treatments significantly reduced both the positive rate and expression grade of IGF-1 and IGF-1R proteins and normalized Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) expression. Based on intestinal parameters related to the specific colon carcinogenesis in an AOM-DSS-induced model, LYC and microencapsulated BF supplementation resulted in a significant chemopreventive potential through the modulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review

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Review
Polyphenol-Mediated Autophagy in Cancer: Evidence of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6635; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186635 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
One of the hallmarks of cellular transformation is the altered mechanism of cell death. There are three main types of cell death, characterized by different morphological and biochemical features, namely apoptosis (type I), autophagic cell death (type II) and necrosis (type III). Autophagy, [...] Read more.
One of the hallmarks of cellular transformation is the altered mechanism of cell death. There are three main types of cell death, characterized by different morphological and biochemical features, namely apoptosis (type I), autophagic cell death (type II) and necrosis (type III). Autophagy, or self-eating, is a tightly regulated process involved in stress responses, and it is a lysosomal degradation process. The role of autophagy in cancer is controversial and has been associated with both the induction and the inhibition of tumor growth. Autophagy can exert tumor suppression through the degradation of oncogenic proteins, suppression of inflammation, chronic tissue damage and ultimately by preventing mutations and genetic instability. On the other hand, tumor cells activate autophagy for survival in cellular stress conditions. Thus, autophagy modulation could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Several studies have shown that polyphenols, natural compounds found in foods and beverages of plant origin, can efficiently modulate autophagy in several types of cancer. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the effects of polyphenols on autophagy, highlighting the conceptual benefits or drawbacks and subtle cell-specific effects of polyphenols for envisioning future therapies employing polyphenols as chemoadjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Cannabinoids and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176265 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
Prostate cancer is a major cause of death among men worldwide. Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation, as well as potential anti-cancer agents. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of cannabinoids on [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is a major cause of death among men worldwide. Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation, as well as potential anti-cancer agents. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of cannabinoids on in vivo prostate cancer models. The databases searched included PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception to August 2020. Articles reporting on the effect of cannabinoids on prostate cancer were deemed eligible. We identified six studies that were all found to be based on in vivo/xenograft animal models. Results: In PC3 and DU145 xenografts, WIN55,212-2 reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in LNCaP xenografts, WIN55,212-2 reduced cell proliferation by 66–69%. PM49, which is a synthetic cannabinoid quinone, was also found to result in a significant inhibition of tumor growth of up to 90% in xenograft models of LNCaP and 40% in xenograft models of PC3 cells, respectively. All studies have reported that the treatment of prostate cancers in in vivo/xenograft models with various cannabinoids decreased the size of the tumor, the outcomes of which depended on the dose and length of treatment. Within the limitation of these identified studies, cannabinoids were shown to reduce the size of prostate cancer tumors in animal models. However, further well-designed and controlled animal studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Mutational Landscape and Environmental Effects in Bladder Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6072; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176072 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Although nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers have a good prognosis, muscle-invasive bladder cancers promote metastases and have a poor prognosis. Comprehensive analyses using RNA sequence of clinical tumor samples in bladder cancer have been [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Although nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancers have a good prognosis, muscle-invasive bladder cancers promote metastases and have a poor prognosis. Comprehensive analyses using RNA sequence of clinical tumor samples in bladder cancer have been reported. These reports implicated the candidate genes and pathways that play important roles in carcinogenesis and/or progression of bladder cancer. Further investigations for the function of each mutation are warranted. There is suggestive evidence for several environmental factors as risk factors of bladder cancer. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, exposure to chemicals and gases, bladder inflammation due to microbial and parasitic infections, diet, and nutrition could induce several genetic mutations and alter the tumor microenvironment, such as immune cells and fibroblasts. The detailed mechanism of how these environmental factors induce carcinogenesis and/or progression of bladder cancer remains unclear. To identify the relationship between the mutations and the lifestyle could be useful for prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Roles of Cannabinoids in Melanoma: Evidence from In Vivo Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6040; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176040 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3460
Abstract
Melanoma is the fourth most common type of cancer diagnosed in Australians after breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. While there has been substantial progress in the treatment of cancer in general, malignant melanoma, in particular, is resistant to existing medical therapies requiring an [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the fourth most common type of cancer diagnosed in Australians after breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. While there has been substantial progress in the treatment of cancer in general, malignant melanoma, in particular, is resistant to existing medical therapies requiring an urgent need to develop effective treatments with lesser side effects. Several studies have shown that “cannabinoids”, the major compounds of the Cannabis sativaL. plant, can reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Despite prohibited use of Cannabis in most parts of the world, in recent years there have been renewed interests in exploiting the beneficial health effects of the Cannabis plant-derived compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was in the first instance to review the evidence from in vivo studies on the effects of cannabinoids on melanoma. Systematic searches were carried out in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and ProQuest Central databases for relevant articles published from inception. From a total of 622 potential studies, six in vivo studies assessing the use of cannabinoids for treatment of melanoma were deemed eligible for the final analysis. The findings revealed cannabinoids, individually or combined, reduced tumor growth and promoted apoptosis and autophagy in melanoma cells. Further preclinical and animal studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms of cannabinoids-mediated inhibition of cancer-signaling pathways. Well-structured, randomized clinical studies on cannabinoid use in melanoma patients would also be required prior to cannabinoids becoming a viable and recognized therapeutic option for melanoma treatment in patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Dietary Fat and Cancer—Which Is Good, Which Is Bad, and the Body of Evidence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21114114 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2296
Abstract
A high-fat diet (HFD) induces changes in gut microbiota leading to activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, and obesity, as a consequence of overnutrition, exacerbates inflammation, a known risk factor not only for cancer. However, experimental data showed that the composition of dietary fat has [...] Read more.
A high-fat diet (HFD) induces changes in gut microbiota leading to activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, and obesity, as a consequence of overnutrition, exacerbates inflammation, a known risk factor not only for cancer. However, experimental data showed that the composition of dietary fat has a greater impact on the pathogenesis of cancer than the total fat content in isocaloric diets. Similarly, human studies did not prove that a decrease in total fat intake is an effective strategy to combat cancer. Saturated fat has long been considered as harmful, but the current consensus is that moderate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), including palmitic acid (PA), does not pose a health risk within a balanced diet. In regard to monounsaturated fat, plant sources are recommended. The consumption of plant monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), particularly from olive oil, has been associated with lower cancer risk. Similarly, the replacement of animal MUFAs with plant MUFAs decreased cancer mortality. The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cancer risk depends on the ratio between ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs. In vivo data showed stimulatory effects of ω-6 PUFAs on tumour growth while ω-3 PUFAs were protective, but the results of human studies were not as promising as indicated in preclinical reports. As for trans FAs (TFAs), experimental data mostly showed opposite effects of industrially produced and natural TFAs, with the latter being protective against cancer progression, but human data are mixed, and no clear conclusion can be made. Further studies are warranted to establish the role of FAs in the control of cell growth in order to find an effective strategy for cancer prevention/treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
New Treatments in Renal Cancer: The AhR Ligands
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103551 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Kidney cancer rapidly acquires resistance to antiangiogenic agents, such as sunitinib, developing an aggressive migratory phenotype (facilitated by c-Metsignal transduction). The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently been postulated as a molecular target for cancer treatment. Currently, there are two antitumor agent AhR [...] Read more.
Kidney cancer rapidly acquires resistance to antiangiogenic agents, such as sunitinib, developing an aggressive migratory phenotype (facilitated by c-Metsignal transduction). The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently been postulated as a molecular target for cancer treatment. Currently, there are two antitumor agent AhR ligands, with activity against renal cancer, that have been tested clinically: aminoflavone (AFP 464, NSC710464) and the benzothiazole (5F 203) prodrug Phortress. Our studies investigated the action of AFP 464, the aminoflavone pro-drug currently used in clinical trials, and 5F 203 on renal cancer cells, specifically examining their effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cell migration. Both compounds caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis but only 5F 203 potently inhibited the migration of TK-10, Caki-1 and SN12C cells as well as the migration signal transduction cascade, involving c-Met signaling, in TK-10 cells. Current investigations are focused on the development of nano-delivery vehicles, apoferritin-encapsulated benzothiazoles 5F 203 and GW610, for the treatment of renal cancer. These compounds have shown improved antitumor effects against TK-10 cells in vitro at lower concentrations compared with a naked agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Growth Modulatory Role of Zinc in Prostate Cancer and Application to Cancer Therapeutics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2991; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082991 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Zinc is a group IIB heavy metal. It is an important regulator of major cell signaling pathways in most mammalian cells, functions as an antioxidant and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. Zinc deficiency leads to severe diseases in the brain, pancreas, [...] Read more.
Zinc is a group IIB heavy metal. It is an important regulator of major cell signaling pathways in most mammalian cells, functions as an antioxidant and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. Zinc deficiency leads to severe diseases in the brain, pancreas, liver, kidneys and reproductive organs. Zinc loss occurs during tumor development in a variety of cancers. The prostate normally contains abundant intracellular zinc and zinc loss is a hallmark of the development of prostate cancer development. The underlying mechanism of this loss is not clearly understood. The knowledge that excess zinc prevents the growth of prostate cancers suggests that zinc-mediated therapeutics could be an effective approach for cancer prevention and treatment, although challenges remain. This review summarizes the specific roles of zinc in several cancer types focusing on prostate cancer. The relationship between prostate cancer and the dysregulation of zinc homeostasis is examined in detail in an effort to understand the role of zinc in prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Influence of Diet and Nutrition on Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041447 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3649
Abstract
The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) displays widespread regional differences, probably owing to differences in dietary habits. Nutrients, including fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins (vitamin A, D, and E), and polyphenols, potentially affect PCa pathogenesis and progression, as previously reported using animal models; however, [...] Read more.
The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) displays widespread regional differences, probably owing to differences in dietary habits. Nutrients, including fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins (vitamin A, D, and E), and polyphenols, potentially affect PCa pathogenesis and progression, as previously reported using animal models; however, clinical studies have reported controversial results for almost all nutrients. The effects of these nutrients may be manifested through various mechanisms including inflammation, antioxidant effects, and the action of sex hormones. Dietary patterns including the Western and Prudent patterns also influence the risk of PCa. Recent studies reported that the gut microbiota contribute to tumorigenesis in some organs. Diet composition and lifestyle have a direct and profound effect on the gut bacteria. Human studies reported an increase in the abundance of specific gut bacteria in PCa patients. Although there are few studies concerning their relationship, diet and nutrition could influence PCa, and this could be mediated by gut microbiota. An intervention of dietary patterns could contribute to the prevention of PCa. An intervention targeting dietary patterns may thus help prevent PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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Review
Alleviation of Multidrug Resistance by Flavonoid and Non-Flavonoid Compounds in Breast, Lung, Colorectal and Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 401; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020401 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
The aim of the manuscript is to discuss the influence of plant polyphenols in overcoming multidrug resistance in four types of solid cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer). Effective treatment requires the use of multiple toxic chemotherapeutic drugs with different properties and [...] Read more.
The aim of the manuscript is to discuss the influence of plant polyphenols in overcoming multidrug resistance in four types of solid cancers (breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer). Effective treatment requires the use of multiple toxic chemotherapeutic drugs with different properties and targets. However, a major cause of cancer treatment failure and metastasis is the development of multidrug resistance. Potential mechanisms of multidrug resistance include increase of drug efflux, drug inactivation, detoxification mechanisms, modification of drug target, inhibition of cell death, involvement of cancer stem cells, dysregulation of miRNAs activity, epigenetic variations, imbalance of DNA damage/repair processes, tumor heterogeneity, tumor microenvironment, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and modulation of reactive oxygen species. Taking into consideration that synthetic multidrug resistance agents have failed to demonstrate significant survival benefits in patients with different types of cancer, recent research have focused on beneficial effects of natural compounds. Several phenolic compounds (flavones, phenolcarboxylic acids, ellagitannins, stilbens, lignans, curcumin, etc.) act as chemopreventive agents due to their antioxidant capacity, inhibition of proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis, modulation of immune and inflammatory responses or inactivation of pro-carcinogens. Moreover, preclinical and clinical studies revealed that these compounds prevent multidrug resistance in cancer by modulating different pathways. Additional research is needed regarding the role of phenolic compounds in the prevention of multidrug resistance in different types of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Dietary Factors on Cancer 2.0)
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